1971 Cannes Film Festival
The 24th Cannes Film Festival was held from 12 to 27 May 1971. The Palme d'Or went to The Go-Between by Joseph Losey; the festival opened with Gimme Shelter, a documentary about English rock band The Rolling Stones directed by David Maysles, Albert Maysles and Charlotte Zwerin and closed with Les mariés de l'an II, directed by Jean-Paul Rappeneau. The festival paid tribute to Charlie Chaplin and honored him with the title of Commander of the national order of the Legion of Honor; the following people were appointed as the Jury of the 1971 film competition:Feature films Michèle Morgan Jury President Pierre Billard Michael Birkett Anselmo Duarte István Gaál Sergio Leone Aleksandar Petrović Maurice Rheims Erich Segal Short films Véra Volmane President Charles Duvanel Etienne Novella The following feature films competed for the Grand Prix International du Festival: The following films were selected to be screened out of competition: The following short films competed for the Short Film Palme d'Or: The following feature films were screened for the 10th International Critics' Week: The following films were screened for the 1971 Directors' Fortnight: Short films The following films and people received the 1971 Official selection awards: Grand Prix du Festival International du Film: The Go-Between by Joseph Losey Grand Prix Spécial du Jury: Johnny Got His Gun by Dalton Trumbo Taking Off by Miloš Forman Best Actress: Kitty Winn for The Panic in Needle Park Best Actor: Riccardo Cucciolla for Sacco e Vanzetti Jury Prize: Joe Hill by Bo Widerberg Szerelem by Károly Makk Best First Work: Between Miracles by Nino Manfredi 25th Anniversary Prize: Death in Venice by Luchino Visconti Short films Prix spécial du Jury: Star Spangled Banner by Roger Flint Special mention: Stuiter by Jan Oonk Une Statuette by Carlos Vilardebó FIPRESCI FIPRESCI Prize: Johnny Got His Gun by Dalton TrumboCommission Supérieure Technique Technical Grand Prize: The Hellstrom Chronicle by Walon GreenOCIC Award Szerelem by Károly MakkOther awards Special Mention: Lili Darvas and Mari Törőcsik, the lead actresses in Szerelem INA: 25th Cannes Film Festival INA: Michèle Morgan, president of the 1971 jury INA: About the film The Go-Between by Joseph Losey 1971 Cannes Film Festival Official website Retrospective 1971 Cannes Film Festival Awards for 1971 at Internet Movie Database
Vincent Canby was an American film and theatre critic who served as the chief film critic for The New York Times from 1969 until the early 1990s its chief theatre critic from 1994 until his death in 2000. He reviewed more than one thousand films during his tenure there. Canby was born in Chicago, the son of Katharine Anne and Lloyd Canby, he attended boarding school in Christchurch, with novelist William Styron, the two became friends. He introduced Styron to the works of E. B. White and Ernest Hemingway. After war service in the Pacific theater, he didn't graduate, he obtained his first job as a journalist in 1948 for the Chicago Journal of Commerce. In 1951, he left Chicago for New York and was employed as a film critic by Variety for six years before starting to work for The New York Times. Canby was viewed as biased in his reviews, as he was an enthusiastic supporter of only specific styles of filmmakers. On the other hand, Canby was heavily critical of some otherwise acclaimed films, such as Rocky, The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi, Night of the Living Dead, After Hours, Blazing Saddles, A Christmas Story, Mask, The Natural, Rain Man, The Exorcist, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, The Godfather Part II, Alien and The Thing.
Among the best-known texts written by Canby was an negative review of the movie Heaven's Gate by Michael Cimino. In the early 1990s, Canby switched his attention from film to theatre. Canby, was an occasional playwright and novelist, penning the novels Living Quarters and Unnatural Scenery and the plays End of the War, After All and The Old Flag, a drama set during the civil war; the career of Vincent Canby is discussed in the film For the Love of Movies: The Story of American Film Criticism by contemporary critics such as The Nation's Stuart Klawans, who talks of Canby's influence. Canby never was, for many years, the companion of English author Penelope Gilliatt, he died from cancer in Manhattan on October 15, 2000. Three years upon the death of Bob Hope, the late Canby's byline appeared on the front page of The New York Times. Canby had written the bulk of Hope's obituary for the newspaper several years before. Vincent Canby Reviews at The New York Times Vincent Canby on IMDb
Cinema of France
Cinema of France refers to the film industry based in France. The French cinema comprises the art of film and creative movies made within the nation of France or by French filmmakers abroad. France is the birthplace of cinema and was responsible for many of its significant contributions to the art form and the film-making process itself. Several important cinematic movements, including the Nouvelle Vague, began in the country, it is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the French government. Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world. For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Directors from nations such as Poland, Russia and Georgia are prominent in the ranks of French cinema. Conversely, French directors have had prolific and influential careers in other countries, such as Luc Besson, Jacques Tourneur, or Francis Veber in the United States.
Another element supporting this fact is that Paris has the highest density of cinemas in the world, measured by the number of movie theaters per inhabitant, that in most "downtown Paris" movie theaters, foreign movies which would be secluded to "art houses" cinemas in other places are shown alongside "mainstream" works. Philippe Binant realized, on 2 February 2000, the first digital cinema projection in Europe, with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by Texas Instruments, in Paris. Paris boasts the Cité du cinéma, a major studio north of the city, Disney Studio, a theme park devoted to the cinema and the third theme park near the city behind Disneyland and Parc Asterix. France is the most successful film industry in Europe in terms of number of films produced per annum, with a record-breaking 300 feature-length films produced in 2015. France is one of the few countries where non-American productions have the biggest share: American films only represented 44.9% of total admissions in 2014.
This is due to the commercial strength of domestic productions, which accounted for 44,5% of admissions in 2014. The French film industry is closer to being self-sufficient than any other country in Europe, recovering around 80–90% of costs from revenues generated in the domestic market alone. In 2013, France was the 2nd largest exporter of films in the world after the United States. A study in April 2014 showed the positive image which French cinema maintains around the world, being the most appreciated cinema after American cinema. Les frères Lumière released the first projection with the Cinematograph, in Paris on 28 December 1895; the French film industry in the late 19th century and early 20th century was the world's most important. Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinématographe and their L'Arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat in Paris in 1895 is considered by many historians as the official birth of cinematography; the early days of the industry, from 1896 to 1902, saw the dominance of four firms: Pathé Frères, the Gaumont Film Company, the Georges Méliès company, the Lumières.
Méliès invented many of the techniques of cinematic grammar, among his fantastic, surreal short subjects is the first science fiction film A Trip to the Moon in 1902). In 1902 the Lumières abandoned everything but the production of film stock, leaving Méliès as the weakest player of the remaining three. From 1904 to 1911 the Pathé Frères company led the world in film distribution. At Gaumont, pioneer Alice Guy-Blaché was made head of production and oversaw about 400 films, from her first, La Fée aux Choux, in 1896, through 1906, she continued her career in the United States, as did Maurice Tourneur and Léonce Perret after World War I. In 1907 Gaumont owned and operated the biggest movie studio in the world, along with the boom in construction of "luxury cinemas" like the Gaumont-Palace and the Pathé-Palace, cinema became an economic challenger to legitimate theater by 1914. Among the most prolific film scholars on French Cinema in the English-speaking world is Dr Catherine O'Brien, former Senior Lecturer in Film Studies and French at Kingston University, London who obtained a Bachelor of Arts as well as a Doctor of Philosophy both in French and German from the University of Hull.
After World War I, the French film industry suffered because of a lack of capital, film production decreased as it did in most other European countries. This allowed the United States film industry to enter the European cinema market, because American films could be sold more cheaply than European productions, since the studios had recouped their costs in the home market; when film studios in Europe began to fail, many European countries began to set import barriers. France installed an import quota of 1:7, meaning for every seven foreign films imported to France, one French film was to be produced and shown in French cinemas. During the period between World War I and World War II, Jacques Feyder and Jean Vigo became two of the founders of poetic realism in French cinema, they dominated French impressionist cinema, along with Abel Gance, Germaine Dulac and Jean Epstein. In 1931, Marcel Pagnol filmed the first of his great trilogy Marius, César, he followed this with other films including The Baker's Wife.
Other notable films of the 1930s included René Clair's Under the Roofs of Paris, Jean Vigo's L'Atalante, Jacques Feyder's Carnival in Flanders
Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański is a French-Polish film director, producer and actor. Since 1978, he has been a fugitive from the U. S. criminal justice system, having fled the country while awaiting sentencing in his sexual abuse case, where he pleaded guilty to statutory rape. Polanski was born in Paris, his Polish-Jewish parents moved the family back to Poland in 1937, when he was four. Two years Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany and the USSR starting World War II and the Polanski's found themselves trapped in the Kraków Ghetto. After his mother and father were taken in raids, Polanski spent his formative years in foster homes under an adopted identity, trying to survive the Holocaust. Polanski's first feature-length film, Knife in the Water, was made in Poland and was nominated for a United States Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, he has since received five more Oscar nominations, along with two BAFTAs, four Césars, a Golden Globe Award and the Palme d'Or of the Cannes Film Festival in France.
In the United Kingdom he directed three films, beginning with Repulsion. In 1968 he moved to the United States and cemented his status by directing the horror film Rosemary's Baby. A turning point in his life took place in 1969, when his pregnant wife, Sharon Tate, four friends were brutally murdered by members of the Manson Family. Following her death, Polanski returned to Europe and continued directing, he made Macbeth in England and back in Hollywood, nominated for eleven Academy Awards. In 1977, Polanski was charged with drugging and raping a 13-year-old girl, he subsequently pled guilty to the lesser offence of unlawful sex with a minor. After spending 42 days undergoing psychiatric evaluation in prison in preparation for sentencing, who had expected to be put on probation, fled to Paris after learning that the judge planned to imprison him. In Europe, Polanski continued starring Nastassja Kinski, it won France's César Awards for Best Picture and Best Director, received three Oscars. He produced and directed The Pianist, a drama about a Jewish-Polish musician escaping Nazi persecution, starring Adrien Brody and Emilia Fox.
The film won three Academy Awards including Best Director, along with numerous international awards. He directed Oliver Twist, a story which parallels his own life as a "young boy attempting to triumph over adversity", he was awarded Best Director for The Ghost Writer at the 23rd European Film Awards. He received Best Screenwriter nomination at the aforementioned awards for Carnage. In 2018, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences voted to expel Polanski from its membership because of the statutory rape case. Polanski was born in Paris, his mother had Annette, by her previous husband. Annette managed to survive Auschwitz, where her mother died, left Poland forever for France. Polański's father was Jewish and from Poland. Polański's parents were both agnostics. Polański, influenced by his education in the People's Republic of Poland, said "I'm an atheist" in an interview about his film, Rosemary's Baby; the Polański family moved back to the Polish city of Kraków in 1936, were living there when World War II began with the invasion of Poland.
Kraków was soon occupied by the German forces, the racist and anti-Semitic Nuremberg Laws made the Polańskis targets of persecution, forcing them into the Kraków Ghetto, along with thousands of the city's Jews. Around the age of six, he attended primary school for only a few weeks, until "all the Jewish children were abruptly expelled," writes biographer Christopher Sandford; that initiative was soon followed by the requirement that all Jewish children over the age of twelve wear white armbands with a blue Star of David imprinted for visual identification. After he was expelled, he would not be allowed to enter another classroom for the next six years. Polanski witnessed both the ghettoization of Kraków's Jews into a compact area of the city, the subsequent deportation of all the ghetto's Jews to German death camps, he watched. He remembers from age six, one of his first experiences of the terrors to follow: I had just been visiting my grandmother... when I received a foretaste of things to come.
At first I didn't know. I saw people scattering in all directions. I realized why the street had emptied so quickly; some women were being herded along it by German soldiers. Instead of running away like the rest, I felt compelled to watch. One older woman at the rear of the column couldn't keep up. A German officer kept prodding her back into line, but she fell down on all fours... A pistol appeared in the officer's hand. There was a loud bang, blood came welling out of her back. I ran straight into the nearest building, squeezed into a smelly recess beneath some wooden stairs, didn't come out for hours. I developed a strange habit: clenching my fists so hard. I woke up one morning to find that I had wet my bed, his father was transferred, along with thousands of other Jews, to Mauthausen, a group of 49 German concentration camps in Austria. His mother was taken to Auschwitz, was killed soon after arriving; the forced exodus took place after the German liquidation of the Kraków ghetto, a true-life backdrop to Polanski's film The Pianist.
Claude Marcelle Jorré, better known as Claude Jade, was a French actress. She is known for starring as Christine in François Truffaut's three films Stolen Kisses and Board and Love on the Run. Jade acted in theatre and television, her film work outside France included the Soviet Union, the United States and Japan. The daughter of university professors, Jade spent three years at Dijon's Conservatory of Dramatic Art. In 1964 she played on stage 40 times the part of Agnès in Molière's L'école des femmes. In 1966 she won the Prix de Comédie for Jean Giraudoux's stage play Ondine, performed at the Comédie Boulogne, she moved to Paris and became a student of Jean-Laurent Cochet at the Edouard VII theater, began acting in television productions, including a leading role in TV series Les oiseaux rares. While performing as Frida in Pirandello's Henri IV, in a production by Sacha Pitoëff at the Théâtre Moderne, Jade was discovered by New Wave film director François Truffaut, he was "completely taken by her beauty, her manners, her kindness, her joie de vivre", cast her in the role of Christine Darbon in Stolen Kisses.
During the filming, Truffaut fell in love with her, there was talk of marriage. Truffaut dubbed Claude Jade “French cinema’s little sweetheart” and the director and his muse were soon a couple in real life, although Truffaut changed his mind about marrying her the night before their wedding. American critic Pauline Kael wrote that Jade "seems a less ethereal, more practical Catherine Deneuve"; when Baisers volés became a hit, Truffaut promised that one day he would ask Claude Jade to help him continue the series. The director's love shines through his alter-ego Doinel in Stolen Kisses and Board and Love on the Run, as Christine puts up with Antoine's foibles and affairs; the Guardian notes Memorable scenes pass through the mind like a montage: her teaching Antoine the best way to butter toast in the morning, their writing each other little notes, his calling her "my little mother, my little sister, my little daughter" in a taxi, she replying she would rather be his wife. Playing the same character, Jade appeared in three Truffaut Movies.
Truffaut uses the occasion to examine three states, three ages, of his heroine, played with the right middle-class gentility and innocence by Claude Jade: loved from a distance. Some months after Truffaut's Stolen Kisses Claude Jade starred in Alfred Hitchcock's Topaz, as Michèle Picard, a secret agent's anxious daughter, married to a reporter. Recommended to Hitchcock by Truffaut, she was 19 years old when cast, with Dany Robin playing her mother. Hitchcock said he chose the two actresses to provide glamor, quipped, "Claude Jade is a rather quiet young lady, but I wouldn't guarantee about her behavior in a taxi". Jade recounted that they "talked in a Paris hotel about cooking, I gave him my recipe for soufflé and told him I liked Strangers on a Train, and, that."Hitchcock said she resembled his former star Grace Kelly, in France she was a younger Danielle Darrieux. Some of her scenes were deleted and restored for the director's cut of Topaz in 1999. Topaz was Jade's only Hollywood film. Universal Pictures offered her a seven-year contract, which she turned down because she preferred to work in French.
Director Tony Richardson's film Nijinsky, based on a screenplay by Edward Albee, was canceled during pre-production by producer Harry Saltzman. It was to have starred Jade as Vaslav Nijinsky's wife, alongside Rudolf Nureyev as Nijinsky and Paul Scofield as his lover Sergei Diaghilev, she had a leading role as Linda in Sous le signe de Monte-Cristo by André Hunebelle, a modern version of Alexandre Dumas' novel. Here the 19 years young actress starred alongside French cinema's veterans like Pierre Brasseur and Michel Auclair. Jade starred in Édouard Molinaro's My Uncle Benjamin alongside Jacques Brel; as Manette she refuses Brel's advances. At the End Manette realizes, her career continued in Belgium, where she played a young English teacher, fatally intrigued by a murderer in the 1969 film The Witness. Her fiancé is this movie. In 1969 she starred as Helena in a film adaptation of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream by Jean-Christophe Averty, Le Songe d'une nuit d'été. In 1970 she reprised her part as Christine from Stolen Kisses in Truffaut's Bed and Board as a married woman.
The Truffaut films influenced her type as lovingly gentle modern young woman in contemporary cinema, which she contrasted in ambivalent figures: Critic Vincent Canby praised her in work in Gérard Brach's The Boat on the Grass, in which she starred as Eleonore, a young girl between two friends. She starred in Hearth Fires as Laura, a daughter who wants to reconcile her parents and who falls in love with her mother's best friend. Alongside Robert Hossein she pla
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Jean-Pierre Cassel was a French actor. Cassel was born Jean-Pierre Crochon in Paris, the son of Louise-Marguerite, an opera singer, Georges Crochon, a doctor. Cassel was discovered by Gene Kelly as he tap danced on stage, cast in the 1957 film The Happy Road. Cassel gained prominence in the late 1950s as a hero in comedies by Philippe de Broca such as Male Companion and through his role as'Jean François Jardie' in the famous French resistance piece L' Armée des ombres. During the 1960s and 1970s he worked with Claude Chabrol, Luis Buñuel, Ken Annakin, Gérard Brach, Richard Lester, Sidney Lumet, Joseph Losey, he made a memorable appearance in Oh! What a Lovely War as a French military officer singing'Belgium put the Kibosh on the Kaiser'. In years he appeared in Robert Altman's Prêt-à-Porter and as Dr. Paul Gachet for Vincent & Theo. In 2006, at the age of 74, he climbed back on stage for a retrospective of Serge Gainsbourg Jean-Pierre Cassel chante et danse Gainsbourg Suite; this homage to an old friend featured various songs of the famous French composer among which three unpublished songs named "Top à Cassel" – "Cliquediclac", "Ouh!
Là là là là", "Viva la pizza" – all of which were intended for a television show aired in 1964. In 2007, Cassel appeared in dual roles in Julian Schnabel's film the Butterfly. He's the father of Mathias Cassel and Cécile Cassel. Jean-Pierre Cassel on IMDb Jean-Pierre Cassel at the TCM Movie Database Le coin du cinéphage