Al Kooper is an American songwriter, record producer and musician, known for organizing Blood, Sweat & Tears, providing studio support for Bob Dylan when he went electric in 1965, bringing together guitarists Mike Bloomfield and Stephen Stills to record the Super Session album. In the 1970's he was a successful manager and producer, notably recording Lynyrd Skynyrd's first three albums. He's had a successful solo career, written music for film soundtracks, has lectured in musical composition, he continues to perform live. Kooper, born in Brooklyn, grew up in a Jewish family in Hollis Hills, New York, his first professional work was as a 14-year-old guitarist in the Royal Teens, best known for their 1958 ABC Records novelty 12-bar blues riff, "Short Shorts". In 1960, he teamed up with songwriters Bob Brass and Irwin Levine to write and record demos for Sea-Lark Music Publishing; the trio's biggest hits were "This Diamond Ring", recorded by Gary Lewis and the Playboys, "I Must Be Seeing Things", recorded by Gene Pitney.
When he was 21, Kooper moved to Greenwich Village. He performed with Bob Dylan in concert in 1965, including playing Hammond organ with Dylan at the Newport Folk Festival, in the recording studio in 1965 and 1966. Kooper played the Hammond organ riffs on Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone", it was in those recording sessions that Kooper met and befriended Mike Bloomfield, whose guitar playing he admired. He worked extensively with Bloomfield for several years. Kooper played organ once again with Dylan during his 1981 world tour. Kooper joined the Blues Project as their keyboardist in 1965, he formed Blood, Sweat & Tears in 1967, leaving due to creative differences in 1968, after the release of the group's first album, Child Is Father to the Man. He recorded Super Session with Bloomfield and Stills in 1968, in 1969 he collaborated with 15-year-old guitarist Shuggie Otis on the album Kooper Session. In 1975 he produced the debut album by the Tubes. Kooper has played on hundreds of records, including ones by the Rolling Stones, B. B.
King, the Who, the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Alice Cooper, Cream. On occasion, he has overdubbed his own efforts, as on The Live Adventures of Mike Bloomfield and Al Kooper and other albums, under the pseudonym "Roosevelt Gook". After moving to Atlanta in 1972, he discovered the band Lynyrd Skynyrd, produced and performed on their first three albums, including the singles "Sweet Home Alabama" and "Free Bird". In 1972 he rejoined the Blues Project at a charity concert promoted by Bruce Blakeman at Valley Stream Central High School, he wrote the score for the TV series Crime Story and for the film The Landlord and wrote music for several made-for-television movies. He was the musical force behind many of the pop tunes, including "You're the Lovin' End", for The Banana Splits, a children's television program. During the late 1980s Kooper had his own dedicated keyboard studio room in the historic Sound Emporium recording studio in Nashville, next to studio B. Kooper published a memoir, Backstage Passes: Rock'n' Roll Life in the Sixties, revised and published as Backstage Passes and Backstabbing Bastards: Memoirs of a Rock'n' Roll Survivor.
The revised edition includes indictments of "manipulators" in the music industry, including his one-time business manager, Stan Polley. An updated edition, including supplementary material, was published by Backbeat Books in 2008. Kooper's status as a published author enabled him to join the Rock Bottom Remainders, a band made up of writers, including Dave Barry, Stephen King, Amy Tan, Matt Groening. In May 2001, Kooper was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Music from Berklee College of Music. Kooper is retired from teaching songwriting and recording production at Berklee College of Music, in Boston, plays weekend concerts with his bands the ReKooperators and the Funky Faculty. In 2008, he participated in the production of the album Psalngs, the debut release of Canadian musician John Lefebvre. Kooper was inducted into the Musicians Hall of Fame and Museum, in Nashville, in 2008. In 2005, Martin Scorsese produced a documentary titled No Direction Home: Bob Dylan for the PBS American Masters Series in which Kooper's contributions are recognized.
Al Kooper is most notable as the driving force behind the RIAA certified gold album, Super Session as well as Blood, Sweat & Tears. He played the organ parts of Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone" and was in the band along with Bloomfield and Barry Goldberg at Dylan's notorious'electric folk' gig at the Newport Folk Festival in 1965. Kooper had been invited to the session as an observer and hoped to be allowed to sit in on guitar, his primary instrument, he began tuning it. After hearing Mike Bloomfield, the hired session guitarist, warming up, he concluded that Bloomfield was a much better guitarist, so Kooper put his guitar aside and retreated into the control room; as the recording sessions progressed, keyboardist Paul Griffin was moved from the Hammond organ to piano. Kooper suggested to producer Tom Wilson that he had a "great organ part" for the song, Wilson responded, "Al, you're not an organ player, you're a guitar player", but Kooper stood his ground. Before Wilson could explicitly reject Kooper's suggestion, he was interrupted by a phone c
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Heart of Mine (Bob Dylan song)
"Heart of Mine" is a song by Bob Dylan that appeared on his 1981 album Shot of Love. Recorded on May 15, 1981, it was released as a single, reached No. 8 in Norway. A live version of the composition was released on Biograph in 1985. Artists who have covered the song include Norah Jones, Steve Gibbons, Blake Mills, Maria Muldaur, Ulf Lundell; the music of "Heart of Mine" has been described as having a "loose, garagey" feel encompassing a "vaguely Latin/Caribbean vibe", featuring "loosey-goosey piano" by Dylan. Dylan's piano playing has been described as "honky-tonk". Ringo Starr – Tom-toms Ronnie Wood – Guitar Donald "Duck" Dunn – Bass In Europe, "Heart of Mine" was released as a single in July 1981, at a length of 3:30; the B-side was "Let It Be Me", written by M. Curtis, P. Delanoe, G. Becaud. Dylan had released a different version of the song on his 1970 album Self Portrait, but the non-album B-side of "Heart of Mine" was newly recorded during the Shot of Love sessions; as a single, "Heart of Mine" reached No. 8 in Norway, spent six weeks in the Norwegian Top 10.
"Heart of Mine" was released on Shot of Love in August 1981. In the United States, the single was released in September 1981, with "The Groom's Still Waiting at the Altar" as the B-side. "The Groom's Still Waiting at the Altar" did not appear on the Shot of Love album. On Biograph, Dylan included a live version of "Heart of Mine", recorded on November 10, 1981, in New Orleans, Louisiana. Writer Jeff Perkins describes "Heart of Mine" as a highlight of Shot of Love. Critic Sean Egan calls the song "sweet and vulnerable", but considers the live version on Biograph "immediately superior", due to the "suffocatingly bad production" on Shot of Love. Bill Janovitz of Allmusic considers the Shot of Love version to have a "good feel", characteristic of the "warm and natural" sound of the album as a whole, describes the lyrics as "clever". Clinton Heylin, by contrast, writes that "the song... rambles from cliché to cliché", giving the examples of "If you can't do the time, don't do the crime" and "Give her an inch and she'll take a mile".
Heylin describes the take used on Shot of Love as "half-assed" and "ill-conceived". Norah Jones and Peter Malick recorded the song for their 2003 album New York City and which featured in the 2003 film Runaway Jury being used in the closing credits. Mountain included the song on their Dylan cover album, Masters of War, Steve Gibbons on his Dylan Project 2. Maria Muldaur released the song on her Dylan cover album, Heart of Mine: Love Songs of Bob Dylan, as well as recording a live version for her CD and DVD Live in Concert. Danielle Haim and Blake Mills covered the song on Chimes of Freedom: Songs of Bob Dylan Honoring 50 Years of Amnesty International. Ulf Lundell released a version in Swedish entitled "Hjärtat mitt" on his 1984 album, a concert version on Maria Kom Tillbaka: Live. Björner, Olof. "Still on the Road: Saenger Theater Saenger Performing Arts Center New Orleans, Louisiana 10 November 1981". Bjorner.com. Retrieved 2012-10-23. "Bob Dylan – Heart of Mine". Norwegiancharts.com. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
Campbell, Al. "Masters of War: Review". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-10-23. Collar, Matt. "New York City: Review". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-10-23. "Dylan Ends French Tour". Billboard. 1981-08-08. Retrieved 2012-10-26. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Chimes of Freedom: The Songs of Bob Dylan: Review". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-10-25. Egan, Sean. "Self Portrait". The Mammoth Book of Bob Dylan. Constable & Robinson Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84901-466-3. Retrieved 2012-10-25. Heylin, Clinton. Bob Dylan: The Recording Sessions, 1960–1994. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-312-15067-9. Heylin, Clinton. "Still on the Road: The Songs of Bob Dylan, 1974-2006". Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-55652-844-6. James, Peter. "Warehouse Eyes: The albums of Bob Dylan". Lulu.com. ISBN 9781411680845. Retrieved 2012-10-25. Janovitz, Bill. "Heart of Mine: Review". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-10-25. Jurek, Thom. "Heart of Mine: Love Songs of Bob Dylan: Review". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-10-23. "Let It Be Me". Bobdylan.com. Retrieved 2012-10-26. "Live in Concert: Overview". Allmusic.
Retrieved 2012-10-23. "Live in Concert: Overview". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-10-23. "Maria kom tillbaka: Live – Ulf Lundell". Billboard. Retrieved 2012-10-23. Perkins, Jeff. "Bob Dylan Uncensored On the Record". Coda Books. Retrieved 2012-10-25. Rogovoy, Seth. Bob Dylan: Prophet, Poet. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-5915-3. Retrieved 2012-10-25. Shelton, Robert. "No Direction Home: The Life and Music of Bob Dylan". Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780306812873. Retrieved 2012-10-25. "Steve Gibbons/The Dylan Project". RGF Records. Retrieved 2011-02-25. "Sweethearts: Overview". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-10-23
The Bootleg Series Vol. 14: More Blood, More Tracks
The Bootleg Series Vol. 14: More Blood, More Tracks is an installment in the ongoing Bob Dylan Bootleg Series, released by Legacy Records on November 2, 2018. The compilation focuses on recordings Dylan made in September and December 1974 for his 1975 album Blood on the Tracks; the release comes in both a six-CD deluxe edition. On September 20, 2018, in conjunction with the announcement of the compilation, Dylan released an alternate take of the song "If You See Her, Say Hello"; the day before the limited edition six-disc set shipped a note appeared on Bob Dylan's official website reported that a printing error resulted in four pages being omitted from the booklet accompanying the set. The website apologized for the omission and provided a PDF download of the missing pages
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings; the word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano. The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" in this context referring to the variations in volume produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack; the name was created as a contrast to harpsichord, a musical instrument that doesn't allow variation in volume. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had smaller dynamic range.
An acoustic piano has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings; the hammer rebounds from the strings, the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air; when the key is released, a damper stops the strings' vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument; the sustain pedal enables pianists to play musical passages that would otherwise be impossible, such as sounding a 10-note chord in the lower register and while this chord is being continued with the sustain pedal, shifting both hands to the treble range to play a melody and arpeggios over the top of this sustained chord.
Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments used before the piano, the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully a performer presses or strikes the keys. Most modern pianos have a row of 88 black and white keys, 52 white keys for the notes of the C major scale and 36 shorter black keys, which are raised above the white keys, set further back on the keyboard; this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble. The black keys are for the "accidentals". More some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass; the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is classified as a percussion instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than plucked. There are two main types of piano: the upright piano.
The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music, art song, it is used in jazz and pop concerts. The upright piano, more compact, is the most popular type, as it is a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making and practice. During the 1800s, influenced by the musical trends of the Romantic music era, innovations such as the cast iron frame and aliquot stringing gave grand pianos a more powerful sound, with a longer sustain and richer tone. In the nineteenth century, a family's piano played the same role that a radio or phonograph played in the twentieth century. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many musical works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play and hear the popular pieces of the day in their home; the piano is employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances and for composing and rehearsals. Although the piano is heavy and thus not portable and is expensive, its musical versatility, the large number of musicians and amateurs trained in playing it, its wide availability in performance venues and rehearsal spaces have made it one of the Western world's most familiar musical instruments.
With technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became a popular instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music and rock music; the piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches; the first string instruments with struck strings were the hammered dul
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Carlos Santana audio is a Mexican and American musician who first became famous in the late 1960s and early 1970s with his band, which pioneered a fusion of rock and Latin American jazz. The band's sound featured his melodic, blues-based guitar lines set against Latin and African rhythms featuring percussion instruments such as timbales and congas not heard in rock music. Santana continued to work in these forms over the following decades, he experienced a resurgence of popularity and critical acclaim in the late 1990s. In 2015, Rolling Stone magazine listed Santana at number 20 on their list of the 100 Greatest Guitarists, he has won 10 Grammy Awards and three Latin Grammy Awards. Santana was born in Autlán de Navarro, Mexico, he learned to play the violin at age five and the guitar at age eight under the tutelage of his father, a mariachi musician. His younger brother, Jorge Santana, would become a professional guitarist. Young Carlos was influenced by Ritchie Valens at a time when there were few Mexicans in American rock and pop music.
The family moved from Autlán de Navarro to Tijuana, the city on Mexico's border with California, San Francisco. Carlos stayed in Tijuana but joined his family in San Francisco. During his early years from the age of 10–12 he was sexually molested by an American man who brought him across the border. Living in the Mission District, graduating from James Lick Middle School, in 1965 from Mission High School. Carlos was accepted at California State University and Humboldt State University, but chose not to attend college. Santana was influenced by popular artists of the 1950s such as B. B. King, T-Bone Walker, Javier Batiz, John Lee Hooker. Soon after he began playing guitar, he joined local bands along the "Tijuana Strip" where he was able to begin adding his own unique touch to'50s Rock'n' Roll, he was introduced to a variety of new musical influences, including jazz and folk music, witnessed the growing hippie movement centered in San Francisco in the 1960s. After several years spent working as a dishwasher in a diner and busking for spare change, Santana decided to become a full-time musician.
In 1966 he gained all happening on the same day. Santana was a frequent spectator at Bill Graham's Fillmore West. During a Sunday matinee show, Paul Butterfield was slated to perform there but was unable to do so as a result of being intoxicated. Graham assembled an impromptu band of musicians he knew through his connections with Butterfield's band and with the Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane, but he had not yet chosen all the guitarists. Santana's manager, Stan Marcum suggested to Graham that Santana join the impromptu band and Graham agreed. During the jam session, Santana's guitar playing and solo gained the notice of both the audience and Graham. During the same year, Santana formed the Santana Blues Band, with fellow street musicians David Brown, Marcus Malone and Gregg Rolie, he was signed to Columbia where his band name, "Santana Blues Band" was shortened to, "Santana" that released a series of hit albums with an Afro-Cuban and Latin Rock feel thanks to Carlos' exquisite guitar playing, characterized by the self-sustaining melody that became his trademark.
With their original blend of Latin-infused rock, blues and African rhythms, the band gained an immediate following on the San Francisco club circuit. The band's early success, capped off by a memorable performance at Woodstock in 1969, led to him signing a recording contract with Columbia Records run by Clive Davis. Santana was signed by CBS Records and went into the studio to record their first album in January 1969, they decided changes needed to be made. This resulted in the dismissal of drummer Bob Livingston. Santana replaced him with Mike Shrieve, who had a strong background in both rock. Percussionist Marcus Malone was forced to quit the band due to involuntary manslaughter charges, the band re-enlisted Michael Carabello. Carabello brought with him percussionist Jose Chepito Areas, well known in his native Nicaragua, with his skills and professional experience, was a major contributor to the band. Bill Graham, a Latin Music aficionado, had been a fan of the band from its inception, arranged for them to appear at the Woodstock Music and Art Festival before their debut album was released.
They were one of the surprises of the festival. Graham gave the band some key advice to record the Willie Bobo song "Evil Ways", as he felt it would get them radio airplay, their first album, was released in August 1969 and became a huge hit, reaching #4 on the U. S. album charts. In 1969, the band's performance at the Woodstock festival introduced them to an international audience and garnered critical acclaim, although the band's sudden success put pressure on the group, highlighting the different musical directions in which Rolie and Santana were starting to go. Rolie, along with some of the other band members, wanted to emphasize a basic hard rock sound, a key component in establishing the band from the start. Santana, was interested in moving beyond his love of blues and rock and wanted more jazzy, ethereal elements in the music, which were influenced by his fascination with Gábor Szabó, Miles Davis, Ph