Western District (Victoria)
The Western District comprises western regions of the Australian state of Victoria. It is said to be an ill–defined district, sometimes incorrectly referred to as an economic region; the district is located within parts of the Grampians regions. The district is bounded by the Wimmera district in the north, by the Goldfields district in the east, by Bass Strait and the Southern Ocean in the south, by the South Australian border in the west; the district is well known for the production of wool. The most populated city in the Western District is the Ballarat region, with 96,940 inhabitants; the principal centres of the district are: Warrnambool, Colac, Casterton, Port Fairy and Terang. Other cities and towns in or on the edge of the district include: Coleraine, Heywood, Penshurst, Koroit, Ararat, Beaufort, Ballarat, Snake Valley, Moyston, Derrinallum, Mortlake, Cobden, Beeac, Birregurra, Apollo Bay, Lorne, it consists of a nearly flat volcanic plain created by a number of quite active volcanoes, the best known being Mount Eccles, Mount Richmond and Mount Gambier.
Whilst some of them have given rise to cemented pyroclastic rocks that do not produce fertile soils, others have given rise to fertile Andisols that make the district the best grazing land in Australia, as well as suitable for the production of vegetable crops. Away from the volcanoes, soils are of moderate to low fertility and many are sandy, supporting heathland flora like the Grampians. Drainage is poor and most rivers flow only after prolonged periods of steady rain, resulting in remarkably variable flow when the low variability of the climate is taken into account; the major mountain range is the Otway Ranges, which straddle the boundary between the Western District and Port Phillip District. The climate is mild to warm and humid to sub-humid. Summer temperatures are warm, with February means ranging from 13.1 to 21.9 °C at Portland to 11.1 to 26.6 °C in the northern part of the plain. Rainfall in summer is not uncommon but is only heavy. In winter, temperatures range from minima of around 5 °C to maxima of 12 to 13 °C, rainfall is frequent and reliable, averaging from 550 mm in the driest area around Lake Bolac to 832 mm at Portland.
In the Otway Ranges, summers are mild, averaging around 20 °C, whilst winters are cold and wet, with maxima averaging around 9 to 10 °C and rainfall averaging about 2,250 mm with extremes in June 1952 as high as 538 mm at Weeaproinah and a Victorian record 891 mm at nearby Tanybryn. The Western District was well-populated by Victorian Aborigines at the time colonisation began. For example, the ancestors of the Gunditjmara people lived in villages of weather-proof houses with stone walls a metre high, located near eel traps and aquaculture ponds at Lake Condah and elsewhere - on just one hectare of Allambie Farm, archaeologists have discovered the remains of 160 house sites. Henty wrote in his diary on 3 December 1834: Arrived at 6p.m. Made the boat fast in the middle of the river, started three days' walk in the bush accompanied by H Camfield, Wm Dutton, five men, one black woman and 14 dogs, each man with a gun and sufficient quantity of damper to last for the voyage. In the 5 December entry Henty wrote: On descending the hill we saw a native.
He ran on seeing us. He was busily employed pulling the gums from the wattle trees. Both the Henty brothers and Captain Griffiths, combined farming; the district was explored by Thomas Mitchell in 1836 who identified the area's potential for grazing. Charles Tyers was the first to survey the area in 1839. Sheep were first brought to the district in 1836 by Thomas Manifold at Port Henry, near Geelong, occupied the whole district. By 1840 squatters occupied all the district; the first settlers avoided the Western District, as its countryside was exceptionally dry: tussocks were so scanty it was said one could walk to Geelong without stepping on grass. Runoff after rainfall was rapid, it was claimed that only after cattle had firmed the soil that the grass began to thicken; the regional climate became much wetter. With pastoral land in the colony of Van Diemen's Land allocated to colonists, John Batman turned his attention to mainland land speculation at the vast grasslands of Port Phillip Bay, which began in 1835 without the consent of the British Crown.
With no legal recognition or protection of the Aboriginal inhabitants, some cases of violence occurred. For example, in August 1836, Aborigines killed the squatter Charles Franks and an unnamed shepherd, at Franks' station on the Werribee River. In response, Henry Batman led an indiscriminate punitive expedition against a group of 70-80 Aborigines living in 9 large huts on the Werribee River, killing an unrecorded number. In spite of this, in May 1837, Henry Batman "...was appointed acting Commissioner of Crown Lands, the official charged with overseeing the squatters." Earlier, on 4 March 1837, Governor Bourke in his visit to Melbourne addressed 120 Aborigines, "...whom he exhorted...to good conduct and attention to the Missionary.' The Kulin were given blankets and four favoured men, who
The Limestone Coast is a name used since the early twenty-first century for a South Australian government region located in the south east of South Australia which adjoins the continental coastline and the Victorian border. The name is used for a tourist region and a wine zone both located in the same part of South Australia; the Limestone Coast is a South Australian Government Region which consists of the following local government areas located in the south east of the state: the City of Mount Gambier and the District Councils of Grant, Robe and Naracoorte Lucindale and the Wattle Range Council. The words'Limestone Coast' used in the name of a tourism region which occupies a similar part of South Australia; the tourism region consists of the following local government areas: the City of Mount Gambier, The Coorong District Council, the District Councils of Grant, Robe and Naracoorte Lucindale, the Wattle Range Council. The words'Limestone Coast' used in the name of a wine zone which occupies a similar part of South Australia.
The wine zone is the land south of a line located at appropriately 36 degrees 50 minutes south, i.e. in line with Cape Willoughby at the east end of Kangaroo Island. The zone includes the following wine-growing regions: Coonawarra, Mount Benson, Mount Gambier, Padthaway and Wrattonbully. From the Victoria border to the Younghusband Peninsula this area has been settled since colonisation by European settlers in the 1840s, displacing an indigenous population that had resided in the region for thousands of years; the region supports farming, viticulture and tourism. Towns include Bordertown, Millicent, Mount Gambier and Naracoorte and the coastal resorts of Beachport, Kingston SE and Robe. Much of the Limestone Coast is low-lying, was inundated by sea as as 2 million years ago, it had also been flooded 15–20 million years ago. The plains are lined by rows of low sandhills parallel to the coast, created at times when the coastline was at that level. Prior to European settlement, much of the land between the sandhills was swamp fed by streams and subject to inundation.
A network of drains totalling 1450 km has been constructed to channel the water away through the sandhills to the ocean. Important areas of wetland remain including the lakes and lagoons such as the southern end of the Coorong and Bool Lagoon. Meanwhile, areas of upland in the Limestone Coast include the volcanic craters of Mount Gambier; the Mediterranean climate of this coast is moist with wet winters. There are deep limestone deposits created from other sealife; the limestone in Victoria Fossil Cave and the other Naracoorte Caves contains are Australia's biggest source of fossils and a World Heritage site. The natural vegetation was woodland of River Red gum and other eucalyptus trees. Although there are few purely endemic species the coast is rich in wildlife including possums, Cercartetus pygmy possums, Petaurus Gliding possums, other marsupials many of which do not spread further west than here. Endemic species include reptiles such as the striped legless lizard and invertebrates like an endemic cave cricket.
The Naracoorte caves are occupied by the common bent-wing bat. The lakes and lagoons are important habitats for waterbirds such as black swan, grey teal, Pacific black duck, the critically endangered orange-bellied parrot which winters here along with many other birds including the red-necked stint, sharp-tailed sandpiper, curlew sandpiper. Most of the original habitat has been cleared for agriculture and only fragments remain with Coorong National Park and Canunda National Park being the largest areas. Therefore, most indigenous wildlife has disappeared or been reduced in number with introduced species of animals an ongoing threat to that which remains. Naracoorte Coastal Plain South Australian Forestry Corporation Kanawinka Geopark Regional website - local weather, street maps, events etc Official tourist website SouthAustralia.com Limestone Coast - travel guides, online booking Limestone Coast - National Parks
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro
Kapunda is a town on the Light River and near the Barossa Valley in South Australia. It was established after a discovery in 1842 of significant copper deposits; the southern entrance to the town has been dominated since 1988 by the 8-metre-tall statue of Map Kernow, a traditional Cornish miner. The statue was destroyed by a fire on the morning of 1 June 2006 but has since been rebuilt by its creator, Ben van Zetten. Francis Dutton and Charles Bagot, who both ran sheep in the area, discovered copper ore outcrops in 1842, they purchased 80 acres around the outcrop. Mining began with the removal of surface ore and had progressed to underground mining by the end of the year. Copper was mined until 1879. There are quarries near the town which provide fine marble ranging from dark blue to white. Marble from the Kapunda quarries was used to face Parliament House in Adelaide, the pedestal of the statue of Venus on North Terrace, Adelaide is made of Sicilian and Kapunda marble. Ore was exported to Swansea, but Welsh smelters migrated to South Australia and the ore was smelted locally by 1851.
The miners were Cornish, labourers were Irish and smelter specialists were Welsh. Trade and agriculture were Scottish and English. German farmers and timber cutters at nearby Bethel had been in the area. Underground mining became more difficult. A steam engine to drive a water pump was installed in 1847, replaced by a larger one in 1851. In 1865, the mine was leased to a Scottish company which switched to open cut mining methods and replaced the smelters with a different treatment method. Copper prices fell in 1877 and the mine closed in 1879. Mining operations ground to a halt in 1851 with the impact of the Victorian gold rush, restarted in 1855. A railway from Adelaide was opened in 1860, extended to Eudunda and Morgan in 1878. Kapunda had a strong Catholic community and Saint Mary MacKillop visited and established a convent there. St John's Reformatory for Girls operated from 1897 to 1909. Kapunda is famous as the home of Sir Sidney Kidman, he was a major cattle pastoralist who at one time owned 68 properties with a total area larger than the British Isles.
He held annual horse sales at Kapunda with up to 3,000 horses sold during the week. His house, was donated to the Education Department, is still used as the administration building for Kapunda High School; the town has the unfortunate honour of being titled the most haunted town in Australia after a television documentary focused on the town. Most locals were not amused, however it has led to an increase in the number of tourists that visit the area. Owing to this, the ruins of the Reformatory, located outside the town, were bulldozed, although some locals still believe in the ghost stories popular in town; the town is close to the historical Anlaby Station and the manor, houses and other buildings on the property, many of which are being restored by its current owners. Kapunda was home to several notable manufacturers of farm and mining machinery: Robert Cameron, Joseph Mellors, James Rowe and Adamson Brothers, it was with this last-named company that T. J. Richards, the founder of one of Australia's largest coach-building firms, started his career.
Today, Kapunda is a producer of cereal crops wheat and oats. Value-added services carried out by local industry include hay processing. Kapunda is a contributor to the wine-growing industry centred in the nearby Barossa Valley. Kapunda has hosted the Kapunda Celtic Music Festival since 1976. Kapunda was home to several newspapers; the Kapunda Herald was printed in the town until 1951, when it was merged with the Barossa News to become the Barossa and Light Herald. Another publication, the Farmers' Weekly Messenger was printed in Kapunda by Ebenezer Ward. Within a month, in May 1874, it absorbed another Ward newspaper, Northern Guardian, which itself was a continuation of the Guardian and Northern and North-eastern Advertiser and the short-lived Gumeracha Guardian and North-eastern Advertiser. Kapunda is in the state electoral district of Stuart, the federal Division of Wakefield, the centre of the Light Regional Council. Ellen Ida Benham, educationist Vivian Bullwinkel, Australian Army nurse, P.
O. W. Albert Hawke, Premier of Western Australia Rosanne Hawke, Author Alice Rosman, writer Sidney Kidman, Pastoralist Drew, G. J.. Discovering historic Kapunda, South Australia. Adelaide: Department of Mines and Energy, Kapunda tourism committee. ISBN 0-7243-4277-X. Drew, G. J.: Captain Bagot's Mine: Kapunda Mine, 1844–1916. Published by the author. ISBN 9780646969497 Charlton, Rob: The History of Kapunda Published by the District Council of Kapunda. ISBN 0-7256-0039-X Media related to Kapunda, South Australia at Wikimedia Commons
The Bunyip is a weekly newspaper, first printed on 5 September 1863, published and printed in Gawler, South Australia. It's distribution area includes the Gawler, Light and Adelaide Plains areas. Along with The Murray Pioneer, The River News, The Loxton News, The Bunyip is now owned by the Taylor Group of Newspapers and printed in Renmark. A monthly publication, the first issue of The Bunyip, subtitled "Gawler Humbug Society's Chronicle" was issued on 5 September 1863 and consisted of eight pages and was priced at 6d; the name was chosen because "the Bunyip is the true type of Australian Humbug!" It was warmly greeted by the South Australian Register, observing that it was "full of racy articles and local hits... a humorous article on the Gawler Agricultural Society's last dinner, which not only amusing but correct... undoubtedly prove a great success."With the paper's success, publication increased to bi-monthly in February 1865, appearing on the first and third Saturday of each month. With new printing machinery, the paper up-sized to broadsheet format, its title had become The Bunyip or Gawler Chronicle and Northern Advertiser.
The following year it became a weekly. By this time however, the paper's original offbeat stance had quite vanished and it had become a regular newspaper. With three newspapers published in Gawler at the time, conditions allowed William Barnet, the proprietor, to purchase rival the Gawler Times. Another rival, the weekly Gawler Mercury folded after a brief run of less than nine months. In February 1885 The Bunyip's building was destroyed by fire. Barnet again wasted no time in having its competitor of seven years, the Gawler Standard, take over printing duties arranged with Richards, its proprietor, for an immediate merger. In January 1969, the newspaper absorbed the Junction and Gilbert Valley News, published in Hamley Bridge since February 1940; the Bunyip's first issue elicited a libel case against the publisher, William Barnet, by one Dr. Home Popham who had set up a hospital in the town and who had advertised boastfully in The Northern Star; the court proceedings were a merry affair with Mr. Stow appearing for the defence and the jury found for the plaintiff, awarding damages of one shilling.
Four years Barnet was sued in the SA. Supreme Court by Henry Edward Bright MP, for libel and found not guilty; this was greeted by both The Register and the Advertiser as a landmark decision. William Barnet married Hannah Burfield, his daughter Edith Violet Barnet married Frederic C. Custance, son of Professor John D. Custance in 1919. Robert Henry Barnet was third son of William and Hannah Frank L Barnet, a graduate of Roseworthy College, was owner from 1917, he was fifth son of William and Hannah, married Clarice Isobel Carne in 1919. Kenneth Lindley "Ken" Barnet was son of Clarice. John Barnet ran the paper from 1975, it remained in the Barnet family until 2003. It is now owned by the Taylor Group a family concern, who are owners of the Murray Pioneer, based in Renmark. Dr. George Nott 1863 to 1866 T. Godfrey 1867 to 1868 J. B. Austin 1868 Benjamin Hoare 1869 to 1871 Edward Grundy 1871 to 1875 George E. Loyau 1878 to 1879 Louis Joseph Wilson 1880 Alfred Drakard 1881 to 1882 Henry John "Harry" Congreve 1885 to 1890 E. H. Coombe 1890 to 1914 Robert Barnet 1914 to ca.1930 Leslie S. Duncan ca.1930 to ca.1945 Duncan was M.
P. for Gawler, with the Bunyip for 30 years. Ken Barnet ca.1945 to ca.1965 Paul Vincent ca.1965 to?? Ken Barnet John Barnet 1975 to 2003 Terry Williams 2003 to 2004 Heidi Helbig 2004 Rob McLean 2011 Grady Hudd 2016 Like other Taylor Group publications, the newspaper is available online. Bunyip Company website "The Bunyip": Gawler Public Library Historical Pamphlet No. 5
Darwin, Northern Territory
Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia, situated on the Timor Sea. It is the largest city in the sparsely populated Northern Territory, with a population of 145,916, it is the smallest and most northerly of the Australian capital cities, acts as the Top End's regional centre. Darwin's proximity to South East Asia makes it a link between Australia and countries such as Indonesia and East Timor; the Stuart Highway begins in Darwin, extends southerly across central Australia through Tennant Creek and Alice Springs, concluding in Port Augusta, South Australia. The city is built upon a low bluff overlooking the harbour, its suburbs begin at Lee Point in the stretch to Berrimah in the east. Past Berrimah, the Stuart Highway goes on to its suburbs; the Darwin region, like much of the Top End, experiences a tropical climate with a wet and dry season. A period known locally as "the build up" leading up to Darwin's wet season sees temperature and humidity increase. Darwin's wet season arrives in late November to early December and brings with it heavy monsoonal downpours, spectacular lightning displays, increased cyclone activity.
During the dry season, the city has clear skies and mild sea breezes from the harbour. The greater Darwin area is the ancestral home of the Larrakia people. On 9 September 1839, HMS Beagle sailed into Darwin harbour during its survey of the area. John Clements Wickham named the region "Port Darwin" in honour of their former shipmate Charles Darwin, who had sailed with them on the ship's previous voyage which ended in October 1836; the settlement there became the town of Palmerston in 1869, but it was renamed Darwin in 1911. The city has been entirely rebuilt four times, following devastation caused by the 1897 cyclone, the 1937 cyclone, Japanese air raids during World War II, Cyclone Tracy in 1974; the Aboriginal people of the Larrakia language group are the traditional custodians and the first inhabitants of the greater Darwin area. They had trading routes with Southeast Asia, imported goods from as far afield as South and Western Australia. Established songlines penetrated throughout the country, allowing stories and histories to be told and retold along the routes.
The extent of shared songlines and history of multiple clan groups within this area is still contestable. The Dutch visited Australia's northern coastline in the 1600s and landed on the Tiwi Islands only to be repelled by the Tiwi peoples; the Dutch created the first European maps of the area. This accounts for the Dutch names such as Arnhem Land and Groote Eylandt; the first British person to see Darwin harbour appears to have been Lieutenant John Lort Stokes of HMS Beagle on 9 September 1839. The ship's captain, Commander John Clements Wickham, named the port after Charles Darwin, the British naturalist who had sailed with them both on the earlier second expedition of the Beagle. In 1863, the Northern Territory was transferred from New South Wales to South Australia. In 1864 South Australia sent B. T. Finniss north as Government Resident to survey and found a capital for its new territory. Finniss chose a site at Escape Cliffs, near the entrance to Adelaide River, about 60 kilometres northeast of the modern city.
This attempt was short-lived and the settlement abandoned by 1865. On 5 February 1869, George Goyder, the Surveyor-General of South Australia, established a small settlement of 135 people at Port Darwin between Fort Hill and the escarpment. Goyder named the settlement Palmerston, after the British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston. In 1870, the first poles for the Overland Telegraph were erected in Darwin, connecting Australia to the rest of the world; the discovery of gold by employees of the Australian Overland Telegraph Line digging holes for telegraph poles at Pine Creek in the 1880s spawned a gold rush which further boosted the young colony's development. In February 1872 the brigatine Alexandra was the first private vessel to set sail from an English port directly to Darwin, carrying people many of whom were coming to recent gold finds. In early 1875 Darwin's white population had grown to 300 because of the gold rush. On 17 February 1875 the SS Gothenburg left Darwin en route for Adelaide.
The 88 passengers and 34 crew included government officials, circuit-court judges, Darwin residents taking their first furlough, miners. While travelling south along the north Queensland coast, the Gothenburg encountered a cyclone-strength storm and was wrecked on a section of the Great Barrier Reef. Only 22 men survived, while between 112 people perished. Many passengers who perished were Darwin residents and news of the tragedy affected the small community, which took several years to recover. In the 1870s large numbers of Chinese settled at least temporarily in the Northern Territory. By 1888 there were 6122 Chinese in the Northern Territory in or around Darwin; the early Chinese settlers were from the Kwantung Province in south China. However at the end of the nineteenth century anti-Chinese feelings grew in response to the 1890s economic depression and the White Australia policy meant many Chinese left the Territory. However, some families stayed and became Australian citizens, established a commercial base in Darwin.
Darwin became the city's official name in 1911. The period between 1911 and 1919 was filled with political turmoil with trade union unrest, which culminated on 17 December 1918. Led by Harold Nelson, some 1000 demonstrators marched to Government House at Liberty
Port Pirie is the sixth most populous city in South Australia after Adelaide, Mount Gambier, Murray Bridge and Port Lincoln. It is a seaport on the east coast of 223 km north of Adelaide. At June 2015 Port Pirie had an estimated urban population of 14,247; the settlement was founded in 1845 and is the site of the world's largest lead smelter, operated by Nyrstar. It produces refined silver, zinc and gold. Prior to European settlement, the location that became Port Pirie was occupied by the indigenous tribe of Nukunu; the location was called'Tarparrie', suspected to mean "Muddy Creek". The first European to see the location was Matthew Flinders in 1802 as he explored the Spencer Gulf by boat; the first land discovery by settlers of the location was by the explorer Edward Eyre who explored regions around Port Augusta. John Horrocks discovered a pass through the Flinders Ranges to the coast, now named Horrocks Pass; the town was called Samuel's Creek after the discovery of Muddy Creek by Samuel Germein.
In 1846, Port Pirie Creek was named by Governor Robe after the John Pirie, the first vessel to navigate the creek when transporting sheep from Bowman's Run near Crystal Brook. In 1848, Matthew Smith and Emanuel Solomon bought 85 acres and subdivided it as a township to be known as Port Pirie. Little development occurred on site and by the late 1860s there were only three woolsheds on the riverfront; the government town was surveyed in December 1871 by Charles Hope Harris. The thoroughfares and streets were named after the family of George Goyder, Surveyor General of South Australia, with the streets running parallel and at right angles to the river. In 1873 the land of Solomon and Smith was named Solomontown. On 28 September 1876, Port Pirie was declared a municipality, with a population of 947. With the discovery of rich silver-, lead- and zinc-bearing ore at Broken Hill in 1883, the completion of a narrow gauge railway from Port Pirie to close to the Broken Hill field in 1888, the economic activities of the town shifted.
In 1889 a lead smelter was built by the British Blocks company to treat Broken Hill ore. Broken Hill Proprietary leased the smelter from British Blocks and began constructing their own smelter from 1892. In 1915 the smelter was taken over by a major joint venture of Broken Hill-based companies, Broken Hill Associated Smelters. Led by the Collins House Group, BHAS became the biggest lead smelter in the world by 1934; the smelter passed to Pasminco Zinifex, is now operated by Nyrstar. By 1921 the town's population had grown to 9801 living in 2308 occupied dwellings. By this date there were 62 boarding houses to cater for the labour demands at the smelter and on the busy waterfront. Port Pirie was declared South Australia's first provincial city in 1953, today it is South Australia's second largest port, it is characterised by some interesting and unusual historic buildings. Port Pirie has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 1 Alexander Street: Barrier Chambers Offices 32 Ellen Street: Adelaide Steamship Company Building 64-68 Ellen Street: Sampson's Butcher Shop 69-71 Ellen Street: Port Pirie Customs House 73-77 Ellen Street: Port Pirie railway station 79-81 Ellen Street: Port Pirie Post Office 85 Ellen Street: Development Board Building 94 Ellen Street: Sample Rooms, rear of Portside Tavern 134 Ellen Street: Family Hotel 32 Florence Street: Carn Brae 50-52 Florence Street: Waterside Workers' Federation Building 105 Gertrude Street: Good Samaritan Catholic Convent School Memorial Drive: Second World War Memorial Gates 5 Norman Street: AMP Society Building, Port Pirie According to the 2006 Census, the population of the Port Pirie census area was 13,206 people.
51.8% of the population were female, 86.9% are Australian born, over 92.7% of residents are Australian citizens and 2.6% were Aboriginal people. The most popular industries for employment were Basic Non-Ferrous Metal Manufacturing, School Education, Hospitality and Animal Husbandry, while the unemployment rate is approx. 11%. The median weekly household income is A$608 or more compared with $924 in Adelaide. 27.1% of the population identify themselves as Catholic, while 23.7% identify with no religion at all. Port Pirie is at an elevation of 4 metres above sea level, it is 8 kilometres inland, on the Pirie River, a tidal saltwater inlet from Spencer Gulf. It is on the coastal plain between the Flinders Ranges to the east. Port Pirie exists in a region with a semi-arid climate, outside Goyder's Line, surrounded by mallee scrub. Average daily maximum temperatures vary from a mild 16.4 °C in winter to 32.0 °C in summer. Its average annual rainfall is 345.2 millimetres. According to the Köppen climate classification, Port Pirie has a warm semi-arid climate, noted as BSh.
Port Pirie is 5 km off the Augusta Highway. It is serviced by Port Pirie Airport, six kilometres south of the city; the first railway in Port Pirie opened in 1875 when the South Australian Railways 1,067 mm gauge Port Pirie-Cockburn line opened to Gladstone being extended to Broken Hill. The original Ellen Street station was located on the street with the track running down the middle; the station today is occupied by the Port Pirie National Trust Museum. In 1937, it became a break-of-gauge station when the broad gauge Adelaide-Redhill line was extended to Port Pirie. At the same time the Commonwealth Railways standard gauge Trans-Australian Railway was extended south from Port Augusta to terminate at the new Port Pirie Junction station