Earth, Wind & Fire
Earth, Wind & Fire is an American band that has spanned the musical genres of R&B, funk, disco, rock, dance and Afro pop. They have been described as one of the commercially successful acts of all time. Rolling Stone called them "innovative, precise yet sensual, calculated yet galvanizing" and declared that the band "changed the sound of black pop". VH1 has described EWF as "one of the greatest bands" ever; the band was founded in Chicago by Maurice White in 1969, having grown out of a previous band known as the Salty Peppers. Other prominent members of EWF have included Philip Bailey, Verdine White, Ralph Johnson, Larry Dunn, Al McKay, Roland Bautista, Sonny Emory, Sheldon Reynolds and Andrew Woolfolk; the band is known for its horn section, kalimba sound and elaborate stage shows, the contrast between Philip Bailey's falsetto vocals and Maurice White's baritone. The band has won six Grammys from their 17 nominations, they have won four American Music Awards out of 12 nominations. They have been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Vocal Group Hall of Fame, received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, sold over 90 million records, making them one of the world's best-selling bands of all time.
EWF has been inducted into Hollywood's Rockwalk. The band have received an ASCAP Rhythm & Soul Heritage Award, BET Lifetime Achievement Award, Soul Train Legend Award. EWF has received a NARAS Signature Governor's Award, a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, the 2012 Congressional Horizon Award. In 1969, Maurice White, a former session drummer for Chess Records and former member of the Ramsey Lewis Trio, joined two friends in Chicago, Wade Flemons and Don Whitehead, as a songwriting team composing songs and commercials in the Chicago area; the three friends got a recording contract with Capitol Records. Calling themselves "The Salty Peppers", they went on to have a marginal hit single in the Midwestern area entitled "La La Time"; the Salty Peppers' second single, "Uh Huh Yeah", did not fare as well. Maurice moved on from Chicago to Los Angeles, he added to the band singer Sherry Scott and percussionist Yackov Ben Israel, both from Chicago, asked his younger brother Verdine how he would feel about heading out to the West Coast.
On June 6, 1970, Verdine left Chicago to join the band as their new bassist. Maurice began shipping demo tapes of the band, featuring Donny Hathaway, around to different record labels and the band was thus signed to Warner Bros. Records. Maurice's astrological sign, has a primary elemental quality of Fire and seasonal qualities of Earth and Air, according to classical triplicities. Sagittarius in the northern hemisphere occurs in the autumn, whose element is earth, in the southern hemisphere, it is spring, whose element is air. Hence the omission of Water, the fourth classical element. Based on this, he changed the band's name, to "Earth, Wind & Fire". Maurice held further auditions in L. A. where he added Michael Beal on guitar, Chester Washington on reeds, Leslie Drayton on trumpet. With Maurice as a percussionist and lead vocalist Drayton served as the group's musical arranger. Trombonist Alex Thomas completed the ten-man EWF lineup; the band's self-titled debut album was released in February 1971 on Warner Bros.
The album got to No. 24 on the Billboard Top Soul Albums chart. EWF performed on the soundtrack of the Melvin Van Peebles feature film Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song; the soundtrack was released in June 1971 on Stax Records and reached No. 13 on the Billboard Top R&B Albums chart. In November 1971 EWF's sophomore album entitled The Need of Love was issued, it got to No. 35 on the Billboard Top Soul Albums chart. AllMusic described the album as an "ambitious" LP with an "abstract sense of composition". Billboard called the LP "a display of good potential and pop". An album cut called "I Think About Lovin' You" reached No. 44 on the Billboard Hot Soul Songs chart. The band developed a growing popularity on college campuses but, in spite of this, some members of EWF started to become restless and the band broke up after having been together less than six months. With only Verdine left, Maurice decided to re-form the group. In 1972, Maurice added vocalist Helena Davis, Ronnie Laws on the flute and saxophone, rhythm guitarist Roland Bautista, keyboardist Larry Dunn, vocalist Philip Bailey and percussionist Ralph Johnson to the group.
Davis was soon replaced by Jessica Cleaves, a former member of the R&B group The Friends of Distinction. The band auditioned for managers Bob Cavallo and Joe Ruffalo. Cavallo's management of John Sebastian led to a series of gigs as the opening act for the pop/folk singer and The Lovin' Spoonful founder. A performance at New York's Rockefeller Center introduced EWF to Clive Davis the President of Columbia Records. Davis was impressed with the band's performance and bought out their contract from Warner Bros, their debut album on CBS/Columbia Records, Last Days and Time was issued in October 1972. Allmusic described Last Days and Time as a mix of "Motown pop and folk", "Sly and The Family Stone's r&b" and "the fusion style of Weather Report". Billboard noted a "dynamic soul rock style" as the "main ingredients" of the album; the album got to No. 15 on the Billboard Top Soul Albums chart. An album cut entitled "Mom" got to No. 39 on the Cashbox Top R&B Singles chart. Soon thereafter Roland Bautista and Ronnie Laws left the band to pursue new musical opportunities Denver native Philip Bailey recommended his former East High School classmate, saxophonist Andrew Woolfolk as a replacement for Laws.
Woolfolk had been busy in New York studying sax with sax maestro Joe Henderson and was
The wildcat is a species complex comprising two small wild cat species, the European wildcat and the African wildcat. The European wildcat inhabits forests in Europe and the Caucasus, while the African wildcat inhabits semi-arid landscapes and steppes in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Central Asia, into western India and western China; the wildcat species differ in fur pattern and size: the European wildcat has long fur and a bushy tail with a rounded tip. The wildcat and the other members of the cat family had a common ancestor about 10–15 million years ago; the European wildcat evolved during the Cromerian Stage about 866,000 to 478,000 years ago. The silvestris and lybica lineages diverged about 173,000 years ago; the wildcat has been categorized as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2002, since it is distributed, the global population is considered stable and exceeding 20,000 mature individuals. However, in some range countries both wildcat species are considered threatened by introgressive hybridisation with the domestic cat and transmission of diseases.
Localized threats include being hit by vehicles, persecution. The association of African wildcats and humans appears to have developed along with the establishment of settlements during the Neolithic Revolution, when rodents in grain stores of early farmers attracted wildcats; this association led to it being tamed and domesticated: the domestic cat is the direct descendant of the African wildcat. It was one of the revered cats in ancient Egypt; the European wildcat has been the subject of literature. Felis silvestris was the scientific name used in 1777 by Johann von Schreber when he described the European wildcat based on descriptions and names proposed by earlier naturalists such as Mathurin Jacques Brisson, Ulisse Aldrovandi and Conrad Gessner. Felis lybica was the name proposed in 1780 by Georg Forster, who described an African wildcat from Gafsa on the Barbary Coast. In subsequent decades, several naturalists and explorers described 40 wildcat specimens collected in European and Asian range countries.
In the 1940s, the taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock reviewed the collection of wildcat skins and skulls in the Natural History Museum and designated seven F. silvestris subspecies from Europe to Asia Minor, 25 F. lybica subspecies from Africa, West to Central Asia. Pocock differentiated the: Forest wildcat subspecies Steppe wildcat subspecies: is distinguished from the forest wildcat by being smaller, with comparatively lighter fur colour, longer and more sharply-pointed tails; the domestic cat is thought to have derived from this group. Bush wildcat subspecies: is distinguished from the steppe wildcat by paler fur, well-developed spot patterns and bands. In 2005, 22 subspecies were recognized by the authors of Mammal Species of the World, who allocated subspecies in line with Pocock's assessment. In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force revised the taxonomy of the Felidae, recognized the following as valid taxa: The wildcat is a member of the Felidae, a family that had a common ancestor about 10–15 million years ago.
Felis species diverged from the Felidae around 6–7 million years ago. The European wildcat diverged from Felis about 1.09 to 1.4 million years ago. The European wildcat's direct ancestor was Felis lunensis, which lived in Europe in the late Pliocene and Villafranchian periods. Fossil remains indicate that the transition from lunensis to silvestris was completed by the Holstein interglacial about 340,000 to 325,000 years ago. Craniological differences between the European and African wildcats indicate that the wildcat migrated during the Late Pleistocene from Europe into the Middle East, giving rise to the steppe wildcat phenotype. Phylogenetic research revealed that the lybica lineage diverged from the silvestris lineage about 173,00 years ago; the wildcat has pointed ears, which are broad at the base. Its whiskers are white, number reach 5 -- 8 cm in length on the muzzle. Whiskers are present on the inner surface of the paw and measure 3–4 cm, its eyes are large, with yellowish-green irises. The eyelashes range from 5–6 cm in length, can number six to eight per side.
The European wildcat has a greater skull volume than the domestic cat, a ratio known as Schauenberg's index. Further, its skull is more spherical in shape than that of the jungle leopard cat, its dentition is smaller and weaker than the jungle cat's. Both wildcat species are larger than the domestic cat; the European wildcat has longer legs and a more robust build compared to the domestic cat. The tail is long, slightly exceeds one-half of the animal's body length; the species size varies according to Bergmann's rule, with the largest specimens occurring in cool, northern areas of Europe and Asia such as Mongolia and Siberia. Males measure 43–91 cm in head to body length, 23–40 cm in tail length, weigh 5–8 kg. Females are smaller, measuring 40–77 cm in body length and 18–35 cm in tail length, weighing 3–5 kg. Both sexes have two thoracic and two abdominal teats. Both sexes have pre-anal glands, consisting of moderately sized sweat and sebaceous glands around the anal opening. Large-sized sebaceous and scent glands extend along the full length o
Kenneth Brian Edmonds, known professionally as Babyface, is an American singer and record producer. He has written and produced over 26 number-one R&B hits throughout his career, has won 11 Grammy Awards, he was ranked number 20 on NME's 50 Of The Greatest Producers Ever list. Edmonds was born on April 10, 1959, in Indianapolis, Indiana, to Barbara Edmonds. Barbara was a production operator at a pharmaceutical plant. Edmonds, the fifth of six brothers, attended North Central High School in Indianapolis, as a shy youth, wrote songs to express his emotions; when he was in eighth grade, Edmonds' father died of lung cancer, leaving his mother to raise her sons alone. At this stage, Edmonds became determined to have a career in music. Edmonds played with funk performer Bootsy Collins, who tagged him "Babyface" because of his youthful look, he performed in the group Manchild as a guitarist. He played keyboards in R&B group the Deele. One of his first major credits as a songwriter for outside artists came when he wrote the tune "Slow Jam" for the R&B band Midnight Star in 1983.
The tune was on Midnight Star's 1983 double-platinum No Parking on the Dance Floor album, while it never was a single, it received massive radio airplay and the song is still played on quiet storm radio stations. Babyface remained in the Deele until 1988, his album Playlist consists of two original works. It was released on September 18, 2007, it was the first album on the newly re-launched Mercury Records label. On February 4, 2014, he released a Grammy Award-winning duet album with Toni Braxton titled Love, Marriage & Divorce on Motown Records. In the late 1980s, he contributed to the creation of new jack swing and producing music for the likes of Bobby Brown, Karyn White, Paula Abdul, Michael Jackson and Sheena Easton. In 1989, Edmonds co-founded LaFace Records with Reid. Three of the label's early artists TLC, Toni Braxton were successful. TLC's second album CrazySexyCool, for which he wrote and produced some of the hits, became the best selling album of all time by an American girl group. Under his direction, TLC sold more than 60 million albums worldwide, a combined total of 75 million records.
Toni Braxton's first two albums, Toni Braxton and Secrets, for which he wrote the majority of the songs, went on to sell a combined total of over 10 million copies in America alone. Babyface helped form the popular late-1990s R&B group Az Yet. Edmonds helped to mold and work with some of his then-wife Tracey Edmonds' acts, such as Jon B and producer Jon-John Robinson. Edmonds has worked with many successful performers in contemporary music. “I’m Your Baby Tonight”, produced for Whitney Houston,this was the introduction of her to R&B music and was his first No. 1 Top 40 hit in the US. He wrote and produced Boyz II Men's 1992 "End of the Road" and 1994 "I'll Make Love to You", both of which established records for the longest stay at No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. He co-wrote, co-produced, provided backing vocals on Madonna's 1994 Bedtime Stories, which featured the seven-week No. 1 hit "Take a Bow", shared billing with Eric Clapton on the chart-topping Grammy winner "Change the World" from the Phenomenon soundtrack.
He wrote and produced the No. 1 hit "Exhale" for Houston as well as the rest of the critically acclaimed 10 million-selling Waiting to Exhale soundtrack in 1995, which spawned additional hits for Houston and Mary J. Blige. Additionally, Edmonds has produced and written music for many artists including Carole King, Patti LaBelle, Chaka Khan, Aretha Franklin, Janet Jackson, Faith Evans, Al Green, Beyoncé, Diana Ross, Sheena Easton, Toni Braxton, Michael Jackson, Michael Bolton, Paula Abdul, Eric Clapton, Tevin Campbell, Bobby Brown, Whitney Houston, Mary J. Blige, Shola Ama, 3T, Sisqó, Dru Hill, Fall Out Boy, Céline Dion, Samantha Jade, Backstreet Boys, Katharine McPhee, Mariah Carey, Vanessa L. Williams, Bruno Mars, Kelly Clarkson, Chanté Moore, En Vogue, Kenny G, Kristinia DeBarge, Lil Wayne, Japanese singer Ken Hirai, P!nk, Colbie Caillat, Marc Nelson, TLC, Ariana Grande, Ella Henderson, Jessica Mauboy, Xscape, K-Ci & JoJo, NSYNC, Jordin Sparks and Phil Collins among others. He received three consecutive Grammy Awards for Producer of the Year from 1995 to 1997.
Babyface was in the studio for about two years with Ashanti to produce her album The Declaration. He worked on the Lil Wayne album Tha Carter III, on the Kanye West-produced "Comfortable", he worked with R&B singer Monica for her sixth studio album Still Standing. In 2013, Babyface served as producer for Ariana Grande's debut album Yours Truly, producing the majority of her songs, including her second single, "Baby I". In September 2014, Babyface collaborated with Barbra Streisand on her album Partners, performing a duet on the track "Evergreen" and background vocals for other album tracks. Babyface collaborated with Foxes on her second album, All I Need, producing and co-writing "Scar". In July 2016, Babyface along with Bruce Roberts and Carole Bayer Sager helped write the song "Stronger Together" sung by Jessica Sanchez; the song was played after Hillary Clinton's speech at the 2016 Democratic National Convention. The song's title is named after the slogan that the Clinton camp
Contemporary R&B is a music genre that combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, hip hop and electronic music. The genre features a distinctive record production style, drum machine-backed rhythms, pitch corrected vocals, a smooth, lush style of vocal arrangement. Electronic influences are becoming an increasing trend and the use of hip hop or dance-inspired beats are typical, although the roughness and grit inherent in hip hop may be reduced and smoothed out. Contemporary R&B vocalists are known for their use of melisma, popularized by vocalists such as Michael Jackson, R. Kelly, Craig David, Stevie Wonder, Whitney Houston and Mariah Carey. Contemporary R&B originated at the end of the disco era, in the late-1970s, when Michael Jackson and Quincy Jones added more electronic elements to the sound of the time to create a smoother dancefloor-friendly sound; the first result was Off the Wall, which—according to Stephen Thomas Erlewine from AllMusic—"was a visionary album, that found a way to break disco wide open into a new world where the beat was undeniable, but not the primary focus" and "was part of a colorful tapestry of lush ballads and strings, smooth soul and pop, soft rock, alluring funk".
Richard J. Ripani wrote that Janet Jackson's Control was "important to the development of R&B for a number of reasons", as she and her producers, Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, "crafted a new sound that fuses the rhythmic elements of funk and disco, along with heavy doses of synthesizers, sound effects, a rap music sensibility." Ripani wrote that "the success of Control led to the incorporation of stylistic traits of rap over the next few years, Janet Jackson was to continue to be one of the leaders in that development." That same year, Teddy Riley began. This combination of R&B style and hip hop rhythms was termed new jack swing and was applied to artists such as Michael Jackson, Bobby Brown, Keith Sweat, Al B. Sure!, Guy and Bell Biv DeVoe. In contrast to the works of Boyz II Men and similar artists, other R&B artists and groups from this same period began adding more of a hip-hop sound to their work, like the innovative group Jodeci; the synthesizer-heavy rhythm tracks of new jack swing were replaced by grittier East Coast hip hop-inspired backing tracks, resulting in a genre labeled hip hop soul by Mary J. Blige and producer Sean Combs who had mentored group Jodeci in the beginning and helped them with their unique look.
The style became less popular by the end of the 1990s, but experienced a resurgence. In 1990, Mariah Carey released Vision of Love, it was immensely popular peaking at number 1 in many worldwide charts including the Billboard Hot 100, it propelled Mariah's career. The song is said to have popularized the use of melisma and brought it in to mainstream R&B. During the mid-1990s, Whitney Houston's The Bodyguard: Original Soundtrack Album sold over 40 million copies worldwide becoming the best-selling soundtrack of all time. Janet Jackson's self-titled fifth studio album janet. which came after her historic multimillion-dollar contract with Virgin Records, sold over twenty million copies worldwide. Boyz II Men and Mariah Carey recorded several Billboard Hot 100 No. 1 hits, including "One Sweet Day", a collaboration between both acts, which became the longest-running No. 1 hit in Hot 100 history. Carey released a remix of her 1995 single "Fantasy", with Ol' Dirty Bastard as a feature, a collaboration format, unheard of at this point.
Carey, Boyz II Men and TLC released albums in 1994 and 1995 -- II and CrazySexyCool. In the late 1990s, neo soul, which added 1970s soul influences to the hip hop soul blend, led by artists such as D'Angelo, Erykah Badu, Lauryn Hill and Maxwell. Hill and Missy Elliott further blurred the line between hip hop by recording both styles. Beginning in 1995, the Grammy Awards enacted the Grammy Award for Best R&B Album, with II by Boyz II Men becoming the first recipient; the award was received by TLC for CrazySexyCool in 1996, Tony Rich for Words in 1997, Erykah Badu for Baduizm in 1998 and Lauryn Hill for The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill in 1999. At the end of 1999, Billboard magazine ranked Mariah Carey and Janet Jackson as the first and second most successful artists of the 1990s. In the second half of the 1990s, The Neptunes and Timbaland set influential precedence on contemporary R&B and hip hop music. R&B acts such as Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston, Janet Jackson, Mariah Carey and Toni Braxton are some of the best-selling music artists of all time.
Following periods of fluctuating success, urban music attained commercial dominance during the early 2000s, which featured massive crossover success on the Billboard charts by R&B and hip hop artists. In 2001, Alicia Keys released "Fallin"', it peaking at number one on the Billboard Hot 100, Mainstream Top 40 and Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs charts. It won three Grammy Awards in 2002, including Song of the Year, Best R&B Song, Best Female R&B Vocal Performance, it was nominated for Record of the Year. Beyoncé's solo studio debut album Dangerously in Love has sold over 5 million copies in the United States and earned five Grammy Awards. Usher's Confessions sold 1.1 million copies in its first week and over 8 million copies in 2004, since it has been certified Diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America and, as of 2016, has sold over 10 million copies in the US and over 20 million copies worldwide. Confessions had four consecutive Billboard Hot 100 number one singles—"Yeah!", "Burn", "Confessions Part II" and "My Boo".
In 2004, all 12 songs that topped Billboard Hot 100 were
Messages from The Boys
Messages from The Boys is the debut album by American R&B group The Boys. It was released in 1988. "Dial My Heart" "Lucky Charm" "A Little Romance" "Sunshine" "Love Gram" "Just For the Fun of It" "Personality" "Be My Girl" "Happy" "Let's Dance" "Dial My Heart" #1 R&B 1988 "A Little Romance" #13 R&B "Lucky Charm" #1 R&B 1989
New jack swing
New Jack Swing or swingbeat is a fusion genre spearheaded by Teddy Riley and Bernard Belle that became popular from the mid 1980s into the early 1990s, the style originated from Janet Jackson's third studio album, Control from 1986. Its influence, along with hip hop, seeped into pop culture and was the definitive sound of the inventive New York club scene, it fuses the rhythms and production techniques of hip hop and dance-pop with the urban contemporary sound of R&B. The new jack swing style developed as many previous music styles did, by combining elements of older styles with newer sensibilities, it used R&B style vocals sung over hip dance-pop style influenced instrumentation. The sound of new jack swing comes from the hip hop "swing" beats created by drum machine, hardware samplers, which were popular during the Golden Age of Hip Hop, with contemporary R&B style singing. Merriam-Webster's online dictionary defines new jack swing as "pop music performed by black musicians that combines elements of jazz, funk and rhythm and blues".
Encyclopædia Britannica calls it the "most pop-oriented rhythm-and-blues music since 1960s Motown", since its "performers were unabashed entertainers, free of artistic pretensions. New jack swing did take up the trend of using sampled beats and tunes, created beats using the then-new SP-1200 sampler and the Roland TR-808 drum machine to lay an "insistent beat under light melody lines and enunciated vocals." The Roland TR-808 was sampled to create distinctive, swung rhythms, with its snare sound being prominent. Two examples would be "Groove Me" by Guy which samples "Funky President", "My Thang" and "The Champ" as well as its own swing drums and "Right or Wrong" by Mind which fuses sharp drum reverb effects and a hidden looped sample of the Funky Drummer; the key producers were Babyface & L. A. Reid, Bernard Belle, Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, Teddy Riley. A collaboration between former members of Minneapolis music group The Time, Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, Janet Jackson originated the style that came to be known as new jack swing with Jackson's third studio album, Control.
Jam and Lewis used similar influences with hip-hop influenced drums with smoother R&B stylings in the production. Though Jackson had been popular in R&B music, Control established her crossover appeal in the popular music market. Musicologist Richard J. Ripani PhD, author of The New Blue Music: Changes in Rhythm & Blues, 1950–1999, observed that the album was one of the first successful records to influence the rise of new jack swing by creating a fusion of R&B, funk and synthesized percussion; the new jack swing sound is evident in the second single, "Nasty". The success of Control, according to Ripani, bridged the gap between rap music, he asserts that "since Jackson's album was released in 1986 and was hugely successful, it is not unreasonable to assume that it had at least some impact on the new jack swing creations of Teddy Riley." Mantronix's early records in the mid-1980s had new jack elements. The term "new jack swing" was coined in an October 18, 1987, Village Voice profile of Teddy Riley by Barry Michael Cooper.
"New Jack" was a slang term used in a song by Grandmaster Caz of the Cold Crush Brothers, "swing" was intended by Cooper to draw an "analogy between the music played at the speakeasies of F. Scott Fitzgerald's time to the crackhouses of Teddy Riley's time."Teddy Riley's original name for the music was'sophisticated bubblegum music.' The term "new jack swing" describes the sound produced and engineered by R&B/hip hop artist and producer Teddy Riley. Riley is an American R&B and hip hop singer-songwriter and record producer, he led the band Guy in Blackstreet in the 1990s. Riley said, "I define the term as a new kid on the block who's swinging it." The defining feature of Riley's music was the introduction of swingbeats, "a rhythmic pattern using offbeat accented 16th note triplets." In an interview with Revolt TV in 2017, Andre Harrell called Riley the inventor of the sound, hailing him "the king of New Jack Swing, because he invented it."Music website VH1.com notes that while in the 2000s "hip-hop and R&B are kissing cousins," in the early 1980s, "the two genres were mentioned in the same breath."
However, in the late 1980s, "during the era of high-top fades, parachute pants, producer Teddy Riley and label boss Andre Harrell fused and marketed the two sounds in a sexy, exclamatory music that critics termed new jack swing. It sparked a revolution." Riley stated that before new jack swing, "Rappers and singers didn't want anything to do with one another," because "Singers were soft, rappers were street." Riley's new style blended "sweet melody and big beats." The sensibilities of Riley's fusion of the styles would forever change pop music/hip-hop music pairing and was further popularized with Bad Boy's dominance of the late'90s through much of the same techniques. Riley, a 19-year-old kid from Harlem became an A-list producer and commanded big fees to add his sound to major artist projects; the aesthetic of the culture spread to mainstream white audiences through popular groups such as New Kids on the Block. In October 2004, a variety of classic new jack swing tracks are used in the popular video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas.
The songs appear on fictional radio station the soundtrack. Bell Biv DeVoe member Michael Bivins portrays a self-absorbed DJ named Phillip "P. M." Michaels, aspiring to become an actor. New jack swing staged a revival of sorts in the mid-2000s, fueled by the 2