The Cthulhu Mythos is a shared fictional universe, originating in the works of American horror writer H. P. Lovecraft; the term was coined by August Derleth, a contemporary correspondent and protégé of Lovecraft, to identify the settings and lore that were employed by Lovecraft and his literary successors. The name Cthulhu derives from the central creature in Lovecraft's seminal short story, "The Call of Cthulhu", first published in the pulp magazine Weird Tales in 1928. Richard L. Tierney, a writer who wrote Mythos tales applied the term "Derleth Mythos" to distinguish Lovecraft's works from Derleth's stories, which modify key tenets of the Mythos. Authors of Lovecraftian horror in particular use elements of the Cthulhu Mythos. In his essay "H. P. Lovecraft and the Cthulhu Mythos", Robert M. Price described two stages in the development of the Cthulhu Mythos. Price called the first stage the "Cthulhu Mythos proper." This stage was subject to his guidance. The second stage was guided by August Derleth who, in addition to publishing Lovecraft's stories after his death, attempted to categorize and expand the Mythos.
An ongoing theme in Lovecraft's work is the complete irrelevance of mankind in the face of the cosmic horrors that exist in the universe. Lovecraft made frequent references to the "Great Old Ones", a loose pantheon of ancient, powerful deities from space who once ruled the Earth and have since fallen into a deathlike sleep. While these monstrous deities have been present in all of Lovecraft's published work, the first story to expand the pantheon of Great Old Ones and its themes is "The Call of Cthulhu,", published in 1928. Lovecraft broke with other pulp writers of the time by having his main characters' minds deteriorate when afforded a glimpse of what exists outside their perceived reality, he emphasized the point by stating in the opening sentence of the story that "The most merciful thing in the world, I think, is the inability of the human mind to correlate all its contents."Writer Dirk W. Mosig notes that Lovecraft was a "mechanistic materialist" who embraced the philosophy of cosmic indifference.
Lovecraft believed in a purposeless and uncaring universe. Human beings, with their limited faculties, can never understand this universe, the cognitive dissonance caused by this revelation leads to insanity, in his view; this perspective made no allowance for religious belief which could not be supported scientifically, with the incomprehensible, cosmic forces of his tales having as little regard for humanity as humans have for insects. There have been attempts at categorizing this fictional group of beings. Phillip A. Schreffler argues that by scrutinizing Lovecraft's writings, a workable framework emerges that outlines the entire "pantheon"—from the unreachable "Outer Ones" and "Great Old Ones" to the lesser castes. David E. Schultz, believes that Lovecraft never meant to create a canonical Mythos but rather intended his imaginary pantheon to serve as a background element. Lovecraft himself humorously referred to his Mythos as "Yog Sothothery". At times, Lovecraft had to remind his readers that his Mythos creations were fictional.
The view that there was no rigid structure is expounded upon by S. T. Joshi, who said "Lovecraft's imaginary cosmogony was never a static system but rather a sort of aesthetic construct that remained adaptable to its creator's developing personality and altering interests.... There was never a rigid system that might be posthumously appropriated.... The essence of the mythos lies not in a pantheon of imaginary deities nor in a cobwebby collection of forgotten tomes, but rather in a certain convincing cosmic attitude."Price, believed that Lovecraft's writings could at least be divided into categories and identified three distinct themes: the "Dunsanian", "Arkham", "Cthulhu" cycles. Writer Will Murray noted that while Lovecraft used his fictional pantheon in the stories he ghostwrote for other authors, he reserved Arkham and its environs for those tales he wrote under his own name. Although the Mythos was not formalized or acknowledged between them, Lovecraft did correspond and share story elements with other contemporary writers including Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Frank Belknap Long, Henry Kuttner, Henry S. Whitehead, Fritz Leiber—a group referred to as the "Lovecraft Circle."For example, Robert E. Howard's character Friedrich Von Junzt reads Lovecraft's Necronomicon in the short story "The Children of the Night", in turn Lovecraft mentions Howard's Unaussprechlichen Kulten in the stories "Out of the Aeons" and "The Shadow Out of Time".
Many of Howard's original unedited Conan stories involve parts of the Cthulhu Mythos. Price denotes the second stage's commencement with August Derleth; the principal difference between Lovecraft and Derleth being Derleth's use of hope and development of the idea that the Cthulhu mythos represented a struggle between good and evil. Derleth is credited with creating the "Elder Gods." He stated: As Lovecraft conceived the deities or forces of his mythos, there were the Elder Gods... These Elder Gods were benign deities, represent
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England, part of the City of Brighton and Hove, located 47 miles south of London. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age and Anglo-Saxon periods; the ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" was documented in the Domesday Book. The town's importance grew in the Middle Ages as the Old Town developed, but it languished in the early modern period, affected by foreign attacks, storms, a suffering economy and a declining population. Brighton began to attract more visitors following improved road transport to London and becoming a boarding point for boats travelling to France; the town developed in popularity as a health resort for sea bathing as a purported cure for illnesses. In the Georgian era, Brighton developed as a fashionable seaside resort, encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent King George IV, who spent much time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion in the Regency era. Brighton continued to grow as a major centre of tourism following the arrival of the railways in 1841, becoming a popular destination for day-trippers from London.
Many of the major attractions were built in the Victorian era, including the Metropole Hotel Grand Hotel, the West Pier, the Brighton Palace Pier. The town continued to grow into the 20th century, expanding to incorporate more areas into the town's boundaries before joining the town of Hove to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove in 1997, granted city status in 2000. Today and Hove district has a resident population of about 288,200 and the wider Brighton and Hove conurbation has a population of 474,485. Brighton's location has made it a popular destination for tourists, renowned for its diverse communities, quirky shopping areas, large cultural and arts scene and its large LGBT population, leading to its recognition as the "unofficial gay capital of the UK". Brighton attracted 7.5 million day visitors in 2015/16 and 4.9 million overnight visitors, is the most popular seaside destination in the UK for overseas tourists. Brighton has been called the UK's "hippest city", "the happiest place to live in the UK".
Brighton's earliest name was Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries."Brighton" was an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660. The name is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Most scholars believe that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn—the homestead of Beorthelm, a common Old English name associated with villages elsewhere in England; the tūn element is common in Sussex on the coast, although it occurs infrequently in combination with a personal name. An alternative etymology taken from the Old English words for "stony valley" is sometimes given but has less acceptance. Brighthelm gives its name to, among other things, a church and a pub in Brighton and some halls of residence at the University of Sussex. Writing in 1950, historian Antony Dale noted that unnamed antiquaries had suggested an Old English word "brist" or "briz", meaning "divided", could have contributed the first part of the historic name Brighthelmstone.
The town was split in half by the Wellesbourne, a winterbourne, culverted and buried in the 18th century. Brighton has several nicknames. Poet Horace Smith called it "The Queen of Watering Places", still used, "Old Ocean's Bauble". Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray referred to "Doctor Brighton", calling the town "one of the best of Physicians". "London-by-the-Sea" is well-known, reflecting Brighton's popularity with Londoners as a day-trip resort, a commuter dormitory and a desirable destination for those wanting to move out of the metropolis. "The Queen of Slaughtering Places", a pun on Smith's description, became popular when the Brighton trunk murders came to the public's attention in the 1930s. The mid 19th-century nickname "School Town" referred to the remarkable number of boarding and church schools in the town at the time; the first settlement in the Brighton area was Whitehawk Camp, a Neolithic encampment on Whitehawk Hill, dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC. It is one of six causewayed enclosures in Sussex.
Archaeologists have only explored it, but have found numerous burial mounds and bones, suggesting it was a place of some importance. There was a Bronze Age settlement at Coldean. Brythonic Celts arrived in Britain in the 7th century BC, an important Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury Castle on Hollingbury Hill; this Celtic Iron Age encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. 1,000 feet. Cissbury Ring 10 miles from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal "capital". There was a Roman villa at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, much physical evidence of Roman occupation has been discovered locally. From the 1st century AD, the Romans built a number of villas in Brighton and Romano-British Brythonic Celts formed farming settlements in the area. After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton area returned to the control of the native Celts. Anglo-Saxons invaded in the late 5th century AD, the region became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, founded in 477 AD by king Ælle.
Anthony Seldon identified five phases of development in pre-20th century Brighton. The village of Bristelmestune was founded by these
Jason Isaacs is an English actor and producer, best known for playing Lucius Malfoy in the Harry Potter film series, Colonel William Tavington in The Patriot, criminal Michael Caffee in the Showtime series Brotherhood and Marshal Georgy Zhukov in The Death of Stalin. In December 2016, he played Dr. Hunter Aloysius "Hap" Percy in the Netflix supernatural series The OA, he played Captain Gabriel Lorca, the commanding officer of the USS Discovery in the first season of Star Trek: Discovery and provided the voice of The Inquisitor, Sentinel, in Star Wars Rebels, the animated television series. Outside of film and television, his stage roles include Louis Ironson in Declan Donnellan's 1992 and 1993 Royal National Theatre London premières of Parts One and Two of Tony Kushner's Pulitzer Prize-winning play Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes, as Ben, one of two hitmen, playing opposite Lee Evans as Gus, in Harry Burton's 50th-anniversary revival of Nobel Laureate Harold Pinter's 1957 two-hander The Dumb Waiter at Trafalgar Studios in the West End.
He starred in the NBC drama Awake as Detective Michael Britten from March to May 2012. He played a high-rolling Russian in the 2018 film Hotel Mumbai. Jason Isaacs was born in England, to Jewish parents, his father was a jeweller. Isaacs spent his earliest childhood years in an "insular" and "closely knit" Jewish community of Liverpudlians, of which his Eastern European Jewish great-grandparents were founder-members in the leafy Liverpool suburb, Childwall; the third of four sons, Isaacs has stated that Judaism played a big role in his childhood, as he attended youth club in the local synagogue, a Jewish school, known as King David High school, a cheder twice a week as a young adult. When Isaacs was 11, he moved with his family to north west London, attending The Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School, in Elstree, Hertsmere, in Hertfordshire, where he was in the same year as film reviewer Mark Kermode, he describes the bullying and intolerance he observed during his childhood as "preparation" for portraying the "unattractive", villainous characters whom he has most played.
As a Jewish teenager in London, Isaacs endured marked antisemitism by members and supporters of the far right extremist organisation, the National Front. In an interview, Isaacs stated that "There were people beating us up or smashing windows. If you were say, on a Jewish holiday, identifiably Jewish, there was lots of violence around, but when I was 16, in 1979, the National Front were taking hold, there were leaflets at school, Sieg Heiling and people goose-stepping down the road and coming after us". Following in the footsteps of his conventional careerist brothers, one who became a doctor, one a lawyer, one an accountant, Isaacs entered law at Bristol University, but he became more involved in the drama society performing in over thirty plays and performing each summer at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, first with Bristol University and twice, with the National Student Theatre Company. After graduating from Bristol he went to train at London's Central School of Speech and Drama. After completing his training as an actor, Isaacs immediately began appearing on the stage and on television.
He was known as a television actor in the United Kingdom, with starring roles in the ITV drama Capital City and the BBC drama Civvies and guest roles in series such as Taggart, Inspector Morse, Highlander: The Series. He played Michael Ryan in ITV's adaptation of Martina Cole's novel Dangerous Lady, directed by Jack Woods and produced by Lavinia Warner in 1995. On stage, he portrayed the "emotionally waffling" gay Jewish office temp Louis Ironson in Tony Kushner's Pulitzer-Prize-winning Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes, at the Royal National Theatre, in its London première, performing the role in both parts, Part One: Millennium Approaches, in 1992, Part Two: Perestroika, in 1993; when auditioning for that role, he told the producers, "Look, I play all these tough guys and thugs and strong, complex characters. In real life, I am a neurotic Jewish mess. Can't I for once play that on stage?"His first major Hollywood feature-film role was alongside Laurence Fishburne in the horror film Event Horizon.
Subsequently, he appeared in the Bruce Willis blockbuster Armageddon. Called upon to take a substantial role, Isaacs was cast in a much smaller capacity as a planet-saving scientist so that he could accommodate his commitment to Divorcing Jack, a comedy-thriller he was making with David Thewlis. After portraying a priest opposite Julianne Moore and Ralph Fiennes in Neil Jordan's acclaimed adaptation of Graham Greene's The End of the Affair, Isaacs played the charismatic honourable priest opposite Kirstie Alley in the miniseries The Last Don, he shone as "memorable" villain, Colonel William Tavington, in Roland Emmerich's American Revolutionary War fictional film epic The Patriot. Starring opposite Mel Gibson as the film's hero, Heath Ledger as Gibson's screen son, Isaacs portrays a sadistic British Army officer who kills Ledger's character, among many other soldiers. Although his work in the film earned him comparisons to Ralph Fiennes' portrayal of Nazi Amon Göth in Schindler's List and mention of a Best Supporting Actor Oscar nomination, reaching beyond being typecast as an historical villain, Isaacs chose to play a drag queen in his next project, Sweet November, a romantic comedy-drama.
Isaacs has appeared in many other f
Bennet Evan Miller is an English comedian and director. He is best known as one half of comedy double act Miller, with Alexander Armstrong. Miller and Armstrong wrote and starred in the Channel 4 sketch show Armstrong and Miller, as well as the BBC sketch show The Armstrong & Miller Show. Miller is known for playing the lead role of DI Richard Poole in the first two series of the BBC Crime Drama Death in Paradise. Miller was born in London and grew up in Nantwich, Cheshire, his paternal grandfather was a Lithuanian Jewish tailor who immigrated to the UK and lived in London's East End. He anglicised the family surname. Ben's father Michael Miller was a lecturer in American Literature at the City of Birmingham Polytechnic, he has two younger sisters and Bronwen. Miller was educated at Malbank School and Sixth Form College, his local comprehensive school in Nantwich, Cheshire, he read Natural Sciences at Cambridge. As an undergraduate, he participated in theatre with Rachel Weisz, dated her, he remained at Cambridge to read for a PhD in solid state physics, with his thesis titled Novel quantum effects in low-temperature quasi-zero-dimensional mesoscopic electron systems.
He abandoned completion of his thesis to pursue a career in comedy. Miller's interest in comedy began when a friend asked him to help ferry around the judges of the National Student Drama Festival, being held that year in Cambridge. Having finished his undergraduate degree, he joined the Footlights in 1989, working with Andy Parsons, David Wolstencroft and Sue Perkins, went on to direct a revue. Miller moved to London to pursue a career in comedy, he was introduced to fellow Cambridge graduate Alexander Armstrong in 1992, at the TBA Sketch Comedy Group, a comedy club which ran at the Gate Theatre Studio, Notting Hill throughout the 1990s. They performed their first full-length show together at the Edinburgh Fringe in 1994 and returned in 1996, when they were nominated for the Perrier Comedy Award, their success resulted in the commission of the television series Armstrong and Miller, which ran for four series from 1997 to 2001 – one on the Paramount Comedy Channel and three on Channel 4. In 1998, the duo had their own radio show with the same name on BBC Radio 4, which featured many of the sketches and characters from their TV series.
After a six-year break, the show was recommissioned for Hat Trick Productions as The Armstrong & Miller Show and three series have been produced. In 2008, they had a second radio show, Children's Hour with Armstrong and Miller. Miller started acting in films, starring in Steve Coogan's first feature film, The Parole Officer. In 2003 he played the role of'Bough', sidekick to Rowan Atkinson's title character, in the film Johnny English. In 2004 he co-starred in The Me. In 2004 and 2005, he starred in two series of the BBC television series The Worst Week of My Life, with Sarah Alexander. In 2006 he took part in The Worst Christmas of My Life, he starred as James Lester in ITV's 2007 sci-fi drama Primeval and as Mr Jonathan in the Australian film Razzle Dazzle: A Journey into Dance. Miller provided the voice for the ITV Digital and now PG Tips Monkey in a popular series of television advertisements featuring Johnny Vegas. In 2008, he appeared as television producer Jonathan Pope in Tony Jordan's series Moving Wallpaper on ITV1 and starred in Thank God You're Here.
In 2010, he made his directorial debut with the film Huge. In January 2011 he presented an episode of the BBC science series Horizon titled "What is One Degree?". In 2011 he reprised his role as James Lester in the TV series Primeval. From November 2011 he played the role of Louis Harvey in The Ladykillers at the Gielgud Theatre. On 23 July 2012, Miller began touring for his book, It's Not Rocket Science, from the Royal Society in London, he appeared at the British Comedy Awards with Armstrong on Channel 4. In 2013, Miller took part in an episode of Room 101 and a Comic Relief special of game show Pointless. On 13 December 2014, he appeared in a Christmas edition of The Celebrity Chase. From 2011 until the series three premiere in 2014, Miller starred in the BBC-French co-produced series Death in Paradise as Detective Inspector Richard Poole. A third series of Death in Paradise was commissioned for early 2014. On 9 April 2013 it was announced that Miller would be departing the series, to be replaced by actor Kris Marshall.
Filming began in March 2013, Miller left in May after completion of the first episode, in which his character was murdered. Miller explained. "It was the job of a lifetime, but logistically I just didn't feel I could continue." He went on to say that "My personal circumstances just made it too complicated, but I will miss it like a lung. I love it here." Miller's wife had discovered. Their time apart caused strains on their relationship, with his sons, he wanted to spend more time with his family. In 2014, Miller appeared in the Incredible Book of Hypnotism, he appeared with Billy Connolly and David Tennant in the film What We Did on Our Holiday. Starring opposite Nancy Carroll and Diana Vickers, Miller played Robert Houston in the play The Duck House by Dan Patterson and Colin Swash; the show is a political satire based on the UK parliamentary expenses scandal. On 6 September 2014, Miller guest starred in Doctor Who as the Sheriff of Nottingham in the third episode: "Robot of Sherwood". In 2015, following the
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not.
An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects. Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation, where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies.
Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Fantasy elements occur throughout the ancient Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh; the ancient Babylonian creation epic, the Enûma Eliš, in which the god Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat, contains the theme of a cosmic battle between good and evil, characteristic of the modern fantasy genre. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu, preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire. Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature.
The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra, for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda, includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir, dwarves, elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us
BBC iPlayer is an internet streaming, catchup and radio service from the BBC. The service is available on a wide range of devices, including mobile phones and tablets, personal computers, smart televisions. IPlayer services delivered to UK based viewers feature no commercial advertising; the terms BBC iPlayer, iPlayer, BBC Media Player refer to various methods for viewing or listening to the same content. Viewing live television broadcasts from any UK broadcaster, or BBC TV catch-up or BBC TV on demand programmes, in the UK without a TV licence is a criminal offence. In 2015, the BBC reported that it was moving towards playing audio and video content via open HTML5 standards in web browsers rather than via Flash or their Media Player mobile app. On 17 October 2018, the BBC ` iPlayer Radio' brand was renamed. BBC Redux was developed as a proof of concept for a cross-platform, Flash Video-based streaming system. BBC iPlayer left beta and went live on 25 December 2007. On 25 June 2008, a new-look iPlayer was launched as a beta-test version alongside the earlier version.
The site tagline was "Catch up on the last 7 days of BBC TV & Radio", reflecting that programmes were unavailable on iPlayer after this time. The BBC state on their website; the marketing slogan was changed to "Making the unmissable, unmissable". In May 2010 the site was updated again, to include a recommendations feature and a "social makeover". In February 2011, the BBC iPlayer was once again modified to include links to programmes from other broadcasters, including ITV, ITV2, ITV3, ITV4, Channel 4, E4, More4, Film4, Channel 5, 5Star, 5USA and S4C; the feature was added to the channels function. When users click on a programme by another broadcaster, they are redirected to the relevant broadcaster's catch up service. In April 2014, BBC iPlayer was once again relaunched with a different user interface. From October 2014, the BBC extended the programme availability for programmes on iPlayer from 7 days to 30 days. However, due to legal reasons, most news bulletins are only available for 24 hours after initial broadcast.
Some archive programming is available for the long term, such as Timewatch. Specific applications for mobile platforms were launched in February 2011; these were for iOS and Android devices, where the launch would have the biggest impact. The original iPlayer service was launched in October 2005, undergoing a five-month trial by five thousand broadband users until 28 February 2006. IPlayer was criticised for delay in its launch and cost to BBC licence-fee payers, because no finished product had been released after four years of development. A new, improved iPlayer service had another limited user trial which began on 15 November 2006. At various times during its development, iPlayer was known as the Integrated Media Player, Interactive Media Player, MyBBCPlayer; the iPlayer received the approval of the BBC Trust on 30 April 2007, an open beta for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 was launched at midnight on 27 July 2007, where it was announced that only a fixed number of people would be able to sign up for the service, with a controlled increase in users over the summer.
The BBC had been criticised for saying that the iPlayer would'launch' on 27 July 2007, when what was on offer was an extension of the beta to an open beta, admitting more users in a controlled manner. This was done to allow British ISPs and the BBC to gauge the effect of the iPlayer traffic on the Internet within the UK; the open beta incorporated a media player, an electronic programme guide and specially designed download client, allowed the download of BBC Television content by computers assigned to a United Kingdom-based IP address, for use up to thirty days after broadcast. However, it was available only to users of Windows XP; this was a controversial decision by the BBC, which led to a petition against the decision being posted on 10 Downing Street's e-petition website. The petition reached 16,082 signatures on 20 August 2007; the response from the Government was:... the Trust noted the strong public demand for the service to be available on a variety of operating systems. The BBC Trust made it a condition of approval for the BBC's on-demand services that the iPlayer is available to users of a range of operating systems, has given a commitment that it will ensure that the BBC meets this demand as soon as possible.
They will publish the findings. On 16 October 2007, the BBC announced a strategic relationship with Adobe, that would bring a limited, streaming-only version of the iPlayer to Mac and Linux users, Windows users who cannot or do not wish to use the iPlayer download service, such as Windows 9x users; the streaming service was launched on 13 December 2007. Most programmes can be viewed for up to seven days after broadcast, unlike the thirty days provided by the download service. Since January 2008, iPlayer has supported Mozilla Firefox under the Microsoft Windows platform for downloading content. Before the iPlayer had launched, it was announced that the BBC, alongside ITV and Channel 4, were intending to launch a new video on demand platform, provisionally named Kangaroo, it was intended that Kangaroo would complement the video on demand services that these channels were offering, including the iPlayer, by making programmes available once their "catch up" period expires. The Kangaroo project was abandoned after being blocked by the Competi
Victor Gollancz Ltd
Victor Gollancz Ltd was a major British book publishing house of the twentieth century. It was founded in 1927 by Victor Gollancz and specialised in the publication of high quality literature and popular fiction, including crime, mystery and science fiction. Upon Gollancz's death in 1967, ownership passed to his daughter, who sold it to Houghton Mifflin in 1989. Three years in October 1992, Houghton Mifflin sold Gollancz to the publishing house Cassell & Co. Cassell and Orion Publishing Group were acquired by Hachette in 1996, in December 1998 the merged Orion/Cassell group turned Gollancz into its science fiction/fantasy imprint. Gollancz was left-inclined in a supporter of socialist movements; this is reflected in some of the books he published. Victor Gollancz commissioned George Orwell to write about the urban working class in the North of England, his break with Orwell came when he declined to publish Orwell's account of the Spanish Civil War, Homage to Catalonia, the pair having drifted apart on political grounds.
He did publish The Red Army Moves by Geoffrey Cox on the Winter War, critical of the Soviet attack on Finland, but foresaw that the Red Army would defeat the Germans. He published works by German exiles, such as Hilde Meisel. Gollancz was the original publisher of a number of authors and their books including: George Orwell with Down and Out in Paris and London in 1933 Alfred Ayer with Language and Logic in 1936 A. J. Cronin with The Citadel in 1937 Daphne du Maurier with Rebecca in 1938 Kingsley Amis with Lucky Jim in 1953 Colin Wilson with The Outsider in 1956 E. P. Thompson with The Making of the English Working Class in 1963 Anthony Price with The Labyrinth Makers in 1971. Many of Gollancz's books were published in one of their familiar house dust jackets, of which the most famous was bright yellow, with the title and author rendered in a vibrant, bold typography. In 1998 Gollancz was developed into a science fiction and fantasy imprint Gollancz Science Fiction after it was acquired by Orion Publishing Group.
Gollancz proceeded to manage the SF Masterworks series overseen by Orion sister-imprint Millennium. Gollancz has published award-winning and award-nominated books by, among others: In 2005 Gollancz set up a manga publishing arm, Gollancz Manga, which published UK editions of various Viz Media properties; as of 2014, Gollancz no longer publish manga and Viz Media have re-released the publisher's series. The following titles have been published: In 2011, Gollancz launched the SF Gateway website, an online library that features out-of-print science fiction books republished as e-books. Gollancz aims to make 5,000 or more books available by 2014 and the website will be integrated with the online Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. In terms of the number of published works that have been nominated for major awards, Gollancz ranks as one of the field's top publishers of science fiction and horror fiction. Left Book Club Common Sense political series Ruth Dudley. Victor Gollancz: A Biography. London: V. Gollancz, 1987.
ISBN 0-575-03175-1. Hodges, Sheila. Gollancz: The Story of a Publishing House, 1928–1978. London: V. Gollancz, 1978. ISBN 0-575-02447-X. Williams and Ralph Spurrier. Gollancz Crime Fiction 1928-1988: A Checklist of the First Editions, with a Guide to their Values. Scunthorpe: Dragonby Press, 1989. ISBN 187112204X. SF Gateway Catalogue of the Victor Gollancz Ltd archives, held at the Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick