City of Brisbane
The City of Brisbane is a local government area that has jurisdiction over the inner portion of the metropolitan area of Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, Australia. Brisbane is located in the county of Stanley and is the largest city followed by Ipswich with bounds in part of the county. Unlike LGAs in the other mainland state capitals, which are responsible only for the central business districts and inner neighbourhoods of those cities, the City of Brisbane administers a significant portion of the Brisbane metropolitan area, serving half of the population of the Brisbane Greater Capital City Statistical Area; as such, it has a larger population than any other local government area in Australia. The City of Brisbane was the first Australian LGA to reach a population of more than one million, its population is equivalent to the populations of Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory combined. In 2016–2017, the council administers a budget of over $3 billion, by far the largest budget of any LGA in Australia.
The City derives from cities and shires that merged in 1925. The main offices and Central Library of the Council are at 266 George Street known as Brisbane Square. Brisbane City Hall houses the Council Chamber, the offices of the Lord Mayor and Deputy Mayor and reception rooms and the Museum of Brisbane; as of the election on 19 March 2016, the twenty-six wards, their councillors and their party affiliations were: The City of Brisbane includes the following settlements: Total: 19 Total: 48 Total: 54 Total: 28 Total: 43 Total: 4 The Government of Queensland created the City of Brisbane with a view to uniting the Brisbane metropolitan area under a single planning and governance structure. The City of Brisbane Act 1924 received assent from the Governor on 30 October 1924. On 1 October 1925, 20 local government areas of various sizes were abolished and merged into the new city, namely: Cities: Brisbane South Brisbane Towns: Hamilton Ithaca Sandgate Toowong Windsor Wynnum Shires: Balmoral Belmont Coorparoo Enoggera Kedron Moggill Sherwood Stephens Taringa Tingalpa Toombul YeerongpillyThe Council assumed responsibility for several quasi-autonomous government authorities, such as the Brisbane Tramways Trust.
The Brisbane City Council maintains the Brisbane Local Heritage Register, a list of nominated sites that satisfy the Council's heritage criteria. The City of Brisbane is governed by the Brisbane City Council, the largest local council in Australia; the Brisbane City Council has its power divided between a Lord Mayor, a parliamentary-style council of twenty-six councillors representing single-member wards of 23,000 voters, a Civic Cabinet comprising the Lord Mayor, the Deputy Mayor and the chairpersons of the seven standing committees drawn from the membership of Council. Due to the City of Brisbane's status as the country's largest LGA, the Lord Mayor is elected by the largest single-member electorate in Australia. Like all mayors in Queensland, he has broad executive power; the seven standing committees of Council are: City Planning Committee Environment and Sustainability Committee Establishment and Coordination Committee Field Services Committee Finance and Economic Development Committee Infrastructure Committee Lifestyle and Community Services Committee Public and Active Transport CommitteeFollowing local government elections on 28 April 2012, the Lord Mayor and 18 councillors are members of the Liberal National Party while 7 are from the Labor Party with 1 independent.
Graham Quirk of the LNP, was elected Lord Mayor in his own right on 28 April 2012 after having been appointed to the Lord Mayoralty in April 2011 when Campbell Newman resigned to make an successful bid to become Premier of Queensland. His Deputy Mayor was Adrian Schrinner of the LNP; the day-to-day management of Council's operations is the responsibility of the chief executive officer, Colin Jensen. Elections are held every four years with ballots for the Lord Mayoralty and the individual councillors being held simultaneously. Voting is compulsory for all eligible electors; the election in March 2004 resulted in the unusual situation of Liberal Lord Mayor Campbell Newman co-existing with a Labor majority on Council and a Labor Deputy Mayor, though this resulted in remarkably few conflicts over civic budgets and Council policy. The LNP gained a 5.5% swing on the councillor votes in the March 2008 election, resulting in the Liberals taking control of the council as well. Graham Quirk won re-election as Lord Mayor in 2012 with 61.94% of the vote and the LNP gained an additional 3 wards.
The last election was held on 19 March 2016. Lord Mayor Graham Quirk defeated Labor's candidate Rod Harding. Following Quirk's resignation in March 2019, Adrian Schrinner was selected as Lord Mayor; the Brisbane City Council is incorporated under the City of Brisbane Act 1924, while other local governments in Queensland are governed by the Local Government Act 1993. Council meetings are held at Level 2, City Hall, 64 Adelaide Street, Brisbane City every Tuesday at 2pm except during recess and holiday periods; this temporary venue is in use due to the restoration work being performed on the traditional venue Brisbane City Hall. Meetings are open to the public. Brisbane City Council aims to be carbon neutral by 2026 via the reduction of emissions and carbon offsetting; the motto of the City of Brisbane is Meliora sequimur, Latin. The
Michael Kirby (judge)
Michael Donald Kirby is an Australian jurist and academic, a former Justice of the High Court of Australia, serving from 1996 to 2009. He has remained active in retirement. Born to Donald Kirby and Jean Langmore Kirby, Michael Donald Kirby was born the first of five children – Michael Donald. Michael Kirby attended state schools, commencing at North Strathfield Public School, followed by Summer Hill Public School for Opportunity Classes, Fort Street High School in Sydney. After graduating from high school, Kirby attended the University of Sydney, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Laws, Bachelor of Economics, Master of Laws. At university, Kirby was elected President of the University of Sydney Students' Representative Council and President of the University of Sydney Union. Kirby commenced his legal career as an articled clerk for Ramon Burke at the small Sydney firm M. A. Simon and Co.. Kirby was admitted to the New South Wales Bar in 1967. Kirby became the youngest man appointed to federal judicial office in 1975, when he was appointed Deputy President of the Australian Conciliation and Arbitration Commission, a tribunal which adjudicated labour disputes.
In 1983, Kirby was appointed a judge in the Federal Court of Australia, before an appointment as President of the New South Wales Court of Appeal, a superior court in that state's legal system, in 1984. During that period, he was the President of the Court of Appeal of Solomon Islands from 1995 to 1996. From 1984 until 1993, Kirby held the position of Chancellor at Macquarie University. In February 1996, Kirby was appointed to the High Court of Australia, he has served on many other boards and committees, notably the Australian Law Reform Commission and the CSIRO. He is Patron of the Friends of many other bodies. Kirby was at odds with his colleagues in the Gleeson High Court, sometimes as the sole dissenter. In 2004, he delivered a dissenting opinion on nearly 40% of the matters in which he participated twice as many as any of his High Court colleagues, his notable dissent rate has earned him the nickname the "Great Dissenter". Future High Court Justices who have been considered in contention for the title include Dyson Heydon and Patrick Keane, though neither have dissent rates as high as Kirby's.
Legal researchers Andrew Lynch and George Williams observed that "even allowing for 2004 as a year in which Kirby had a high level of explicit disagreement with a majority of his colleagues, it is neither premature nor unfair to say that in the frequency of his dissent, his Honour has long since eclipsed any other Justice in the history of the Court... has broken away to claim a position of outsider on the Court which seems unlikely to pass with future years". Kirby has responded, stating that "on their own, statistics tell little". Kirby explains "there have always been divisions, reflecting the different philosophies and perspectives of the office-holders", that throughout the High Court's history, many dissenting opinions have been adopted as good law. Further, Kirby argues that the rate of dissent, if seen within its context, is small. Cases heard before the full bench of the High Court have proceeded through a series of lower courts and special leave hearings, they are thus to test the boundaries of the existing law, raise opposing, though no less valid, views of the law.
Kirby retired from the High Court on 2 February 2009, shortly before reaching the constitutionally mandatory retirement age of 70, was succeeded by Virginia Bell. After his retirement, Kirby was appointed to several honorary academic roles at Australian universities; these included appointments to: the Australian National University in Canberra, as distinguished visiting fellow in February 2009. He has been appointed honorary visiting professor by 12 universities. In November 2003, at the University of Exeter, Kirby delivered the Hamlyn Lectures on the subject of judicial activism. Rejecting the doctrine of strict constructionism, Kirby declared that:Clearly it would be wrong for a judge to set out in pursuit of a personal policy agenda and hang the law, yet it would be wrong, futile, for a judge to pretend that the solutions to all of the complex problems of the law today, unresolved by incontestably clear and applicable texts, can be answered by the application of nothing more than purely verbal reasoning and strict logic to words written by judges in earlier times about the problems they faced... contrary to myth, judges do more than apply law.
They have a role in making it and always have. These lectures sparked a debate in the Australian media, echoing an ongoing debate in the United States, as to whether judges have the right to interpret the law in the light of its intent and considerations of natural law or whether judges should (or
Tweed Heads, New South Wales
Tweed Heads is a town in New South Wales. It is located on the Tweed River in Australia, in Tweed Shire. Tweed Heads is located next to the border with Queensland, adjacent to its "twin town" of Coolangatta, a suburb of the Gold Coast, it is referred to as a town where people can change time zones – celebrate New Year twice within an hour – by crossing the street, due to its proximity to the Queensland border, the fact that New South Wales observes daylight saving whereas Queensland does not. In 1823 John Oxley was the first European to see the Tweed Valley, he wrote of it: "A deep rich valley clothed with magnificent trees, the beautiful uniformity of, only interrupted by the turns and windings of the river, which here and there appeared like small lakes; the background was Mt. Warning; the view was altogether beautiful beyond description. The scenery here exceeded anything I have seen in Australia."Timber cutters moved to the Tweed Valley in 1844. After the timber had been cleared, farmers moved in with bananas and dairy farming dominating the area, while a fishing industry developed.
The first school opened in 1871. Tweed Heads was once connected to the Queensland Railways system, with the South Coast line providing a direct connection to Brisbane; the railway opened on 10 August 1903 It had been hoped that the New South Wales government would extend their railway line from Murwillumbah to Tweed Heads, but this did not occur due to cost of resuming the land and the expenses associated with the tunnel and bridge that would be required. The Tweed Heads railway station was located on the western side of Enid Street between Bay Street and Frances Street; the railway line to Brisbane closed in 1961. The Tweed Heads and Coolangatta Surf Life Saving Club opened on 13 September 1911; the Tweed Shire, inclusive Murwillumbah was declared in 1947. Given its proximity to the Gold Coast, Tweed Heads has a shared economy with Coolangatta based on tourism. Tweed Heads' most popular tourist destinations include Mount Warning, one of the largest shield volcanoes in the Southern Hemisphere, the nearby Nightcap, Border Ranges and Lamington National Parks, which abound with sub-tropical fauna and flora.
Some areas of the Tweed can receive both TV broadcasts from Northern New South Wales. Brisbane stations are Seven Brisbane BTQ, Nine Brisbane QTQ, Ten Brisbane TVQ; the local Northern NSW stations are NBN Television and WIN Television. In the 2016 census, Tweed Heads recorded a population of 8,176 people made up of 52.2 percent female and 47.8 percent male. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 2.4% of the population. The median age of the population was 18 years above the Australian median; this has made the Tweed Heads region a prime location for retirement living, with 14 separate retirement villages. 69.6% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 5.8% and New Zealand 3.6%. 83.8% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 26.3%, Catholic 24.1% and Anglican 20.4%. Composition of the Tweed Heads urban area Population by Statistical Local Area. Composition of the Tweed Heads urban area Population by Statistical Local Area.
Below are a list of retirement villages and retirement living facilities in the Tweed Region: Serene Living Tall Trees Care Communities Banora Point Palm Lake Resort Aveo Banora Point Tweed Broadwater Village Southern Cross Car St Joseph's Villa Fairways Winders Retirement Community St Cuthbert's Retirement Living Complexes Darlington Retirement Community Southern Cross Care St Martha Ocean View Banora Point Bangalor Retreat Gateway Lifestyle Tweed Shores Due to its close proximity, Tweed Heads sports teams compete in Gold Coast/Queensland-based competitions. Tweed Heads was once home to several iterations of professional rugby league clubs in the New South Wales Rugby League competition between 1988-1995; the Gold Coast-Tweed Giants were established in 1988 and based out of the Tweed Heads Seagulls premises in west Tweed Heads. The Seagulls ran a successful social club that turned large profits due to poker machines and by 1990 the club had acquired the Giants' NSWRL licence and rebranded the team to become the Gold Coast Seagulls, despite remaining based in Tweed Heads.
The team pulled off its biggest coup in 1990 when it signed future Rugby League Immortal Wally Lewis. After years of poor on field results and low attendances, the Seagulls sold their NSWRL licence to businessman Jeff Muller who moved the team to Carrara on the Gold Coast; the Seagulls returned to the Group 18 Rugby League competition in 1996 and were granted entry into the Queensland Cup in 2003. Australian rules football was brought to the area in 1962 when the Coolangatta Tweed Heads Australian Football Club, it was intended to represent the twin towns of Coolangatta and Tweed Heads and competed in the Gold Coast Australian Football League competition. In 1984 the Northern Rivers region established the Summerland Australian Football League that included the Tweed Coast Football Club; the league was amalgamated into Queensland Australian Football League as its own division in 2012. Despite not being based inside Queensland, the area acts as a feeder zone for both the Gold Coast Titans in the National Rugby League and the Gold Coast Suns in the Australian Football League.
Tweed United is a soccer Club based in the area that competes in the Football Gold Coast competition plus the Coolangatta Tweed Barbarians who compete in the Gold Coast and District Rugby
Shire of Noosa
The Shire of Noosa is a local government area about 130 kilometres north of Brisbane in the Sunshine Coast district of South East Queensland, Australia. The shire covers an area of 868.7 square kilometres. The shire existed as a local government entity from 1910 until 2008, when it was amalgamated with the Shire of Maroochy and City of Caloundra to form the Sunshine Coast Region, again from 1 January 2014, when it was re-established; the Noosa area was home to several Aboriginal groups. These include the Undumbi tribe to the south, the Dulingbara to the north, the Kabi Kabi to the west. In 2003 the Australian Federal Court determined that the native title holders for the Noosa area are the Kabi Kabi First Nation. Although much of the culture and presence of the traditional owners of the Noosa district has been lost during the short period of white settlement, there still exist many subtle reminders; these include: bora rings, used during rituals. Canoe trees, marks on trees where bark was removed for canoes.
Border/navigation trees, marks on trees tribal borders. Stone carvings burial trees middens, shell mound created by thousands of years of discarded shells. Stone axes spoken legends, many local legends which were traditionally passed through the generations survive today. Place names, many local names are versions of the original Aboriginal names, it is represented that the name Noosa comes from the local Aboriginal word for shadow or shady place. An 1870 map of Noosa shows the Noosa River as Nusa River; the word Nusa is derived from the Indonesian word for island. A Keeping Place of indigenous cultural and sacred objects is maintained at the Noosa Shire Museum, Pomona. Although reports of the area can be traced back to Captain Cook's voyages in May 1770, European settlement in the region did not proceed for a century; this early settlement was driven firstly by timber logging and secondly a gold rush in the Gympie area, north of Noosa. The difficulty of transport in the region, which persisted to the 1920s and beyond, was one major reason for this.
In 1871, the Government laid out a port at Tewantin, duly surveyed and by 1877 contained two hotels, a boarding house, police station and telegraph office. In 1872, the Noosa Heads and coastal region south to Peregian Beach was set aside as an Aboriginal Mission, however this was cancelled in 1878 and land was opened for selection on 15 January 1879. With the advent of the railway, Tewantin declined in importance. Noosa is a region, not a town, it contains beaches and a beach national park, the cleanest river in South-East Queensland and an extensive trail network inland, linking a number of lifestyle villages, including Cooroy and Pomona. In the last 50 years Noosa has been transformed from an isolated fishing village to a tourist destination. Although this has had its costs the shire is known for its greener approach to development. Most development in Noosa has been restrained. Noosa has no high rise buildings, due both to local community pressure and to council planning action, much remaining native forest.
34.8% of the Noosa district consists of National Parks, Conservation Parks, State Forests, other protected land. The popularity of Noosa Heads comes from the fact, it one of Australia's few North facing beaches located on the East Coast, hence Noosa Beach is protected from on-shore wind and storms; the area was incorporated as part of the Widgee Divisional Board on 11 November 1879 under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. Noosa was created as a separate shire under the Local Authorities Act 1902 in 1910, with an initial population of 2,000; the first elections were held on 22 April 1910 and resulted in James Duke becoming the first shire chairman. The original headquarters for the Shire were constructed in Pomona in 1911. On Saturday 8 September 1917, a Honour Roll was unveiled at the Noosa Shire Hall in Pomona, it was to honour and commemorate those from the district who had left Australia to serve in the armed forces during World War I. In the early 1970s, development commenced in the area around Noosa Sound with Queensland Government backing.
In December 1980, the Shire Chambers moved to Tewantin. The former shire hall in Pomona became. Following the election of Noosa's first green mayor, Noel Playford, in 1988, Noosa's first strategic plan was gazetted, in 1990 development was limited to four storeys. In 1993, a major Council and community complex covering 9 hectares opened at Wallace Park, Noosaville. In 1995, the mayor Noel Playford controversially announced a "population cap" of 56,500 people for Noosa Shire; the population cap was the expected population under the planning scheme if all available land was developed in accordance with the planning scheme. Noosa had performed the calculations for all land in the shire and provided the results in the strategic planning documents. Noosa was the first Council in Australia to do so. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the Shire of Noosa merged with the Shire of Maroochy and the City of Caloundra to form the Sunshine Coast Region.
Noosa's mayor, Bob Abbot, won the mayoralty of the new Council over Maroochy's Joe Natoli with 70% of the combined vote. The amalgamation occurred despite the 2007 referendum in Noosa Shire by the Australian Electoral Commission where 95% of voters rejected amalgamation. In 2012, following a change of state government, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Noosa from the Sunshine Coast Region. O
Frank Jeffrey Edson Smart, was an expatriate Australian painter known for his precisionist depictions of urban landscapes that are "full of private jokes and playful allusions". Smart was educated in Adelaide where he worked as an Art teacher. After departing for Europe in 1948 he studied in Paris at La Grande Chaumière, at the Académie Montmartre under Fernand Léger, he returned to Australia 1951, living in Sydney, began exhibiting in 1957. In 1963, he moved to Italy. After a successful exhibition in London, he bought a rural property called "Posticcia Nuova" near Arezzo in Tuscany, he resided there with his partner until his death. His autobiography, Not Quite Straight, was published in 1996. A major retrospective of his works travelled around Australian art galleries 1999–2000. Jeff Smart, as he was known for the first thirty years of his life, was born in Adelaide in 1921, he started drawing at an early age. "My parents would give me large sheets of paper the backs of posters or calendars... anything".
He was educated at Pulteney Grammar School and Unley High School, wanted to become an architect. However, after studying at the Adelaide Teachers College and the South Australian School of Art and Crafts in 1937–1941, he taught art in schools for the South Australian Education Department in 1942–1947. In the early 1940s he accompanied local maritime artist, John Giles, in painting industrial landscapes at Port Adelaide, he joined the Royal South Australian Society of Arts around 1941 and was elected vice-president in 1950. It was during this period. Smart travelled to Europe in 1948, studying in Paris at La Grand Chaumière and the Académie Montmartre under Fernand Léger. "As my technique grew, I found I could paint those things I liked looking at, those slum streets behind the city apartments". In 1950 he lived on the island of Ischia in the bay of Naples, where he painted with Donald Friend, Michael Shannon and Jacqueline Hick. In 1951, he moved to Sydney and spent the next 2 years there as an art critic for the Daily Telegraph, an arts compere called Phidias for the ABC children's radio programme The Argonauts, a drawing teacher at the National Art School.
From 1956 to 1962, he presented on ABC-TV's Children's Hour. Smart was employed by The King's School, Parramatta in 1954–56 as an Art teacher, following Jean Bellette and John Passmore, he exhibited throughout this period at the Macquarie Galleries. Smart departed Australia for London on the Castel Felice out of Sydney just after Christmas 1963, driving to Greece with fellow painter Justin O'Brien. In 1965 he returned to Italy, lived there for the rest of his life, regarding himself as an "Australian living abroad" and carrying an Australian passport, his last work, "Labyrinth", was completed in 2011. Smart died of renal failure in Arezzo on 20 June 2013, aged 91. Smart is one of Australia's best known artists with his iconic and unique imagery influenced by various artists and art forms, his stark portrayals of contemporary life, both realistic and absurd, have been the basis of many artistic discussions. Critics and admirers of Smart's paintings debate his subject matter but in interviews Smart has preferred not to discuss his style.
Smart states that he "paints a picture because he likes the shape", when asked why his skies are always so gloomy and smog-laden or why his faces never wear a smile, he claims "I need a dark sky for the composition, because pale blue at the top of a frame looks nothing... because a smiling face is too hard to paint". Smart's unsentimental paintings encompass lonely urban vistas that seem both disturbing and threatening. Isolated individuals seem lost in industrial wastelands, full of high rise construction, concrete street-scapes and an eerie feeling of harmony and equilibrium – where silence and stillness create a deathly ambience.'The express rape of the landscape' is one title hanging over Smart's paintings, referring to the freeways, street signs, oil drums, containers and concrete dividers that are the ever-present subjects of his work. At the same time his paintings – full of bold colours and perfect symmetry – are beautiful; the repetition of road signs in his works, for example, suggest an inconclusive direction and a world outside the frame is tantalising suggested.
Figures are present in many of Smart's paintings. These are said to be "impassive observers, reconciled to the contemporary state of things, prepared to accommodate themselves to an impersonal environment" or as "statements on the dehumanising conformity of modern architecture and social painting". According to Smart however, "the truth is I put figures in for scale", it is Smart's precise and unequalled attention to clean lines and geometrics that make his eye-catching paintings stand-out "in the story of modern Australian art". "The subject matter is only the hinge. My only concern is putting the right shapes in the right colours in the right places, it is always the geometry". Under the tutorship lessons of modernist artist, Dorrit Black, Smart acquainted himself with the'Golden Mean.' Referred to as'the golden ratio','the divine proportion','the mean of Phidias' and a number of other names, it has been used since ancient Greek times in many works of art and architecture. The golden mean is a geometric proportion, the ratio of, 1:1.618.
This complex network of interlocking rectangles and diagonal lines, is used to calculate the structur
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia–Pacific War, was the theater of World War II, fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, in China; the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British colonies of Malaya and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island and the Philippines; the Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945.
The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. In Allied countries during the war, the "Pacific War" was not distinguished from World War II in general, or was known as the War against Japan. In the United States, the term Pacific Theater was used, although this was a misnomer in relation to the Allied campaign in Burma, the war in China and other activities within the Southeast Asian Theater. However, the US Armed Forces considered the China-Burma-India Theater to be distinct from the Asiatic-Pacific Theater during the conflict. Japan used the name Greater East Asia War, as chosen by a cabinet decision on 10 December 1941, to refer to both the war with the Western Allies and the ongoing war in China.
This name was released to the public on 12 December, with an explanation that it involved Asian nations achieving their independence from the Western powers through armed forces of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Japanese officials integrated what they called the Japan–China Incident into the Greater East Asia War. During the Allied military occupation of Japan, these Japanese terms were prohibited in official documents, although their informal usage continued, the war became known as the Pacific War. In Japan, the Fifteen Years' War is used, referring to the period from the Mukden Incident of 1931 through 1945; the Axis states which assisted Japan included the authoritarian government of Thailand, which formed a cautious alliance with the Japanese in 1941, when Japanese forces issued the government with an ultimatum following the Japanese invasion of Thailand. The leader of Thailand, Plaek Phibunsongkhram, became enthusiastic about the alliance after decisive Japanese victories in the Malayan Campaign and in 1942 sent the Phayap Army to assist the invasion of Burma, were former Thai territory, annexed by Britain were reoccupied.
The allies supported and organized an underground anti-Japanese resistance group, known as the Free Thai Movement, after the Thai ambassador to the United States had refused to hand over the declaration of war. Because of this, after the surrender in 1945, the stance of the United States was that Thailand should be treated as a puppet of Japan and be considered an occupied nation rather than as an ally; this was done in contrast to the British stance towards Thailand, who had faced them in combat as they invaded British territory, the United States had to block British efforts to impose a punitive peace. Involved were members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which included the armies of the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo, the collaborationist Wang Jingwei regime. In the Burma Campaign, other members, such as the anti-Britsh Indian National Army of Free India and Burma National Army of the State of Burma were active and fighting alongside their Japanese allies. Moreover, Japan conscripted many soldiers from its colonies of Taiwan.
Collaborationist security units were formed in Hong Kong, the Philippines, Dutch East Indies, British Malaya, British Borneo, former French Indochina as well as Timorese militia. These units the assisted Japanese war effort in their respective territories. Germany and Italy both had limited involvement in the Pacific War; the German and the Italian navies operated submarines and raiding ships in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The Italians had access to concession territory naval bases in China. After Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declarations of war, both navies had access to Japanese naval facilities; the major Allied participants were the United States and their colonies, the Republic of China, engaged in bloody war against Japan since 1937, the United Kingdom (mos