New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
New York Military Affairs Symposium
The New York Military Affairs Symposium, is an independent, not for profit educational body dedicated to the preservation and furthering of military history in the city of New York. The membership includes scholars and retired military personnel, concerned civilians. NYMAS is devoted to increasing public knowledge and understanding of military history, arms control, international relations, defense policy, civil-military relations, international security, Veterans Affairs and the interrelationship of war and culture through the presentation and dissemination of diverse scholarly viewpoints - with particular reference to the history of warfare involving the United States and of Americans at war. NYMAS has it origins in the late 1970s, when some graduate students in military history from CUNY, members of the Arms Control Workshop at Columbia University, a number of interested laymen began holding periodic informal study groups, at Columbia, the Loeb Student Center at New York University, the former CUNY Graduate Center on 42nd Street, in private homes.
On occasion, members were able to arrange for distinguished historians and other scholars to meet with the group over dinner. In 1982 NYMAS was incorporated as a not-for-profit academic organization under the laws of the State of New York. Since incorporation, NYMAS has hosted more than a thousand guests, including scholars working in many diverse disciplines, as well as journalists, graduate students and former military personnel, museum curators, peace activists, diplomats, political leaders and many more. Many guests have been well-established scholars or specialists in their fields, such as Sir Michael Howard, Gerhard Weinberg, Gary Sick, Geoffrey P. Megargee, Peter Paret, David Glantz, Morris Rossabi, Sir John Keegan, Thomas Fleming, Sir Jeremy Black, Gunther E. Rothenberg Ellen Schrecker, Sir Max Hastings, David Kahn, Susan Shwartz, Kevin Baker, Theodore Cook, Christopher Duffy. Most, have been younger scholars, a number of whom have subsequently attained some measure of fame, such as James S. Corum, Ross Hassig, David Petraeus, Peter Mansoor, Arden Bucholz, to note but a few.
NYMAS presents twenty-three lectures each academic year. These are given by scholars, diplomats and retired military personnel, knowledgeable laymen represent viewpoints all across the political spectrum. In addition, NYMAS holds two day-and-a-half conferences each year, bringing together scholars, veterans and others, to explore a particular topic in some depth, holds special events. A short list of some of the talks given over the years illustrates the breadth of interests and topics covered by NYMAS: “Imperialism and World System Formation: The Case of Teotihuacan” “Strategy and Technology in the American Civil War” “Ancient Greek and Roman Military Leadership” “The French Army and the Dreyfus Affair” “Islamic-Mongol Warfare” “’High Treason’: The Stalinist Purges” “William Donovan and the Ethiopian War” “Amphibious Warfare Doctrine in the Inter-War Years” “Fortification and Authority in Medieval Ireland” “Racism in the Frontier Army” “The Battle of Brooklyn” “Hell Fighters from Harlem” “Horses and the German Army” “The Jewish Contribution in The Civil War” “Winston Churchill and the Dardanelles” “Warfare in Roman Britain” “My Lai and the International Criminal Court,” “Taranto: Europe's Pearl Harbor?”
“Warfare Among the Northwest Coast Indians” “Eighteenth Century British Amphibious Operations in the Caribbean” “Women Writers, National Socialism, World War II” “Airpower in the Spanish Civil War”NYMAS talks are broadcast on CSPAN's American History TV NYMAS conferences have dealt with such topics as "The New Balkan Wars", "1942: Year of Decision", "The Novelist and the Historian", "The Invasion of Japan, 1945", "Military Operations on the Eastern Front, 1944-1945", "Longstreet Reconsidered", which led to the publication of James Longstreet: The Man, the Soldier, the Controversy, “The Makers of Non-Western Strategy." NYMAS co-sponsors events, over the years having partnered with the CUNY Office of Veterans' Affairs, Independent Network News, the School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, Committee for a SANE Nuclear Policy, the New York City CWRT, the New York University East Asian Studies Program, the Western Front Association, Weaponry on WBAI, other groups in arranging lectures or conferences.
In addition to lectures and conferences, NYMAS has sponsored or co-sponsored special events, such as museum tours, film screenings, staff rides, historical re-enactments. NYMAS publishes a quarterly review of recent literature for members, annually presents The Arthur Goodzeit Book Award, for the best new work in military history or a related field, The NYMAS Civil War Award, which can go to a notable new book on the American Civil War or to a distinguished scholar for lifetime achievement; the award includes $1,000 prize money, courtesy of Robert and Martha Rowen. The NYMAS website carries a variety of resources, such as the current lecture schedule, scholarly papers, book extracts, podcasts of recent lectures, other reference materials, including lists of books and scholars who have received the NYMAS awards. NYMAS talks are held on Fridays at 7:00 pm during the academic year at the Soldiers', Sailors', Marines', Coast Guard and Airmen's Club located at 283 Lexington Avenue, corner 37th Street in midtown Manhattan.
NYMAS is a tax exempt membership corporation chartered under the laws of New York State and is associated with the Society for Military History, Region 2. Presidents of NYMAS: Prof. Brian R. Sullivan, Yale
Edgar Allan Poe Cottage
The Edgar Allan Poe Cottage is the former home of American writer Edgar Allan Poe. It is located on Kingsbridge Road and the Grand Concourse in the Fordham neighborhood of the Bronx, New York, a short distance from its original location, is now in the northern part of Poe Park; the cottage is a part of the Historic House Trust, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, has been administered by the Bronx County Historical Society since 1975, is believed to have been built in 1797. The Poe family—which included Edgar, his wife Virginia Clemm, her mother Maria—moved in around May 1846 after living for a short time in Turtle Bay, Manhattan. At the time, Fordham was rural and was only connected to the city by rail; the cottage, on Kingsbridge Road to the east of its intersection with Valentine Avenue, was small and simple: it had on its first floor a sitting room and kitchen and its unheated second floor had a bedroom and Poe's study. On the front porch the family kept caged songbirds; the home sat on 2 acres of land and Poe paid either $5 rent per month or $100 per year.
Its owner, John Valentine, had bought it from a man named Richard Corsa on March 28, 1846, for $1000. The family seemed to enjoy the home, despite minimal furnishings. "The cottage is humble", a visitor said, "you wouldn't have thought decent people could have lived in it. A friend of Poe's years wrote: "The cottage had an air of taste and gentility... So neat, so poor, so unfurnished, yet so charming a dwelling I never saw." In a letter to a friend, Poe himself wrote: "The place is a beautiful one." Maria wrote years later: "It was the sweetest little cottage imaginable. Oh, how supremely happy we were in our dear cottage home!" Poe's final short story, "Landor's Cottage", was inspired by the home. In this home, Poe wrote his poems "Annabel Lee" and "Ulalume" while the family cat sat on his shoulder. During his time here, he published his series on "The Literati of New York City", controversial gossip-like discussions of literary figures and their work, including Nathaniel Parker Willis, Charles Frederick Briggs, Thomas Dunn English, Margaret Fuller, Lewis Gaylord Clark.
As their publisher Louis Antoine Godey announced in his Lady's Book, they would soon "raise some commotion in the literary emporium." The Poe family befriended their neighbors, including the family of John Valentine, Poe served as a sponsor for baptism for one of the local boys, named "Edgar Albert". Poe became friendly with the faculty at what was St. John's College, now Fordham University, he found the faculty to be "highly cultivated gentleman and scholars smoked and played cards like gentleman, never said a word about religion."During the Poe family's time in the cottage, Virginia struggled with tuberculosis. Family friend Mary Gove Nicholls wrote: "One felt that she was a disrobed spirit, when she coughed it was made certain that she was passing away." Virginia died in the cottage's first floor bedroom on January 30, 1847. She was buried in the vault of the Valentine family on February 2. Poe died a couple of years on October 7, 1849, while in Baltimore. At Fordham, Maria did not hear of his death until October 9, after he was buried.
Shortly thereafter, she moved out of the cottage to live with a family in Brooklyn for a time. The cottage's immediate use following the Poe family is uncertain. In 1874, an article by M. J. Lamb published in Appleton's Journal described a pilgrimage to the site and noted the cottage was "dreadfully out of repair"; the cottage was sold at auction in 1889 for $775 to William Fearing Gill in the first step of preservation after the Parks Department found it to be too expensive a proposition with rent four times what Poe paid. Gill would become Poe's first American biographer. In 1895, the New York Shakespeare Society purchased the Cottage for use as a headquarters with the promise that it would be maintained in the condition in which Poe used it. However, concerns about any move of the cottage sprung up immediately. An article titled "Shall We Save the Poe Cottage at Fordham" was published in The Review of Reviews in 1896, urging the New York State Legislature to act on preserving the home with endorsements from Theodore Roosevelt, Hamlin Garland, William Dean Howells, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Henry Cabot Lodge, Horace Scudder and others.
In 1905, it was announced that $100,000 had been authorized by the state legislature for the restoration of the cottage and creation of a park in which to house the cottage after the owners were reported to be denying visitors access to the cottage. The restoration and park creation were not without complaint, many felt the money would be better spent on other ventures and further that the cottage's authenticity would be lost if it were to be moved; the decision to move was made in 1910 and on November 13, 1913, Poe Cottage in Poe Park was dedicated at the corner of Kingsbridge Road and the Grand Concourse. In 1922, further reconstruction was undertaken by the New York Historical Society to restore the cottage to its original condition. In 1962, Poe's Cottage was designated a landmark in The Bronx, in 1966 it was recognized by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission In 1974, vandals struck again, leading to further criticism of the Cottage's management and preservation efforts.
Vandalism continued to occur over the next few years, though it tapered off by the end of the following decade, becoming less of a risk due in part to the increased use of live-in caretakers. In the late 1990s, the cottage was unde
Veteran Corps of Artillery of the State of New York
The Veteran Corps of Artillery of the State of New York is an American historic militia organization founded at the end of the American Revolutionary War for the purpose of preventing another British invasion of New York City. At the time of the American Revolution, the British Colonies in North America did not have a regular standing army. Instead the colonies depended on an independent militia made up of civilian farmers, with few weapons and controlled by the individual colony. While the Continental Congress established a regular army in June 1775, this was more of a formality rather than a reality. In 1776 George Washington wrote "I am wearied to death all day with a variety of perplexing circumstances, disturbed at the conduct of the militia, whose behavior and want of discipline has done great injury to the other troops, who never had officers, except in a few instances, worth the bread they eat" In other words, while the success of the militia itself is debatable, both the regular army and local militia were used to win American Independence.
The official end to the American Revolutionary War did not occur until 1783 when the Treaty of Paris was signed. Until British troops and Tories were present and active in New York City, in fact, Britain would maintain a presence in the United States until 1815 when the War of 1812 ended.... Nationalists, most of them war veterans, worried that the new nation was too fragile to withstand an international war, or internal revolts such as the Shays' Rebellion of 1786 in Massachusetts. Present day United States Code Title 10, Section 311 states that: The militia of the United States consists of all able-bodied males at least 17 years of age and, except as provided in section 313 of title 32, under 45 years of age who are, or who have made a declaration of intention to become, citizens of the United States and of female citizens of the United States who are members of the National Guard; the classes of the militia are - the organized militia, which consists of the National Guard and the Naval Militia.
This definition is derived from the Militia Act of 1903, passed by United States Congress to address the issues of the Militia Act of 1792, as well as the readiness of the existing state militia forces. On the face of it, it appears. Any corps of Artillery, Cavalry, or Infantry existing in any of the States on the passage of the Act of May eighth, seventeen hundred and ninetytwo, which by the laws, customs, or usages of said States has been in continuous existence since the passage of said Act, under its provisions and under the provisions of section two hundred and thirty-two and sections sixteen hundred and twenty-five to sixteen hundred and sixty, both inclusive, of title sixteen of the Revised Statutes of eighteen hundred and seventy-three, the Act of January twenty-first, nineteen hundred and three, relating to the militia, shall be allowed to retain its ancient privileges, subject to all duties required by law Of militia: Provided, That said organizations may be a part of the National Guard and entitled to all the privileges of this Act, shall conform in all respects to the organization and training of the National Guard in time of war: Provided further, That for purposes of training and when on active duty in the service of the United States they may be assigned to higher units, as the President may direct, shall be subject to the orders of officers under whom they shall be serving.
It would appear that this is the federal precedence that makes the VCASNY subject to being part of the National Guard in time of war. 85, 64th Congress as being one of the nine Historic Military Organizations, liable for duty under orders of the President in time of War. The VCASNY is the oldest military organization in New York State, it was formed in Manhattan on Evacuation Day, November 25, 1790, by Veterans of Washington's Continental Army Corps of Artillery. The founders met at the City Arms Tavern located off Broadway near Trinity Church, to establish an independent artillery company of exempts in the event of a return invasion by the British. Exempts were males beyond thereby exempt from regular militia service, they are headquartered at Manhattan's 7th Regiment Armory in the City of New York. Under federal law, they are part of the Organized Militia of the State of New York, under state law it is an Independent Military Organization and an Historic Military Command. Private and State records indicate that there has been, may still be.
A lot of debate on this question since the early days of the VCASNY. Some government authorities, have considered them an Organized Militia, while others still refer to them as an unorganized militia. In either case, it seems that regardless of their legal definition, the VCASNY has enjoyed fruitful relations with the United States Army, the New York Guard, New York Division of Military and Naval Affairs, others; this appears to be true during the timeframe of World War I, when the VCASNY volunteered for several missions, received federal, state backing. In the foreword to The Minute Men of'17, Colonel George W. Burleigh of the NY Guard thanks Major General Leonard Wood United States Army "... for his foresight in giving encouragement and approval to the whole plan. His successo
The East Bronx is that part of the New York City borough of the Bronx which lies east of the Bronx River. Neighborhoods include: Harding Park, Castle Hill, Westchester Square, Edgewater Park, Van Nest, Pelham Parkway, Morris Park, Throggs Neck, Country Club, City Island, Pelham Bay, Eastchester, Edenwald, Co-op City. Much of the East Bronx is farther from Manhattan than its western counterpart, less densely populated. While the West Bronx is older and hilly, the East Bronx looks distinct in that it is not only later-settled but very flat and coastal, much like the nearby borough of Queens; the East Bronx was annexed by the City of New York decades later. Unlike the West Bronx, the East Bronx has numbered streets in only a few neighborhoods; because the Bronx uses the same street numbering system as Manhattan, streets designated as "east" may be located west of the Bronx River. This is because the east-west divider is Fifth Avenue in Manhattan and Jerome Avenue in the Bronx, only a small area of the Bronx west lies of Jerome Avenue.
Thus while all numbered streets in the East Bronx are designated "east", an "east" street designation does not automatically mean that the area in question is part of the East Bronx. The East Bronx has had a large Italian American population, they still make up the biggest group in the neighborhoods of Morris Park, Pelham Bay, Pelham Gardens, Throggs Neck, Country Club, City Island; the Northeast Bronx has a large Afro-Caribbean population, in particular in the neighborhoods of Wakefield and Edenwald. Parkchester is home to a large Asian American population, although the Asian population at 13% is far surpassed by the Hispanic population Puerto Ricans. Throughout the East Bronx, Hispanic Americans—of Puerto Rican and Dominican heritage—can be found and they are majority populations in Soundview, Castle Hill, Westchester Square and Van Nest. Albanians are a presence throughout the East Bronx, in particular in Van Nest, Morris Park and Pelham Parkway; the differences between the East and West Bronx go neglected today.
Prior to the 1970s, New Yorkers saw the Bronx as being split into its eastern and western halves. With the urban decay that hit the southwestern Bronx starting in the 1960s, this traditional division received less attention. People began to see the borough as being fundamentally divided between the southwestern area and everywhere else; this notion became less relevant in the 21st century as crime and urban decay declined from their peaks in the late 1970s. East Bronx History Forum
Historic Districts Council
The Historic Districts Council is a New York City-based 5013 nonprofit organization that serves as the advocate for New York City's historic buildings and public spaces. HDC was founded in 1970 as a committee of the Municipal Art Society consisting of a coalition of community groups from the designated historic districts of New York City—of which there were only 14 at the time— to serve as their representatives and advocate for more support of the newly created Landmarks Preservation Commission. In the late 1970s, its focus shifted to helping advance district designations. HDC is a resident partner of the Neighborhood Preservation Center. HDC's first full-time executive director was hired in 1992, its current executive director is Simeon Bankoff. In New York City, HDC is the only advocate for designated historic districts and for neighborhoods meriting preservation in all five boroughs. HDC organizes neighborhood residents in efforts to gain protection for their communities and assists property owners through the Landmarks Preservation Commission's processes and monitors preserved properties.
HDC helps promote historic districts and holds annual conferences on topics related to preservation. HDC is an independent, private organization, although it works with the city government, other preservation organizations, individual neighborhood groups; as advocate for New York's over 100 designated historic districts, HDC advises community groups about preservation issues and consults with building owners about what Landmarks Preservation Commission regulations mean. So when owners of individual landmarks or buildings in designated districts—the same regulations apply to both categories—want to make changes to their property that affect its external appearance, they must under the law apply to the LPC for approval to make those changes; the applications are approved at staff level. But when the proposals are complicated or do not suggest a clear-cut solution, they go to public review; every month, a committee of HDC examines every proposal scheduled for review—about 400 a year—and drafts testimony, read at the commission's public hearing.
HDC is the only organization in the city. As advocate for neighborhoods not designated but meriting protection, HDC advises community groups that come to us because they are seeking historic designation. An HDC staff member meets with them in their neighborhoods to talk about what designation means and advises them how to proceed, they make concrete suggestions and counsel groups on how to apply for designation, on what kind of research is necessary and how to get it done. HDC always help local groups obtain it. Sometimes HDC initiates the designation process itself in nonresidential areas that do not have local community leaders. In those cases, HDC sponsors the work. HDC sponsors applications to New York State and National Registers of Historic Places. Listing on these Registers helps move the designation process forward at the Landmarks Preservation Commission. To preserve the integrity of the Landmarks Law, HDC monitors behavior of city government and the LPC, taking issue with actions and policies when as they see needed.
HDC testifies before the City Planning Commission, the Art Commission, the Board of Standards and Appeals and the City Council on the effect a proposal would have on historic neighborhoods. Sometimes, the HDC holds public assemblies to gauge the effect of political elections. Since 1990, the Historic Districts Council has bestowed the Landmarks Lion award upon those who have shown unusual devotion and aggressiveness in protecting New York City’s historic buildings and neighborhoods; the Landmarks Lions include: Lisa Ackerman Kent Barwick Beyer Blinder Belle Joan K. Davidson Barbaralee Diamonstein-Spielvogel Andrew Dolkart Kenneth K. Fisher Dr. James Marston Fitch Margot Gayle Christabel Gough Roberta Brandes Gratz Hugh & Tiziana Hardy Kitty Carlisle Hart Edward S. Kirkland Barry Lewis Joyce Matz Walter B. Melvin Dorothy Marie Miner Francis Morrone Nancy Pearsall Otis Pratt Pearsall Rev. Dr. Thomas F. Pike Halina Rosenthal Arlene Simon Robert Silman Robert A. M. Stern Jack Taylor Anthony C. Wood Financing comes from grants by such government entities as the New York State Council on the Arts and the New York City Council as well as from private foundations and corporations.
More than 700 Friends of HDC contribute on a regular basis and participate in public activities