Melvin Jerome Blanc was an American voice actor and radio personality. After beginning his over-60-year career performing in radio, he became known for his work in animation as the voices of Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Tweety Bird, Sylvester the Cat, Yosemite Sam, Foghorn Leghorn, Marvin the Martian, Pepé Le Pew, Speedy Gonzales, Wile E. Coyote, Road Runner, the Tasmanian Devil, many of the other characters from the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies theatrical cartoons during the golden age of American animation, he voiced all of the major male Warner Bros. cartoon characters except for Elmer Fudd, whose voice was provided by fellow radio personality Arthur Q. Bryan, although Blanc voiced Fudd, as well, after Bryan's death, he voiced characters for Hanna-Barbera's television cartoons, including Barney Rubble on The Flintstones and Mr. Spacely on The Jetsons. Blanc was the original voice of Woody Woodpecker for Universal Pictures and provided vocal effects for the Tom and Jerry cartoons directed by Chuck Jones for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, replacing William Hanna.
During the golden age of radio, Blanc frequently performed on the programs of famous comedians from the era, including Jack Benny and Costello, Burns and Allen and Judy Canova. Having earned the nickname The Man of a Thousand Voices, Blanc is regarded as one of the most influential people in the voice acting industry. Blanc was born in San Francisco, California, to Russian-Jewish parents Frederick and Eva Blank, the younger of two children, he grew up in the Western Addition neighborhood in San Francisco, in Portland, where he attended Lincoln High School. Growing up, he had a fondness for voices and dialect, which he began voicing at the age of 10, he claimed that he changed the spelling of his name when he was 16, from "Blank" to "Blanc", because a teacher told him that he would amount to nothing and be like his name, a "blank". Blanc joined the Order of DeMolay as a young man, was inducted into its Hall of Fame. After graduating from high school in 1927, he split his time between leading an orchestra, becoming the youngest conductor in the country at the age of 19, performing shtick in vaudeville shows around Washington and northern California.
Blanc began his radio career at the age of 19 in 1927, when he made his acting debut on the KGW program The Hoot Owls, where his ability to provide voices for multiple characters first attracted attention. He moved to Los Angeles in 1932, where he met Estelle Rosenbaum, whom he married a year before returning to Portland, he moved to KEX in 1933 to produce and co-host his Cobweb and Nuts show with his wife Estelle, which debuted on June 15. The program played Monday through Saturday from 11:00 pm to midnight, by the time the show ended two years it appeared from 10:30 pm to 11:00 pm. With his wife's encouragement, Blanc returned to Los Angeles and joined Warner Bros.–owned KFWB in Hollywood in 1935. He joined The Johnny Murray Show, but the following year switched to CBS Radio and The Joe Penner Show. Blanc was a regular on the NBC Red Network show The Jack Benny Program in various roles, including voicing Benny's Maxwell automobile, violin teacher Professor LeBlanc, Polly the Parrot, Benny's pet polar bear Carmichael, the train announcer.
The first role came from a mishap when the recording of the automobile's sounds failed to play on cue, prompting Blanc to take the microphone and improvise the sounds himself. The audience reacted so positively that Benny decided to dispense with the recording altogether and have Blanc continue in that role. One of Blanc's most memorable characters from Benny's radio programs was "Sy, the Little Mexican", who spoke one word at a time; the famous "Sí... Sy... Sue... sew" routine was so effective that no matter how many times it was performed, the laughter was always there, thanks to the comedic timing of Blanc and Benny. Blanc continued to work with him on radio until the series ended in 1955 and followed the program into television from Benny's 1950 debut episode through guest spots on NBC specials in the 1970s, they last appeared together on a Johnny Carson Tonight Show in January 1974. A few months Blanc spoke of Benny on a Tom Snyder Tomorrow show special aired the night of the comedian's death.
By 1946, Blanc appeared on over 15 radio programs in supporting roles. His success on The Jack Benny Program led to his own radio show on the CBS Radio Network, The Mel Blanc Show, which ran from September 3, 1946, to June 24, 1947. Blanc played himself as the hapless owner of a fix-it shop, as well as his young cousin Zookie. Blanc appeared on such other national radio programs as The Abbott and Costello Show, the Happy Postman on Burns and Allen, as August Moon on Point Sublime. During World War II, he appeared as Private Sad Sack on various radio shows, including G. I. Journal. Blanc recorded a song titled "Big Bear Lake". In December 1936, Mel Blanc joined Leon Schlesinger Productions, producing theatrical cartoon shorts for Warner Bros. After sound man Treg Brown was put in charge of cartoon voices, Carl Stalling became music director, Brown introduced Blanc to animation directors Tex Avery, Bob Clampett, Friz Freleng, Frank Tashlin, who loved his voices; the first cartoon Blanc worked on was Picador Porky as the voice of a drunken bull.
He soon after received his first starring role when he replaced Joe Dougherty as Porky Pig's voice in Porky's Duck Hunt, which marked the debut of Daffy Duck voiced by Blanc. Following this, Blanc became a prominent vocal artist for Warner Bros. voicing a wide variety of the "Looney Tunes" characters. Bugs Bunny, whom Blanc made his debut as in A Wild Hare, was
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices, bodies or inanimate objects to convey artistic expression. It is different from visual arts, when artists use paint, canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects. Performing arts include a range of disciplines. Theatre, music and object manipulation, other kinds of performances are present in all human cultures; the history of music and dance date to pre-historic times whereas circus skills date to at least Ancient Egypt. Many performing arts are performed professionally. Performance can be in purpose built buildings, such as theatres and opera houses, on open air stages at festivals, on stages in tents such as circuses and on the street. Live performances before an audience are a form of entertainment; the development of audio and video recording has allowed for private consumption of the performing arts. The performing arts aim to express one's emotions and feelings. Artists who participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers.
Examples of these include actors, dancers, circus artists and singers. Performing arts are supported by workers in related fields, such as songwriting and stagecraft. A performer who excels in acting and dancing is referred to as a triple threat. Well-known examples of historical triple threat artists include Gene Kelly, Fred Astaire, Judy Garland. Performers adapt their appearance, such as with costumes and stage makeup, stage lighting, sound. Performing arts may include dance, opera and musical theatre, illusion, spoken word, circus arts, performance art. There is a specialized form of fine art, in which the artists perform their work live to an audience; this is called performance art. Most performance art involves some form of plastic art in the creation of props. Dance was referred to as a plastic art during the Modern dance era. Theatre is the branch of performing arts. Any one or more of these elements is performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style of plays. Theater takes such forms as plays, opera, illusion, classical Indian dance, mummers' plays, improvisational theatre, stand-up comedy and non-conventional or contemporary forms like postmodern theatre, postdramatic theatre, or performance art.
In the context of performing arts, dance refers to human movement rhythmic and to music, used as a form of audience entertainment in a performance setting. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. There is one another modern form of dance that emerged in 19th- 20th century with the name of Free-Dance style; this form of dance was structured to create a harmonious personality which included features such as physical and spiritual freedom. Isadora Duncan was the first female dancer who argued about “woman of future” and developed novel vector of choreography using Nietzsche’s idea of “supreme mind in free mind”. Dance is a powerful impulse, but the art of dance is that impulse channeled by skillful performers into something that becomes intensely expressive and that may delight spectators who feel no wish to dance themselves; these two concepts of the art of dance—dance as a powerful impulse and dance as a skillfully choreographed art practiced by a professional few—are the two most important connecting ideas running through any consideration of the subject.
In dance, the connection between the two concepts is stronger than in some other arts, neither can exist without the other. Choreography is the art of making dances, the person who practices this art is called a choreographer. Music is an art form which combines pitch and dynamic in order to create sound, it can be performed using a variety of instruments and styles and is divided into genres such as folk, hip hop and rock, etc. As an art form, music can occur in live or recorded formats, can be planned or improvised; as music is a protean art, it co-ordinates with words for songs as physical movements do in dance. Moreover, it has a capability of shaping human behaviors. Starting in the 6th century BC, the Classical period of performing art began in Greece, ushered in by the tragic poets such as Sophocles; these poets wrote plays. The Hellenistic period began the widespread use of comedy. However, by the 6th century AD, Western performing arts had been ended, as the Dark Ages began. Between the 9th century and 14th century, performing art in the West was limited to religious historical enactments and morality plays, organized by the Church in celebration of holy days and other important events.
In the 15th century performing arts, along with the arts in general, saw a revival as the Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe plays, some of which incorporated dance, which were performed and Domenico da Piacenza credited with the first use of the term ballo instead of danza for his baletti or balli. The term became Ballet; the first Ballet per se is thought to be Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx's Ballet Comique de la Reine. By the mid-16th century Commedia Dell'arte became popular in Europe, introducing the use of improvisation; this period introduced the Elizabethan
Hal Smith (actor)
Harold John Smith was an American actor and voice actor, best known for his role as Otis Campbell, the town drunk on CBS's The Andy Griffith Show. Smith was active in voice-over roles, having played many characters on various animated shorts including Owl in the first four original Winnie the Pooh shorts and The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh, Uncle Tex on The Flintstones, Goliath in Davey and Goliath, Flintheart Glomgold and Gyro Gearloose on DuckTales, as well as multiple other characters in The Huckleberry Hound Show, The Quick Draw McGraw Show, The Gumby Show, The Jetsons, Top Cat, Scooby-Doo, Where Are You!, Clutch Cargo, Hong Kong Phooey, many more. He is known to radio listeners as the original voice of John Avery Whittaker in Adventures in Odyssey. Smith was born in Petoskey, in the northern portion of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, but he spent a significant part of his early years living in Massena, New York, he graduated from the Massena High School in 1936. His mother, Emma P. Smith was a seamstress, his father, Jay D. Smith worked at the local Aluminum Company of America factory.
Smith had two older sisters, Kathleen "Kay" Smith Villiere and Bernadeen S. Smith Damrath. Smith had a younger brother, Glenford C. Smith After graduation, Smith worked from 1936 to 1943 as a disc jockey and voice talent for WIBX Radio in Utica, New York. After serving in the United States Army Special Services during World War II, he traveled to Hollywood and appeared on many television series such as I Married Joan, The People's Choice, The Texan, Rescue 8, Dennis the Menace, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, The Donna Reed Show, National Velvet and The Red Skelton Show. Smith's best-remembered on-screen character was Otis Campbell, the town drunk on The Andy Griffith Show, during most of the series' run from 1960 to 1967; when intoxicated, he would comically let himself into his regular jail cell, using the key, stored within reach of the two comfortable jail rooms, "sleep off" the effects of alcohol. Deputy Barney Fife would become irritated with Otis, attempted to either sober him up or rehabilitate him in several episodes.
Hal Smith was the opposite of his character. According to longtime friends Andy Griffith and Don Knotts, he did not drink in real life; the Otis character stopped appearing in the sitcom towards the end of the series because of concerns by the sponsors of the program in regard to the portrayal of excessive drinking. Smith appeared as Calver Weems in the Don Knotts comedy The Ghost and Mr. Chicken, playing the same town drunk character, Otis. Smith would play Otis one more time in the television movie Return to Mayberry. In the television movie, Otis is the town's ice cream truck driver and is reported to have been "sober for years". Smith used his Otis Campbell character in commercial spots for the Mothers Against Drunk Driving organization and appeared as Otis in Alan Jackson's music video "Don't Rock the Juke Box". In 1957, Smith played Rollin Daggett in the role of a newspaper man in the early days of Mark Twain in the "Fifteen Paces to Fame" episode of Death Valley Days, he made at least one appearance in the TV series Perry Mason, the episode entitled "The Case of the Treacherous Toupee", in 1960.
Smith had a cameo role as the Mayor of Boracho in The Great Race in 1965. He played the industrialist Hans Spear on CBS's sitcom Hogan's Heroes, he portrayed King Theseus of Rhodes in "The Three Stooges Meet Hercules". He played the character John Wilson in the 1967 episode "The Man Who Didn't Want Gold" of the syndicated Western series, Death Valley Days He played Mr Weber in The Lucy Show, Main Street USA 1967. Smith had a cameo role as a drunk driver in Adam-12 season 1 episode 19. In 1969, he appeared on Petticoat Junction in the episode "The Great Race", as Jug Gunderson. In the mid-1960s, Smith had a morning children's show on the Los Angeles television station KHJ called The Pancake Man, sponsored by The International House of Pancakes, he reprised the Pancake Man role as "Kartoon King" in the 1971 episode of The Brady Bunch titled "The Winner". He played Mother Goose in the X-rated animated feature film Once Upon a Girl in 1976. Beginning in the late 1950s with such shows as The Huckleberry Hound Show and Quick Draw McGraw, Smith became one of the most prolific voice actors in Hollywood working with most of the major studios and production companies, such as Hanna-Barbera, Walt Disney, Warner Bros.
The Mirisch Corporation, Sid and Marty Krofft, with voice roles on such series as The Flintstones in which he did the voices of Texas millionaires such as Fred's rich uncle Tex, Pink Panther, The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh, Mickey Mouse, Yogi Bear and Looney Tunes. In 1962, he voiced Taurus, the Scots-accented mechanic of the spaceship Starduster for the series Space Angel. According to the book: Space Patrol, missions of daring in the name of early television, "It's rumored that Gene Roddenberry was a huge fan of the show and patterned Star Trek's engineer, Mr. Scott, after McCloud's Scottish sidekick, Taurus", he did voice
Charles Martin Jones was an American animator, cartoonist, author and screenwriter, best known for his work with Warner Bros. Cartoons on the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts, he wrote, and/or directed many classic animated cartoon shorts starring Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner, Pepé Le Pew, Porky Pig, Michigan J. Frog, the Three Bears, a slew of other Warner characters. After his career at Warner Bros. ended in 1962, Jones started Sib Tower 12 Productions, began producing cartoons for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, including a new series of Tom and Jerry shorts and the television adaptation of Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas!. He started his own studio, Chuck Jones Enterprises, which created several one-shot specials, periodically worked on Looney Tunes related works. Jones was nominated for an Oscar eight times and won three times, receiving awards for the cartoons For Scent-imental Reasons, So Much for So Little, The Dot and the Line, he received an Honorary Academy Award in 1996 for his work in the animation industry.
Film historian Leonard Maltin has praised Jones' work at Warner Bros. MGM and Chuck Jones Enterprises, he said that the "feud" that there may have been between Jones and colleague Bob Clampett was because they were so different from each other. In Jerry Beck's The 50 Greatest Cartoons, ten of the entries were directed by Jones, with four out of the five top cartoons being Jones shorts. Jones was born on September 21, 1912, in Spokane, the son of Mabel McQuiddy and Charles Adams Jones, he moved with his parents and three siblings to the Los Angeles, California area. In his autobiography, Chuck Amuck, Jones credits his artistic bent to circumstances surrounding his father, an unsuccessful businessman in California in the 1920s, his father, Jones recounts, would start every new business venture by purchasing new stationery and new pencils with the company name on them. When the business failed, his father would turn the huge stacks of useless stationery and pencils over to his children, requiring them to use up all the material as fast as possible.
Armed with an endless supply of high-quality paper and pencils, the children drew constantly. In one art school class, the professor gravely informed the students that they each had 100,000 bad drawings in them that they must first get past before they could draw anything worthwhile. Jones recounted years that this pronouncement came as a great relief to him, as he was well past the 200,000 mark, having used up all that stationery. Jones and several of his siblings went on to artistic careers. During his artistic education, he worked part-time as a janitor. After graduating from Chouinard Art Institute, Jones got a phone call from a friend named Fred Kopietz, hired by the Ub Iwerks studio and offered him a job, he worked his way up starting as a cel washer. I went on to take animator's drawings and traced them onto the celluloid. I became what they call an in-betweener, the guy that does the drawing between the drawings the animator makes". While at Iwerks, he met a cel painter named Dorothy Webster, who became his first wife.
Jones joined Leon Schlesinger Productions, the independent studio that produced Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies for Warner Bros. in 1933 as an assistant animator. In 1935, he was promoted to animator, assigned to work with new Schlesinger director Tex Avery. There was no room for the new Avery unit in Schlesinger's small studio, so Avery and fellow animators Bob Clampett, Virgil Ross, Sid Sutherland were moved into a small adjacent building they dubbed "Termite Terrace"; when Clampett was promoted to director in 1937, Jones was assigned to his unit. Jones became a director himself in 1938; the following year Jones created his first major character, Sniffles, a cute Disney-style mouse, who went on to star in twelve Warner Bros. cartoons. He was involved in efforts to unionize the staff of Leon Schlesinger Studios, he was responsible for recruiting animators, layout men, background people. All animators joined, in reaction to salary cuts imposed by Leon Schlesinger; the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio had signed a union contract, encouraging their counterparts under Schlesinger.
In a meeting with his staff, Schlesinger talked for a few minutes turned over the meeting to his attorney. His insulting manner had a unifying effect on the staff. Jones gave a pep talk at the union headquarters; as negotiations broke down, the staff decided to go on strike. Schlesinger locked them out before agreeing to sign the contract. A Labor Management Committee was formed and Jones served as a moderator; because of his role as a supervisor in the studio, he could not himself join the union. Jones created many of his lesser-known characters during this period, including Charlie Dog and Bertie, The Three Bears. During World War II, Jones worked with Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, to create the Private Snafu series of Army educational cartoons. Jones collaborated with Seuss on animated adaptations of Seuss' books, including How the Grinch Stole Christmas! in 1966. Jones directed such shorts as The Weakly Reporter, a 1944 short that related to shortag
A storyboard is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, motion graphic or interactive media sequence. The storyboarding process, in the form it is known today, was developed at Walt Disney Productions during the early 1930s, after several years of similar processes being in use at Walt Disney and other animation studios. Many large budget silent films were storyboarded, but most of this material has been lost during the reduction of the studio archives during the 1970s and 1980s. Special effects pioneer Georges Méliès is known to have been among the first filmmakers to use storyboards and pre-production art to visualize planned effects. However, storyboarding in the form known today was developed at the Walt Disney studio during the early 1930s. In the biography of her father, The Story of Walt Disney, Diane Disney Miller explains that the first complete storyboards were created for the 1933 Disney short Three Little Pigs.
According to John Canemaker, in Paper Dreams: The Art and Artists of Disney Storyboards, the first storyboards at Disney evolved from comic-book like "story sketches" created in the 1920s to illustrate concepts for animated cartoon short subjects such as Plane Crazy and Steamboat Willie, within a few years the idea spread to other studios. According to Christopher Finch in The Art of Walt Disney, Disney credited animator Webb Smith with creating the idea of drawing scenes on separate sheets of paper and pinning them up on a bulletin board to tell a story in sequence, thus creating the first storyboard. Furthermore, it was Disney who first recognized the necessity for studios to maintain a separate "story department" with specialized storyboard artists, as he had realized that audiences would not watch a film unless its story gave them a reason to care about the characters; the second studio to switch from "story sketches" to storyboards was Walter Lantz Productions in early 1935. By 1937 or 1938, all American animation studios were using storyboards.
Gone with the Wind was one of the first live action films to be storyboarded. William Cameron Menzies, the film's production designer, was hired by producer David O. Selznick to design every shot of the film. Storyboarding became popular in live-action film production during the early 1940s and grew into a standard medium for previsualization of films. Pace Gallery curator Annette Micheloson, writing of the exhibition Drawing into Film: Director's Drawings, considered the 1940s to 1990s to be the period in which "production design was characterized by adoption of the storyboard". Storyboards are now an essential part of the creative process. A film storyboard known as a shooting board, is a series of frames, with drawings of the sequence of events in a film, similar to a comic book of the film or some section of the film produced beforehand, it helps film directors and television commercial advertising clients visualize the scenes and find potential problems before they occur. Besides this, storyboards help estimate the cost of the overall production and saves time.
Storyboards include arrows or instructions that indicate movement. For fast-paced action scenes, monochrome line art might suffice. For slower-paced dramatic films with emphasis on lighting, color impressionist style art might be necessary. In creating a motion picture with any degree of fidelity to a script, a storyboard provides a visual layout of events as they are to be seen through the camera lens, and in the case of interactive media, it is the layout and sequence in which the user or viewer sees the content or information. In the storyboarding process, most technical details involved in crafting a film or interactive media project can be efficiently described either in picture or in additional text. A common misconception is. Directors and playwrights use storyboards as special tools to understand the layout of the scene; the great Russian theatre practitioner Stanislavski developed storyboards in his detailed production plans for his Moscow Art Theatre performances. The German director and dramatist Bertolt Brecht developed detailed storyboards as part of his dramaturgical method of "fabels."
In animation and special effects work, the storyboarding stage may be followed by simplified mock-ups called "animatics" to give a better idea of how a scene will look and feel with motion and timing. At its simplest, an animatic is a sequence of still images displayed in sync with rough dialogue and/or rough soundtrack providing a simplified overview of how various visual and auditory elements will work in conjunction to one another; this allows the animators and directors to work out any screenplay, camera positioning, shot list, timing issues that may exist with the current storyboard. The storyboard and soundtrack are amended if necessary, a new animatic may be created and reviewed by the production staff until the storyboard is finalized. Editing at the animatic stage can help a production avoid wasting time and resources on animation of scenes that would otherwise be edited out of the film at a stage. A few minutes of screen time in traditional animation equates to months of work for a team of traditional animators, who must painstakingly draw and paint countless frames, meaning that all that labor will have to be written off if the final scene does not work in the f
Post Consumer Brands
Post Consumer Brands is an American consumer cereal manufacturer that makes Honey Bunches of Oats, Great Grains, Post Shredded Wheat, Post Raisin Bran, Grape-Nuts, Frosted Mini Spooners, Golden Puffs, Oh's, Cinnamon Toasters, Fruity Dyno-Bites, Cocoa Dyno-Bites, Berry Colossal Crunch and Malt-O-Meal hot wheat cereal. Post was founded by C. W. Post in 1895 with the first Postum, a "cereal beverage", developed by Post in Battle Creek, Michigan. Post was a patient at the Battle Creek Sanitarium and was inspired by the diet there to start his food company; the first cereal, Grape-Nuts, was developed in 1897 followed by Elijah's Manna in 1904, renamed Post Toasties in 1908. In 1907 Collier's Weekly published an article questioning the claim made in advertisements for Grape Nuts that it could cure appendicitis. C. W. Post responded with advertisements questioning the mental capacity of the article's author, Collier's Weekly sued for libel; the case was heard in 1910, Post was fined $50,000. The decision was overturned on appeal, but advertisements for Postum products stopped making such claims.
The Postum Cereals company, after acquiring Jell-O gelatin in 1925, Baker's Chocolate in 1927, Maxwell House coffee in 1928, other food brands, changed its name to General Foods Corporation in 1929. By far the most important acquisition of 1929 was of the frozen-food company owned by Clarence Birdseye, called General Foods Company. Chairman E. F. Hutton changed the name to General Foods Corporation after the acquisition of Birdseye and moved the corporate headquarters to Park Avenue in New York City. General Foods was acquired by Philip Morris Companies in 1985. In 1989, Philip Morris merged General Foods with Kraft Foods, which it had acquired in 1987, to form the Kraft General Foods division; the cereal brands of Nabisco were acquired in 1993. In 1995, Kraft General Foods was renamed Kraft Foods. On November 15, 2007, Kraft announced it would spin off Post Cereals and merge that business with Ralcorp Holdings; that merger was completed August 4, 2008. The official name of the company became Post Foods, LLC.
In July 2011, Ralcorp announced plans to spin off Post Foods into a separate company. About a quarter of Ralcorp's sales in 2010 were generated by its Post Foods unit; the spinoff was completed with an IPO for Post Holdings, Inc. on February 7, 2012. In 2015, Post Foods purchased MOM Brands creating the third largest breakfast cereal company in the US; the combined company is now called Post Consumer Brands and is headquartered in Lakeville, Minnesota. Postum advertisements Marjorie Merriweather Post Post, Texas Close City, Texas Post Consumer Brands