Interior Alaska is the central region of Alaska's territory bounded by the Alaska Range to the south and the Brooks Range to the north. It is wilderness. Mountains include Denali in the Alaska Range, the Wrangell Mountains, the Ray Mountains; the native people of the interior are Alaskan Athabaskans. The largest city in the interior is Alaska's second-largest city, in the Tanana Valley. Other towns include North Pole, just southeast of Fairbanks, Tok, Delta Junction, Anderson and Cantwell; the interior region has an estimated population of 113,154. Interior Alaska experiences extreme seasonal temperature variability. Winter temperatures in Fairbanks average −12 °F and summer temperatures average +62 °F. Temperatures there have been recorded as low as −65 °F in mid-winter, as high as +99 °F in summer. Both the highest and lowest temperature records for the state were set in the Interior, with 100 °F in Fort Yukon and −80 °F in Prospect Creek. Temperatures within a given winter are variable as well.
Summers can be dry for extended periods creating ideal fire weather conditions. Weak thunderstorms produce dry lightning, sparking wildfires that are left to burn themselves out as they are far from populated areas; the 2004 season set a new record with over 6,600,000 acres burned. The average annual precipitation in Fairbanks is 11.3 inches. Most of this comes in the form of snow during the winter. Most storms in the interior of Alaska originate in the Gulf of Alaska, south of the state, though these storms have limited precipitation due to a rain shadow effect caused by the Alaska Range. On clear winter nights, the aurora borealis can be seen dancing in the sky. Like all subarctic regions, the months from May to July in the summer have no night, only a twilight during the night hours; the months of November to January have little daylight. Fairbanks receives an average 21 hours of daylight between May 10 and August 2 each summer, an average of less than four hours of daylight between November 18 and January 24 each winter.
The interior of Alaska is underlined by discontinuous permafrost, which grades to continuous permafrost as the Arctic Circle is approached. Summer 2009 Fires While the vast majority of indigenous Native people of Interior Alaska are Athabaskan Indians, large Yup'ik and Iñupiaq populations reside in Fairbanks; the federally recognized tribes of Interior Alaska: Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments: Beaver Village, Birch Creek Tribe, Circle Native Community, Native Village of Fort Yukon, Native Village of Venetie Tribal Government. Tanana Chiefs Conference: Allakaket Village, Alatna Village, Village of Anaktuvuk Pass, Chalkyitsik Village, Village of Dot Lake, Native Village of Eagle, Evansville Village, Galena Village, Healy Lake Village, Hughes Village, Huslia Village, Village of Kaltag, Koyukuk Native Village, Manley Hot Springs Village, Native Village of Minto, Nenana Native Association, Nikolai Village, Northway Village, Nulato Village, Rampart Village, Native Village of Ruby, Native Village of Stevens, Native Village of Tanacross, Telida Village, Native Village of Tetlin.
Tanana Tribal Council: Native Village of Tanana. Other places in the Interior Service Area not Federally Recognized as Tribes: Alcan, Big Delta, Canyon Village, Chatanika, Clear, Delta Junction, Fox, Indian River, Lake Minchumina, North Pole, Tok, Tolovana, Wood River
The Kenai Peninsula is a large peninsula jutting from the coast of Southcentral Alaska. The name Kenai is derived from the word "Kenaitze" or "Kenaitze Indian Tribe", the name of the Native Athabascan Alaskan tribe, the Kahtnuht’ana Dena’ina, that inhabited the area, they called the Kenai Peninsula Yaghanen. The peninsula extends 150 miles southwest from the Chugach Mountains, south of Anchorage, it is separated from the mainland on the west on the east by Prince William Sound. Most of the peninsula is part of the Kenai Peninsula Borough. Gerasim Izmailov was the first European man to explore and map the peninsula in 1789, though Athabaskan and Alutiiq Native groups have lived on the peninsula for thousands of years; the glacier-covered Kenai Mountains, rising 7,000 feet, run along the southeast spine of the peninsula along the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. Much of the range is within Kenai Fjords National Park; the northwest coast along the Cook Inlet is marshy, dotted with numerous small lakes.
Several larger lakes extend through the interior of the peninsula, including Skilak Lake and Tustumena Lake. Rivers include the Kenai River, famous for its salmon population, as well as its tributary, the Russian River, the Kasilof River, the Anchor River. Kachemak Bay, a small inlet off the larger Cook Inlet, extends into the peninsula's southwest end, much of, part of Kachemak Bay State Park; the Kenai Peninsula has many glaciers in southern areas. It is home to both the Sargent Icefield and Harding Icefields and numerous glaciers that spawn off them; the peninsula includes several of the most populous towns in south central Alaska, including Seward on the Gulf of Alaska Coast, Kenai and Cooper Landing along the Cook Inlet and Kenai River, Homer, along Kachemak Bay, along with numerous smaller villages and settlements. Homer famously marks the terminus of the paved highway system of North America and is a popular destination for travelers who have driven to Alaska from the lower 48 states.
Seward is the southern terminus of the Alaska Railroad. There are airports with scheduled flights in Kenai and Homer as well as smaller general aviation airports in Soldotna and Seward; the Seward Highway connects Seward to Anchorage, the Sterling Highway is the backbone of Kenai Peninsula connecting the larger towns to Anchorage. The peninsula has a coastal climate, mild, with abundant rainfall, it is one of the few areas in Alaska that allow for agriculture, with a growing season adequate for producing hay and several other crops. The peninsula has natural gas and coal deposits, as well as abundant commercial and personal-use fisheries. Tourism is guiding services for hunters and fishers; the Kenai Peninsula is known as "Alaska's Playground"
Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of Alaska, United States and include: Iñupiat, Aleut, Tlingit, Tsimshian, a number of Northern Athabaskan cultures. They are defined by their language groups. Many Alaska Natives are enrolled in federally recognized Alaska Native tribal entities, who in turn belong to 13 Alaska Native Regional Corporations, who administer land and financial claims. Ancestors of Alaska Natives migrated into the area thousands of years ago, in at least two different waves; some are descendants of a third wave of migration in which people settled across the northern part of North America. They never migrated to southern areas. For this reason, genetic studies show they are not related to Native Americans in South America. Throughout the Arctic and the circumpolar north, the ancestors of Alaska Natives established varying indigenous, complex cultures that have succeeded each other over time, they developed sophisticated ways to deal with the challenging climate and environment, cultures rooted in the place.
Historic groups have been defined by their languages, which belong to several major language families. Today, Alaska Natives comprise over 15% of the population of Alaska. Below is a full list of the different Alaska Native peoples, which are defined by their historic languages. Within each culture are many different tribes. Ancient Beringian Alaskan Athabaskans Ahtna Deg Hit'an Dena'ina Gwich'in Hän Holikachuk Koyukon Lower Tanana Tanacross Upper Tanana Upper Kuskokwim Eyak Tlingit Haida Tsimshian Eskimo Iñupiat, an Inuit group Yupik Siberian Yupik Yup'ik Cup'ik Nunivak Cup'ig Sugpiaq ~ Alutiiq Chugach Sugpiaq Koniag Alutiiq Aleut The Alaska Natives Commission estimated that there were about 86,000 Alaska Natives living in Alaska in 1990, with another 17,000 who lived outside Alaska. A 2013 study by the Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development documented over 120,000 Alaska Native people in Alaska. While the majority of Alaska Natives live in small villages or remote regional hubs such as Nome and Bethel, the percentage who live in urban areas has been increasing.
In 2010, 44 % lived compared to 38 % in the 2000 census. The modern history of Alaskan natives begins with the arrival of Europeans. Unusually for North America it was the Russians, coming from Siberia in the eighteenth century, who were the first to make contact. British and American traders did not reach the area until the nineteenth century, in some cases missionaries were not active until the twentieth century. Arriving from Siberia by ship in the mid-eighteenth century, Russians began to trade with Alaska Natives. New settlements around trading posts were started by Russians, including Russian Orthodox missionaries; these were the first to translate Christian scripture into Native languages. In the 21st century, the numerous congregations of Russian Orthodox Christians in Alaska are composed of Alaska Natives. Rather than hunting the marine life, the Russians forced the Aleuts to do the work for them; as word spread of the riches in furs to be had, competition among Russian companies increased and they forced the Aleuts into slavery.
Catherine the Great, who became Empress in 1763, proclaimed good will toward the Aleut and urged her subjects to treat them fairly. The growing competition between the trading companies, merging into fewer and more powerful corporations, created conflicts that aggravated the relations with the indigenous populations. Over the years, the situation became catastrophic for the natives; as the animal populations declined, the Aleuts too dependent on the new barter economy created by the Russian fur trade, were coerced into taking greater risks in the dangerous waters of the North Pacific to hunt for more otter. As the Shelikhov-Golikov Company and Russian-American Company developed as a monopoly, it used skirmishes and systematic violence as a tool of colonial exploitation of the indigenous people; when the Aleut revolted and won some victories, the Russians retaliated, killing many and destroying their boats and hunting gear, leaving them no means of survival. The most devastating effects were from disease: during the first two generations of Russian contact, 80 percent of the Aleut population died from Eurasian infectious diseases.
These were endemic among the Europeans, but the Aleut had no immunity against the new diseases. Geopolitical reasons drove the Tsarist government to expand into Indigenous territory in present day Alaska, spreading Russian Orthodoxy and consuming the natural resources of the territory along their way, their movement into these populated areas of Indigenous communities altered the demographic and natural landscape. Historians have suggested that the Russian-American Company exploited Indigenous peoples as a source of inexpensive labour; the fur trade led the Russian American Company to not only use Indigenous populations for labour, but to use them as hostages to acquire iasak. Iasak, a form of taxation used by the Russians, was a tribute in the form of otter pelts, it was a taxation method the Russians had found useful in their early encounter with Indigenous communities of Siberia during the Siberian fur trade. Beaver pelts were customary to be given to fur traders upon first contact with various communities.
The Russian American Company used military force on Indigenous families as they were taken hostage and held until the male community members brought forth furs. Otter furs on Kodiak Island and Aleutian Islands enticed the Russians to start these taxations. Robbery and maltreatment in the form of corporal punishment and the withholding of food was present upon the arrival of fur traders. Catherine the Great dissolv
A bush airplane is a general aviation aircraft used to provide both scheduled and unscheduled passenger and flight services to remote, undeveloped areas, such as the Canadian north or bush, Alaskan tundra, the African bush, Amazon rainforest or the Australian Outback. They does not exist. Since a bush plane is defined by how it is used, a wide variety of different aircraft with different configurations have been used over the years as such. Experience has, shown certain traits to be desirable, so they appear especially on aircraft designed as bush planes. None of these traits are mandatory - that they are seen features of bush planes; the undercarriage is designed to be fitted with floats, skis or wheel/skis to permit operation from water or snow which are for Canadian and Russian use. High wings ease loading and unloading from docks, as well as improve downward visibility during flight and increase clearance to reduce the potential for damage during landing or take-off. A high wing is less to be damaged during loading or unloading than a low wing.
Conventional or "tail dragger" landing gear—two large main wheels and a small rear wheel reduce both weight and drag, increasing the load the aircraft can carry and its speed and it reduces excessive stresses on the airframe compared to a nosewheel. A failure is less critical as a broken tailwheel is repaired and won't prevent the aircraft from flying, unlike a broken nose wheel. Short runway requirements gained through high aspect ratio wings and high-lift devices such as flaps and slats to improve low speed flight characteristics, allowing shorter ground rolls on landing or takeoff. Large, low-pressure tundra tires may be fitted to enable the pilot to operate from broken ground, it is not uncommon for a bush pilot to take off from unprepared surfaces. Years in brackets are of first flight. Aviation museums with large collections of bush planes Alberta Aviation Museum Alaska Aviation Heritage Museum Canada Aviation and Space Museum Canadian Bushplane Heritage Centre Western Canada Aviation Museum Ice Pilots NWT Flying Wild Alaska Alaska Wing Men Captains of the Clouds List of STOL aircraft Floatplane Ontario Provincial Air Service - played major role in the development of bush flying and bushplanes.
Bush flying Anderson, Frank W.. The Death of Albert Johnson - Mad Trapper of Rat River. Surrey, BC: Heritage House Publishing Co. ISBN 1-894384-03-2. Boer, Peter. Bush Pilots - Canada's Wilderness Daredevils. Canada: Folklore Publishing. ISBN 1-894864-12-3. Cole, Dermot. Frank Barr - Bush pilot in Alaska and the Yukon. Edmonds, WA: Alaska Northwest Publishing Co. ISBN 0-88240-314-1. Foster, J. A.. The Bush Pilots - A pictoral history of a Canadian phenomenon. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart Inc. ISBN 0-7710-3245-5. Keith, Ronald A.. Bush Pilot with a briefcase. Toronto, ON: Doubleday Canada. ISBN 0-385-07049-7. Matheson, Shirlee Smith. Flying the Frontiers. Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House. ISBN 978-1895618518. Terpening, Rex. Bent Props and Blow Pots - A Pioneer Remembers Northern Bush Flying. Madeira Park, BC: Harour Publishing. ISBN 1-55017-381-2. West, Bruce; the Firebirds - How bush flying earned its wings. Ministry of Natural Resources. ASIN B0089GQ3EE. Milberry, Larry. Austin Airways - Canada's Oldest Airline. Toronto, ON: CANAV Books.
ISBN 978-0969070337. Bush-planes.com
Unalaska is the chief center of population in the Aleutian Islands. The city is in the Aleutians West Census Area, a regional component of the Unorganized Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. Unalaska is located on Unalaska Island and neighboring Amaknak Island in the Aleutian Islands off mainland Alaska; the population was 4,376 at the 2010 census, 79% of the entire Aleutians West Census Area. Unalaska is the second largest city behind Bethel; the Aleut or Unangan people have lived on Unalaska Island for thousands of years. The Unangan, who were the first to inhabit the island of Unalaska, named it "Ounalashka", meaning "near the peninsula"; the regional native corporation has adopted this moniker, is known as the Ounalashka Corporation. The Russian fur trade reached Unalaska when Stepan Glotov and his crew arrived on August 1, 1759. Natives and their descendants comprised most of the community's population until the mid-20th century, when the involvement of the United States in World War II led to a large-scale influx of people and construction of buildings all along the strategically located Aleutians.
All of the community's port facilities are on Amaknak Island, better known as Dutch Harbor or just "Dutch". It is the largest fisheries port in the U. S. by volume caught. It includes Dutch Harbor Naval Operating Base and Fort Mears, U. S. Army, a U. S. National Historic Landmark. Dutch Harbor is connected to Unalaska by a bridge. Amaknak Island is home to 59 percent of the city's population, although it has less than 3 percent of its land area; the island of Unalaska was first inhabited by the Aleut people, who named it "Ounalashka", meaning: "Near the Peninsula". They developed an intricate and complex society long before their first contact with the Russian fur traders who would document their existence. Unalaska and Amaknak Islands contained 24 settlements with more than 1,000 Aleut inhabitants in 1759, when the first Russian group under Stepan Glotov came and started trading for three years on Umnak and Unalaska. Between 1763 and 1766, a conflict between the Russian fur traders and the Unalaska Natives occurred.
Solov'ev returned to Unalaska and directed the massacre of many Natives. In the 1760s, Unalaska was temporarily used as a Russian fur trading post; the post was permanently established in 1774, was incorporated into the Russian-American Company. It was there that Captain James Cook encountered the navigator Gerasim Izmailov in 1778. In 1788 the Spanish made contact with the Russians in Alaska for the first time. An expedition by Esteban José Martínez and Gonzalo López de Haro visited several Russian settlements, their westernmost visit was to Unalaska. On August 5, 1788, they claimed Unalaska for Spain. Alexander Andreyevich Baranov was shipwrecked here in 1790. In 1825, the Russian Orthodox Church of the Holy Ascension was built in Unalaska; the founding priest, Ivan Veniaminov canonized as Saint Innocent of Alaska, composed the first Aleut writing system with local assistance, translated scripture into Aleut. Between 1836 and 1840, chicken-pox and whooping-cough epidemics drastically reduced the population.
On October 18, 1867, the United States purchased Alaska, making Unalaska part of the U. S. territory. In 1880, the Methodist Church opened a clinic for orphans in Unalaska. Between 1899 and 1905, the Gold Rush brought many ships through Dutch Harbor where the North American Commercial Company had a coaling station. During the first half of the century, the island was touched by numerous epidemics, first in 1900, in 1919 the Spanish flu touched the island: these contributed to a dramatic decrease of the population in Unalaska; the United States started fortifying Dutch Harbor in 1940, resulting in the construction of the Dutch Harbor Naval Operating Base and Fort Mears. On June 3, 1942, the town was attacked by Japanese forces in the Battle of Dutch Harbor, part of the Aleutian Islands campaign. After the attack and the Japanese occupation of Attu all of the native residents of the island were arrested. Many were held, in camps in Southeast Alaska for the duration of the war. Beginning in the 1950s, Unalaska became a center of the Alaskan king crab fishing industry.
A 1982 crash in king crab harvests decimated the industry, the mid-1980s saw a transition to bottom fishing. The city has struggled with problems like alcoholism and unemployment in the past and still does, although the situation has improved in recent years. One example is the Elbow Room, a bar which locally, abroad, became infamous for its raucousness, it was closed in 2005. Since 2005, the Discovery Channel's documentary show Deadliest Catch has focused on fishermen who are based in Dutch Harbor. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 212.3 square miles, of which 111.0 square miles is land and 101.3 square miles of it is water. Makushin Volcano is located on the island. By climbing one of the smaller hills in the area, such as Pyramid Peak or Mount Newhall, it is possible to get a good look at the snow-covered cone. A major find was announced in 2015 after scientists examined a group of giant, quadruped, marine mammal fossils; the speci
United States congressional delegations from Alaska
These are tables of congressional delegations from Alaska to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. Ernest Gruening was elected to the Senate on October 6, 1955 for the 84th Congress but did not take the oath of office and was not accorded senatorial privileges, Alaska not yet being admitted as a state. From May 17, 1884 to August 24, 1912, Alaska was designated as the District of Alaska. From to January 3, 1959, it was the Alaska Territory; as of May 2015, there are no former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Alaska's at-large congressional district who are living at this time; the most recent representative to die was Howard Wallace Pollock on January 9, 2011. As of April 2015, there are three former U. S. Senators from the U. S. State of Alaska who are living at this time, one from Class 2 and two in Class 3
Alaska North Slope
The Alaska North Slope is the region of the U. S. state of Alaska located on the northern slope of the Brooks Range along the coast of two marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean, the Chukchi Sea being on the western side of Point Barrow, the Beaufort Sea on the eastern. Washington Post The Alaska North Slope region includes the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, with the bulk of Alaska's known petroleum until the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field was discovered in 1968, followed by the Kuparuk River oil field in 1969; the region includes the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, which itself has been the subject of controversy surrounding the possibility of petroleum drilling within its boundaries. The petroleum extracted from the region is transferred south by means of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System to Valdez on the Pacific Ocean. Under the North Slope is an ancient seabed – the source of the oil. Within the North Slope, there is a geological feature called the Barrow Arch – a belt of the kind of rock known to be able to serve as a trap for oil.
It runs from the city of Barrow to a point just west of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province, encompassing all the lands and adjacent Continental Shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald arch were estimated by the USGS in 2005 to hold more than 50 billion bbl of oil and natural-gas liquids and 227 trillion cubic feet of gas; the source rock for the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field and neighboring reserves is a potential source for tight oil and shale gas – containing "up to 2 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and up to 80 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, according to a 2012 U. S. Geological Survey report."Ira Harkey quotes Noel Wien as stating that in the 1920s, "To keep warm and to cook with, the Eskimo was burning hunks of dark stuff he just picked up on the ground all around his tent. This was oil from seepage under the tundra; the Eskimos had always known about the oil, long before there was any drilling for it." Alaska North Slope is a more expensive waterborne crude.
Since 1987, Alaska North Slope crude production has been in decline. Within the North Slope, only a surface "active layer" of the tundra thaws each season. On top of this permafrost, water flows to sea via shallow, braided streams or settles into pools and ponds. Along the bottom of the Landsat 7 image on the right, the rugged terrain of the Brooks Range mountains is snow-covered in places and exposed in others. Much of the region is located in North Slope Borough. On August 12, 2018, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake hit the region, the most powerful recorded for the Alaskan North Slope. North Slope Borough BP#1993–1995: Hazardous substance dumping Arctic coastal tundra Arctic foothills tundra Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Site DOE report on North Slope Oil and Gas Media related to Alaska North Slope at Wikimedia Commons northslope.org, North Slope Science Initiative official website"North Slope of Alaska". NASA Earth Observatory newsroom. 2006-02-19. Archived from the original on 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2009-12-22