The Kenai Peninsula is a large peninsula jutting from the coast of Southcentral Alaska. The name Kenai is derived from the word "Kenaitze" or "Kenaitze Indian Tribe", the name of the Native Athabascan Alaskan tribe, the Kahtnuht’ana Dena’ina, that inhabited the area, they called the Kenai Peninsula Yaghanen. The peninsula extends 150 miles southwest from the Chugach Mountains, south of Anchorage, it is separated from the mainland on the west on the east by Prince William Sound. Most of the peninsula is part of the Kenai Peninsula Borough. Gerasim Izmailov was the first European man to explore and map the peninsula in 1789, though Athabaskan and Alutiiq Native groups have lived on the peninsula for thousands of years; the glacier-covered Kenai Mountains, rising 7,000 feet, run along the southeast spine of the peninsula along the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. Much of the range is within Kenai Fjords National Park; the northwest coast along the Cook Inlet is marshy, dotted with numerous small lakes.
Several larger lakes extend through the interior of the peninsula, including Skilak Lake and Tustumena Lake. Rivers include the Kenai River, famous for its salmon population, as well as its tributary, the Russian River, the Kasilof River, the Anchor River. Kachemak Bay, a small inlet off the larger Cook Inlet, extends into the peninsula's southwest end, much of, part of Kachemak Bay State Park; the Kenai Peninsula has many glaciers in southern areas. It is home to both the Sargent Icefield and Harding Icefields and numerous glaciers that spawn off them; the peninsula includes several of the most populous towns in south central Alaska, including Seward on the Gulf of Alaska Coast, Kenai and Cooper Landing along the Cook Inlet and Kenai River, Homer, along Kachemak Bay, along with numerous smaller villages and settlements. Homer famously marks the terminus of the paved highway system of North America and is a popular destination for travelers who have driven to Alaska from the lower 48 states.
Seward is the southern terminus of the Alaska Railroad. There are airports with scheduled flights in Kenai and Homer as well as smaller general aviation airports in Soldotna and Seward; the Seward Highway connects Seward to Anchorage, the Sterling Highway is the backbone of Kenai Peninsula connecting the larger towns to Anchorage. The peninsula has a coastal climate, mild, with abundant rainfall, it is one of the few areas in Alaska that allow for agriculture, with a growing season adequate for producing hay and several other crops. The peninsula has natural gas and coal deposits, as well as abundant commercial and personal-use fisheries. Tourism is guiding services for hunters and fishers; the Kenai Peninsula is known as "Alaska's Playground"
Bristol Bay is the eastern-most arm of the Bering Sea, at 57° to 59° North 157° to 162° West in Southwest Alaska. Bristol Bay is 400 km long and 290 km, wide at its mouth. A number of rivers flow into the bay, including the Cinder, Igushik, Meshik, Naknek and Ugashik. Upper reaches of Bristol Bay experience some of the highest tides in the world. One such reach, the Nushagak Bay near Dillingham and another near Naknek in Kvichak Bay have tidal extremes in excess of 10 m, ranking them — and the area — as eighth highest in the world. Coupled with the extreme number of shoals and shallows, makes navigation troublesome during the area's strong winds; as the shallowest part of the Bering Sea, Bristol Bay is one of the most dangerous regions for large vessels. In ancient times, much of Bristol Bay was dry and arable, along with much of the Bering Sea Land Bridge. More its proximity to mineral and seafood riches provided an incentive for human habitation along its shoreline. Early Russian and English exploration provided most of the non-native influences of the area.
During his voyage through the area in 1778, the famed British navigator and explorer, Captain James Cook named the area "in honor of the Admiral Earl of Bristol" in England. After establishing some temporary settlements in the late 1790s, The Russian American Company sent exploratory parties to document the coast and nearby inland areas of Bristol Bay. One of these charted the area between the Nushagak Rivers; the original Eskimo village at Naknek went through various names as recorded by the Russians after they arrived in the area in 1819. In 1819, an Aleut by the name of Andrei Ustiugov drew the first intensive charts of Bristol Bay. Additionally, ships of the Russian Navy conducted extensive surveys of the Bering Sea coastline into the mid-19th century, naming many of the geographical features used today: Capes Constantine, Chichagof and Greig, Mounts Veniaminof and Pavlof, Becharof Lake, etc. In 1883 the first salmon cannery was open in Bristol Bay” (Source information from the cannery article to give context on the expansion of the salmon industry in Alaska and the history of growth.
The influence of the Katmai Volcano Explosion in 1912 and the influenza epidemic in 1919 nearly decimated the Naknek people and area. According to oral history, there were only about three original families left at that time. On July 7, Alaskans witnessed conflict as Japanese fishing vessels entered the waters of Bristol Bay. Bristol Bay faced an international fishery crisis where Japanese fishermen entered Alaskan waters with 10,000-ton fishing trawlers to harvest salmon. At that time, the Fisheries Bureau prohibited the use of motorized vessels, fish traps, purse seines in Alaska; this was to ensure a 50% escapement of the spawning salmon to guarantee the sustainability of the resource. The Japanese fleet was composed of diesel-powered steel Japanese vessels; the Japanese had a technological advantage over the American fisherman and proved to dominate the bay that summer. In 1938, the United States agreed with Japan that the Japanese would refrain from fishing in Alaskan waters; this agreement, honored until Japan, the United States entered WWII following the incident at Pearl Harbor.
In the 1950s, Japan was strengthening its fishing presence in the Pacific to the US, Japan passed the North Pacific Fisheries Treaty. This treaty managed the resources of the region jointly to preserve the future generations of fish; this agreement is the model for international fisheries regulations today. Bristol Bay is home to the world's most abundant sockeye salmon fishery as well as strong runs of chum salmon, silver salmon, king salmon, each occurring seasonally. Kings are the first to run up the river followed by reds and chums. Silvers and Pinks are the last to run up the river. On an international scale, sockeye salmon are a rare creature. Like other wild salmon species, sockeye harvests fluctuate but comprise 4 to 7 percent of global salmon production and 13 to 20 percent of native salmon harvests. Between 2011 and 2014, sockeye accounted for 5 percent of the world’s salmon harvest by volume and 15 percent of the world’s wild salmon harvest. Bristol Bay is home to the world's largest salmon run.
All five Eastern Pacific species spawn in the bay's freshwater tributaries. Commercial fisheries include the world's largest sockeye salmon fishery; the Kvijack drains from Lake Iliamna, downstream of the deposit. Along with herring and other fisheries, salmon account for nearly 75% of local jobs. During the first 50 years of commercial salmon fishing in Bristol Bay, the fishing boats were restricted to sail power; when this restriction lifted in 1951, it took only seven short years to outfit all the boats with diesel or gas engines. In the late 1920s another law was passed restricting the length of the boats to 32 feet; this law holds true today. Bristol Bay is a remote part of Alaska; the canneries preserve the freshness of the salmon which are gutted and processed on site. These companies have established a presence in Bristol Bay. Canneries include North Pacific Seafoods,Togiak Seafoods, Bristol Bay Setnet, Friedman Family Fisheries, Peter Pan Seafoods, Ekuk Fisheries, Big Creek Shore plant, Coffee Point Seafood, Icicle Seafoods, Wild Premium Salmon, Seafood Enterprises of Alaska, Alaska General Seafoods, Alaska Salmon Wild, Da Kine Enterprise, Extreme Salmon, Great Ruby Fish, My Girl, Naknek Family Fisheries, North Pacific Seafoods, Ocean Beauty, Si
Utqiagvik the City of Utqiaġvik, Barrow is the largest city and the borough seat of the North Slope Borough in the U. S. is located north of the Arctic Circle. It is one of the northernmost public communities in the world and is the northernmost city in the United States. Nearby Point Barrow is the country's northernmost point. Utqiagvik's population was 4,212 at the 2010 census; the location has been home to the Iñupiat, an indigenous Inuit ethnic group, for more than 1,500 years. The city's native name, Utqiaġvik, refers to a place for gathering wild roots, it is derived from the Iñupiat word utqiq used for "potato". The name was first recorded in 1853 as "Ot-ki-a-wing" by Royal Navy. John Simpson's native map dated 1855, records the name "Otkiawik,", misprinted on the subsequent British Admiralty Chart as "Otkiovik."The name Barrow was derived from Point Barrow, was a general designation, because non-native Alaskan residents found it easier to pronounce than the Inupiat name. A post office established in 1901 helped the name "Barrow" to become dominant.
Point Barrow was named after Sir John Barrow of the British Admiralty by explorer Frederick William Beechey in 1825. In an October 2016 referendum, city voters narrowly approved to change its name from Barrow to its traditional Iñupiaq name, Utqiaġvik; the governor had 45 days to rule on the name change and it was adopted on December 1, 2016. City Council member Qaiyaan Harcharek described the name change as supporting use of the Iñupiaq language and being part of a process of "decolonization". Another recorded Iñupiaq name is Ukpiaġvik, which comes from ukpik "snowy owl" and translates to "the place where snowy owls are hunted". A spelling variant of this name was adopted by the Ukpeaġvik Iñupiat Corporation when it was established in 1973. Archaeological sites in the area indicate the Iñupiat lived around Utqiagvik as far back as AD 500. Remains of 16 sod dwelling mounds, from the Birnirk culture of about AD 800, can be seen on the shore of the Arctic Ocean. Located on a slight rise above the high-water mark, they are at risk of being lost to erosion.
Dr. Bill Streever, who chairs the North Slope Science Initiative's Science Technical Advisory Panel, wrote in his 2009 book Cold: Adventures in the World’s Frozen Places: Barrow, like most communities in Alaska, looks temporary, like a pioneer settlement, it is not. Barrow is among the oldest permanent settlements in the United States. Hundreds of years before the European Arctic explorers showed up... Barrow was more or less where it is now, a natural hunting place at the base of a peninsula that pokes out into the Beaufort Sea.... Yankee whalers sailed here, learning about the bowhead whale from Iñupiat hunters... The military came, setting up a radar station, in 1947 a science center was founded at Barrow. British Royal Navy officers came to the area to explore and map the Arctic coastline of North America; the US acquired Alaska in 1867. The United States Army established a meteorological and magnetic research station at Utqiagvik in 1881. In 1888, a Presbyterian church was built by United States missionaries at Utqiagvik.
The church is still used today. In 1889 a whaling supply and rescue station was built, it is the oldest wood-frame building in Utqiagvik and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The rescue station was converted for use in 1896 as the retail Cape Smythe Whaling and Trading Station. In the late 20th century, the building was used as Brower's Cafe. In 1901, a United States Post Office was opened. In 1935, the famous humorist Will Rogers and pilot Wiley Post made an unplanned stop at Walakpa Bay 15 mi south of Utqiagvik, en route to the city; as they took off again, their plane plunged into a river, killing them both. Two memorials have been erected at the location, now called the Rogers-Post Site. Another memorial is located in Utqiagvik, where the airport was renamed as the Wiley Post–Will Rogers Memorial Airport in their honor. In 1940, the indigenous Iñupiat organized as the Native Village of Barrow Iñupiat Traditional Government, a federally recognized Alaska Native Iñupiat "tribal entity", as listed by the US Bureau of Indian Affairs circa 2003.
They wrote a constitution and by-laws, under the provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. An IRA corporation was created. Utqiagvik was incorporated as a 1st Class City under the name Barrow in 1958. Residents of the North Slope were the only Native people to vote on acceptance of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act; the Act was passed in December 1971 and, despite their opposition, became law. The Ukpeaġvik Iñupiat Corporation is the for-profit village corporation established under the Act. In 1972, the North Slope Borough was established. With millions of dollars in new revenues from the settlement and oil revenues, the borough has created sanitation facilities and electrical utilities, fire departments, health and educational services in Utqiagvik and the villages of the North Slope. In 1986, the North Slope Borough created the North Slope Higher Education Center. Renamed Iḷisaġvik College, it is an accredited two-year college providing education based on the Iñupiat culture and the needs of the North Slope Borough.
The Tuzzy Consortium Library, in the Iñupiat Heritage Center, serves the communities of the North Slope Borough and functions as the academic library for Iḷisaġvik College. The library was named after an important leader in the community. Utqiagvik, like many communities in Alaska, has en
The Seward Peninsula is a large peninsula on the western coast of the U. S. state of Alaska. It projects about 320 kilometers into the Bering Sea between Norton Sound, the Bering Strait, the Chukchi Sea, Kotzebue Sound, just below the Arctic Circle; the entire peninsula is about 330 kilometers long and 145 km -225 km wide. Like Seward, Alaska, it was named after William H. Seward, the United States Secretary of State who fought for the U. S. purchase of Alaska. The Seward Peninsula is a remnant of the Bering land bridge, a thousand mile wide swath of land connecting Siberia with mainland Alaska during the Pleistocene Ice Age; this land bridge aided in the migration of humans, as well as plant and animal species from Asia to North America. Archeological discoveries throughout the Chukotka Peninsula and Seward Peninsula show proof that Inupiat people have been living in the region for thousands of years. Excavations at sites such as the Trail Creek Caves and Cape Espenberg in the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve as well as Cape Denbigh to the south have provided insight into the timeline of prehistorical migrations from Asia to the Seward Peninsula.
Most of the peninsula is in the Nome Census Area. These are the communities on the Seward Peninsula, with 2005 state population estimates: Other locations on the Seward Peninsula include the mining towns of Council, Candle and Taylor. While still frequented by locals of neighboring communities, there are no longer year round residents in these locations. There is a United States Coast Guard LORAN station at Port Clarence; the U. S. Air Force operates a radar station at the "Tin City" site, 7 miles southeast of Wales; the Seward Peninsula has several distinct geologic features. The Devil Mountain Lakes on the northern portion of the peninsula are the largest maar lakes in the world, they were formed over 21,000 years ago as the result of an underground steam explosion. The Killeak Lakes and White Fish Lake are volcanic maar lakes of notable size on the northern Seward Peninsula. Four mountain ranges line the southern side of the peninsula, the most prominent being the Kigluaik Mountains; the highest point in the range and the peninsula is the peak of 4,714-foot Mount Osborn.
Other mountain ranges on the Seward Peninsula include the Bendeleben Mountains, Darby Mountains, York Mountains. The Lost Jim Lava Flow north of Kuzitrin Lake is a lava field formed 1,000 to 2,000 years ago, which covers 88 square miles. Several geothermal hot springs are located throughout the peninsula, including Serpentine Hot Springs, Pilgrim Hot Springs, Granite Mountain, Clear Creek and Lava Creek; the Seward Peninsula has several rivers. The largest include the Koyuk, Niukluk, Tubuktilik, Kiwalik and Agiupuk Rivers; these play a vital role in the subsistence lifestyles of many peninsula residents and ease travel and fishing. Most peninsula rivers have at least a small yearly run of several varieties of salmon, as well as Dolly Varden, Arctic Grayling, whitefish of various species, Northern Pike, Burbot. Most rivers on the Seward Peninsula freeze in mid-October; the Seward Peninsula is the western-most limit of distribution for the Black spruce, Picea mariana, a dominant overstory species of the region.
Alaska's reindeer herding was concentrated on Seward Peninsula since the first shipment of reindeer were imported there from eastern Siberia in 1892. It was believed that migrating caribou, could be prevented from mingling with the domesticated reindeer on the Peninsula because of the geography of the peninsula, thereby avoiding loss of reindeer that might wander off with caribou. However, in 1997 the domesticated reindeer joined the Western Arctic Caribou Herd on their summer migration and disappeared. Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point on the mainland of the Americas, is on the western tip; the cape is only 51 miles from Cape Dezhnev, the closest point on the Russian mainland. In August 2011 Russia announced an ambitious project to construct a rail tunnel under the Bering Strait, linking the Seward Peninsula in Alaska with the Chukchi Peninsula in Russia. If completed, the project would cost an estimated US $65 billion and would be the world's longest tunnel at 103 km long; the peninsula was named after William H. Seward, the United States Secretary of State who negotiated the Purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867
Kotzebue or Kikiktagruk is a city in the Northwest Arctic Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. It is the borough's seat, by far its largest community and the economic and transportation hub of the subregion of Alaska encompassing the borough; the population of the city was 3,201 as of the 2010 census, up from 3,082 in 2000. There is archaeological evidence that Inupiat people have lived at Kotzebue since at least the 15th century. Owing to its location and relative size, Kotzebue served as a trading and gathering center for the various communities in the region; the Noatak and Kobuk Rivers drain into the Kotzebue Sound near Kotzebue to form a center for transportation to points inland. In addition to people from interior villages, inhabitants of the Russian Far East came to trade at Kotzebue. Furs, seal-oil, rifles and seal skins were some of the items traded. People gathered for competitions like the current World Eskimo Indian Olympics. With the arrival of the whalers, gold seekers, missionaries the trading center expanded.
Kotzebue was known as Qikiqtaġruk, which means "peninsula" in Iñupiatun, the language of the Iñupiat. Kotzebue gets its name from the Kotzebue Sound, named after Otto von Kotzebue, a Baltic German who explored the sound while searching for the Northwest Passage in the service of Russia in 1818. Reindeer herding was introduced in the area in 1897. Although Alaska had caribou, the wild form of reindeer, the domesticated reindeer were brought to Alaska from Asia. A United States post office was established in 1899. Kotzebue was a filming location for the 1991 film Salmonberries. In 1997, three 66-kw wind turbines were installed in Kotzebue, creating the northernmost wind farm in the United States. Today, the wind farm consists of 19 turbines, including two 900 kW EWT turbines; the total installed capacity has reached 3-MW, displacing 250,000 gallons of diesel fuel every year. On September 2, 2015, U. S. President Barack Obama gave a speech on Climate Change, in Kotzebue, becoming the first sitting president to visit a site north of the Arctic Circle.
Kotzebue lies on a gravel spit at the end of the Baldwin Peninsula in the Kotzebue Sound. It is located at 66°53′50″N 162°35′8″W 30 miles from Noatak and other nearby smaller communities, it is 33 miles north of the Arctic Circle on Alaska's western coast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.7 square miles, of which 27.0 square miles is land, 1.6 square miles, or 5.76%, is water. Kotzebue is home to the NANA Regional Corporation, one of thirteen Alaska Native Regional Corporations created under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 in settlement of Alaska Native land claims. Kotzebue is a gateway to Kobuk Valley National Park and other natural attractions of northern Alaska. A Northwest Arctic Heritage Center is located in the town to acclimate National Park Service travelers. Nearby Selawik National Wildlife Refuge maintains office space in the town. Kotzebue has a dry subarctic climate bordering on the Tundra climate, with long, somewhat snowy, cold winters, short, mild summers.
Monthly daily average temperatures range from −3.5 °F in February to 54.7 °F in July, with an annual mean of 21.8 °F. Days of above 70 °F can be expected an average of five days per summer. Precipitation is both most frequent and greatest during the summer months, averaging 10.1 inches per year. Snowfall falls in light bouts, averaging 39 inches a season. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −58 °F to 85 °F, with the latter occurring as as June 19, 2013. Kotzebue first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census under its predecessor unincorporated Inuit village named "Kikiktagamute." It did not appear again until 1910 as Kotzebue. It formally incorporated in 1958; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,082 people, 889 households, 656 families residing in the city. The population density was 114.1 people per square mile. There were 1,007 housing units at an average density of 37.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 71.19% Native American, 19.47% White, 1.82% Asian, 0.32% Black or African American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, 6.36% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.17% of the population. There were 889 households out of which 50.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families. 19.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.40 and the average family size was 3.93. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 39.8% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, 4.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $57,163, the median income for a family was $58,068. Males had a median income of $42,604 versus $36,453 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,289.
About 9.2% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. Kotzebue's Ralph Wien Memorial Airport is the one airport in the Northwest Arctic Borough with scheduled large commercial passenger aircraft service to and fro
Geography of Alaska
Alaska is one of two U. S. states not bordered by another state. Alaska has more ocean coastline than all of the other U. S. states combined. About 500 miles of Canadian territory separate Alaska from Washington State. Alaska is thus an exclave of the United States, part of the continental U. S. and the U. S. West Coast, but is not part of the contiguous U. S. Alaska is the only state, other than Hawaii, whose capital city is accessible only via ship or air, because no roads connect Juneau to the rest of the continent; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia, Canada to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south, Bering Sea, the Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west, the Beaufort Sea and the Arctic Ocean to the north. Because it extends into the Eastern Hemisphere, it is technically both the westernmost and easternmost state in the United States, as well as being the northernmost. Alaska is the largest state in the United States in terms of land area at 570,380 square miles, over twice as large as Texas, the next largest state, is the seventh largest country subdivision in the world.
If the state's westernmost point were superimposed on San Francisco, its easternmost point would be in Jacksonville, Florida. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign nations. Alaska is larger. Marshlands and wetland permafrost cover 188,320 square miles. Frozen water, in the form of glacier ice, covers some 16,000 square miles of land and 1,200 square miles of tidal zone; the Bering Glacier complex near the southeastern border with Yukon, covers 2,250 square miles alone. South Central Alaska contains most of the state's population. Anchorage and many growing towns, such as Palmer, Wasilla, lie within this area. Petroleum industrial plants, transportation and two military bases form the core of the economy here; the Alaska Panhandle known as Southeast Alaska, is home to many of Alaska's larger towns including the state capital Juneau, tidewater glaciers and extensive forests. Tourism, fishing and state government anchor the economy. Southwest Alaska is coastal, bordered by both the Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea.
It is sparsely populated, unconnected to the road system, but important to the fishing industry. Half of all fish caught in the western U. S. come from the Bering Sea, Bristol Bay has the world's largest sockeye salmon fishery. Southwest Alaska includes Lake Clark national parks as well as numerous wildlife refuges; the region comprises western Cook Inlet, Bristol Bay and its watersheds, the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. It is known for wet and stormy weather, tundra landscapes, large populations of salmon, brown bears, caribou and marine mammals; the Alaska Interior is home to Fairbanks. The geography is marked by large braided rivers, such as the Yukon River and the Kuskokwim River, as well as Arctic tundra lands and shorelines; the Alaskan Bush is the remote, less crowded part of the state, encompassing 380 native villages and small towns such as Nome, Kotzebue and, most famously, the northernmost town in the United States. The northeast corner of Alaska is covered by the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
Much of the northwest is covered by the larger National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, which covers around 23 million acres. The Arctic is Alaska's most remote wilderness. A location in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska is 120 miles from any town or village, the geographic point most remote from permanent habitation in the United States. With its numerous islands, Alaska has nearly 34,000 miles of tidal shoreline; the island chain extending west from the southern tip of the Alaska Peninsula is called the Aleutian Islands. Many active volcanoes are found in the Aleutians. For example, Unimak Island is home to Mount Shishaldin, a moderately active volcano that rises to 9,980 feet above sea level; the chain of volcanoes extends to west of Anchorage on the mainland. One of North America's largest tides occurs in Turnagain Arm just south of Anchorage. Tidal differences can be more than 35 feet; the Aleutian Islands cross longitude 180°, so Alaska can be considered the easternmost state as well as the westernmost.
Alaska and the Aleutians are one of the extreme points of the United States. The International Date Line jogs west of 180° to keep the whole state, thus the entire continental United States, within the same legal day. According to an October 1998 report by the United States Bureau of Land Management 65% of Alaska is owned and managed by the U. S. federal government as national forests, national parks, national wildlife refuges. Of these, the Bureau of Land Management manages 23.8 % of the state. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is managed by Wildlife Service. Of the remaining land area, the State of Alaska owns 24.5%. Various private interests own the remaining land, totaling less than 1%. Alaska is administratively divided into "boro
An all-terrain vehicle known as a quad, three-wheeler, four-track, four-wheeler, or quadricycle, as defined by the American National Standards Institute is a vehicle that travels on low-pressure tires, with a seat, straddled by the operator, along with handlebars for steering control. As the name implies, it is designed to handle a wider variety of terrain than most other vehicles. Although it is a street-legal vehicle in some countries, it is not street-legal within most states and provinces of Australia, the United States or Canada. By the current ANSI definition, ATVs are intended for use by a single operator, although some companies have developed ATVs intended for use by the operator and one passenger; the passenger is not required to have a helmet. These ATVs are referred to as tandem ATVs; the rider sits on and operates these vehicles like a motorcycle, but the extra wheels give more stability at slower speeds. Dirt bikes are considered to be ATVs as that they were designed for off road use only.
Although most are equipped with three or four wheels, six-wheel models exist for specialized applications. Engine sizes of ATVs for sale in the United States, range from 49 to 1,000 cc. Royal Enfield built and sold the first powered quadracycle in 1893, it had many bicycle components, including handle bars. The Royal Enfield resembles a modern ATV-style quad bike but was designed as a form of horseless carriage for road use; the term "ATV" was coined to refer to non-straddle ridden six-wheeled amphibious ATVs such as the Jiger produced by the Jiger Corporation, the Amphicat produced by Mobility Unlimited Inc, the Terra Tiger produced by the Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company in the mid 1960s and early 1970s. With the introduction of straddle ridden ATVs, the term AATV was introduced to define the original amphibious ATV category; the first three-wheeled ATV was the Sperry-Rand Tricart. It was designed in 1967 as a graduate project of John Plessinger at the Cranbrook Academy of Arts near Detroit.
The Tricart was straddle-ridden with a sit-in rather than sit-on style. In 1968 Plessinger sold the Tricart patents and design rights to Sperry-Rand New Holland who manufactured them commercially. Numerous small American manufacturers of 3-wheelers followed; these small manufacturers were unable to compete when larger motorcycle companies like Honda entered the market in 1969. Honda introduced their first sit-on straddle-ridden three-wheeled ATVs in 1969, which were famously portrayed in the James Bond movie, Diamonds Are Forever and other TV shows such as Magnum, P. I. and Hart to Hart. These were dubbed the US90. Influenced by earlier ATVs, it featured large balloon tires instead of a mechanical suspension. By the early 1980s, suspension and lower-profile tires were introduced; the 1982 Honda ATC200E Big Red was a landmark model. It featured both suspension and racks, making it the first utility three-wheeled ATV; the ability to go anywhere on terrain that most other vehicles could not cross soon made them popular with US and Canadian hunters, those just looking for a good trail ride.
Soon other manufacturers introduced their own models. Sales of utility machines skyrocketed. Sport models were developed by Honda, which had a virtual monopoly in the market due to effective patents on design and engine placement; the 1981 ATC250R was the first high-performance three-wheeler, featuring full suspension, a 248 cc air cooled two-stroke engine, a five-speed transmission with manual clutch, a front disc brake. For the sporting trail rider, the 1983 ATC200X was another landmark machine, it used an easy-to-handle 192 cc four-stroke, ideal for new participants in the sport. The ATC200X was the first high-performance four-stroke ATV that featured full suspension and rear disc brakes with single piston calipers, an 18-horsepower engine, sporty looks and is considered one of the best ATVs produced. Today, ATC200Xs can be found on the market in all conditions and prices, is still regarded and followed by the aftermarket community. In 1985, Honda introduced the new ATC350X; the ATC350X was another high-performance three-wheeler, similar to the ATC200X, but as an new machine.
The 350X featured a 26-horsepower oil cooled 350 cc four-stroke engine with a 4-valve head. The engine was so good, it found its way into many hybrid race four-wheelers in years; the engine was a torque monster, Honda wasn't afraid to call the 350X "the King of the Hill" in its marketing of the machine. The suspension was a step in between the all new ATC250R and the ATC200X, with 8.5 inches of travel in the front forks. The 350X featured disc brakes with dual piston brake calipers for superb stopping power. However, the 350X suffered in handling with an underbuilt chassis which made the machine unpopular with racers, except for those who chose to be different by racing a four-stroke machine as two-strokes were the engine of choice at the time; the aftermarket came out with a custom gusset kit that strengthens the frame at its weakest points for riders that wish to build a race machine. In 1986, the ATC200X got a complete redesign; the machine shared nothing in common with its predecessor than the name.
It got an all new 199 cc four-stroke engine, wh