Newfoundland is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It has 29 percent of the province's land area; the island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary. Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of Miquelon. With an area of 108,860 square kilometres, Newfoundland is the world's 16th-largest island, Canada's fourth-largest island, the largest Canadian island outside the North; the provincial capital, St. John's, is located on the southeastern coast of the island, it is common to consider all directly neighbouring islands such as New World, Twillingate and Bell Island to be'part of Newfoundland'. By that classification and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres.
According to 2006 official Census Canada statistics, 57% of responding Newfoundland and Labradorians claim British or Irish ancestry, with 43.2% claiming at least one English parent, 21.5% at least one Irish parent, 7% at least one parent of Scottish origin. Additionally 6.1% claimed at least one parent of French ancestry. The island's total population as of the 2006 census was 479,105. Long settled by indigenous peoples of the Dorset culture, the island was visited by the Icelandic Viking Leif Eriksson in the 11th century, who called the new land "Vinland"; the next European visitors to Newfoundland were Portuguese, Spanish and English migratory fishermen. The island was visited by the Genoese navigator John Cabot, working under contract to King Henry VII of England on his expedition from Bristol in 1497. In 1501, Portuguese explorers Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother Miguel Corte-Real charted part of the coast of Newfoundland in a failed attempt to find the Northwest Passage. On August 5, 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed Newfoundland as England's first overseas colony under Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I of England, thus establishing a forerunner to the much British Empire.
Newfoundland is considered Britain's oldest colony. At the time of English settlement, the Beothuk inhabited the island. L'Anse aux Meadows was a Norse settlement near the northernmost tip of Newfoundland, dated to be 1,000 years old; the site is considered the only undisputed evidence of Pre-Columbian contact between the Old and New Worlds, if the Norse-Inuit contact on Greenland is not counted. Point Rosee, in southwest Newfoundland, was thought to be a second Norse site until excavations in 2015 and 2016 found no evidence of any Norse presence; the island is a location of Vinland, mentioned in the Viking Chronicles, although this has been disputed. The indigenous people on the island at the time of European settlement were the Beothuk, who spoke an Amerindian language of the same name. Immigrants developed a variety of dialects associated with settlement on the island: Newfoundland English, Newfoundland French. In the 19th century, it had a dialect of Irish known as Newfoundland Irish. Scottish Gaelic was spoken on the island during the 19th and early 20th centuries in the Codroy Valley area, chiefly by settlers from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia.
The Gaelic names reflected the association with fishing: in Scottish Gaelic, it was called Eilean a' Trosg, or "Island of the Cod". The Irish Gaelic name Talamh an Éisc means "Land of the Fish"; the first inhabitants of Newfoundland were the Paleo-Eskimo, who have no known link to other groups in Newfoundland history. Little is known about them beyond archeological evidence of early settlements. Evidence of successive cultures have been found; the Late Paleo-Eskimo, or Dorset culture, settled there about 4,000 years ago. They were descendants of migrations of ancient prehistoric peoples across the High Arctic thousands of years ago, after crossing from Siberia via the Bering land bridge; the Dorset abandoned the island prior to the arrival of the Norse. After this period, the Beothuk settled Newfoundland. There is no evidence. Scholars believe that the Beothuk are related to the Innu of Labrador; the tribe was declared "extinct" although people of partial Beothuk descent have been documented. The name Beothuk meant "people" in the Beothuk language, considered to be a member of the Algonquian language family although the lack of sufficient records means that it is not possible to confidently demonstrate such a connection.
The tribe is now said to be extinct, but evidence of its culture is preserved in museum and archaeological records. Shanawdithit, a woman, regarded as the last full-blood Beothuk, died in St. John's in 1829 of tuberculosis. However, Santu Toney, born around 1835 and died in 1910, was a woman of mixed Mi'kmaq and Beothuk descent which means that some Beothuk must have lived on beyond 1829, her father was a mother a Mi ` kmaq, both from Newfoundland. The Beothuk may have assimilated with Innu in Labrador and Mi ` kmaq in Newfoundland. Oral histories suggest potential historical competition and hostility between the B
Mountain peaks of Canada
This article comprises three sortable tables of major mountain peaks of Canada. The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways: The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level; the first table below ranks the 100 highest major summits of Canada by elevation. The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings; the second table below ranks the 50 most prominent summits of Canada. The topographic isolation of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation; the third table below ranks the 50 most isolated major summits of Canada. Of the 100 highest major summits of Canada, five peaks exceed 5000 metres elevation, 19 peaks exceed 4000 metres, 67 peaks exceed 3000 metres, all 100 peaks equal or exceed 2706 metres elevation. Of these 100 peaks, 61 are located in British Columbia, 28 in Yukon, 13 in Alberta, one in the Northwest Territories.
Five of these peaks lie on the international border between Yukon and Alaska, four lie on the international border between British Columbia and Alaska, three lie on the border between British Columbia and Alberta, one lies on the border between British Columbia and Yukon. Of the 50 most prominent summits of Canada, only Mount Logan exceeds 4000 metres of topographic prominence, five peaks exceed 3000 metres, 41 peaks exceed 2000 metres, all 50 peaks equal or exceed 1866 metres of topographic prominence. All of these peaks are ultra-prominent summits. Of these 50 peaks, 34 are located in British Columbia, nine in Yukon, six in Nunavut, three in Alberta. Three of these peaks lie on the international border between Yukon and Alaska, one lies on the international border between British Columbia and Alaska, two lie on the border between British Columbia and Alberta, two lie on the border between British Columbia and Yukon. Of the 50 most isolated major summits of Canada, 12 peaks exceed 500 kilometres of topographic isolation, 31 peaks exceed 200 kilometres, all 50 peaks exceed 100 kilometres of topographic isolation.
Of these 50 peaks, 17 are located in British Columbia, 13 in Nunavut, seven in Yukon, four in Newfoundland and Labrador, four in Quebec, three in the Northwest Territories, two in Alberta, one each in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Two of these peaks lie on the international border between British Columbia and Alaska, two lie on the border between British Columbia and Alberta. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Greenland List of mountain peaks of Canada List of the highest major summits of Canada List of the major 4000-metre summits of Canada List of the major 3000-metre summits of Canada List of the most prominent summits of Canada List of the ultra-prominent summits of Canada List of the most isolated major summits of Canada List of extreme summits of Canada List of mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of México List of mountain peaks of Central America List of mountain peaks of the Caribbean Canada Geography of Canada Category:Mountains of Canada commons:Category:Mountains of Canada Physical geography Topography Topographic elevation Topographic prominence Topographic isolation Natural Resources Canada Canadian Geographical Names @ NRC Bivouac.com Peakbagger.com Peaklist.org Peakware.com Summitpost.org
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
Mount Caubvick is a mountain located in Canada on the border between Labrador and Quebec in the Selamiut Range of the Torngat Mountains. Mount Caubvick is the highest point in mainland Canada east of the Rockies; the mountain contains a massive peak that rises from nearby sea level. Craggy ridges, steep cirques and glaciers are prominent features of the peak; the alp was named Mont D'Iberville by the Quebec government in 1971. It remained nameless on the Labrador side for several years. In 1981, at the suggestion of Dr. Peter Neary, the provincial government named the mountain after Caubvick, one of the five Inuit who accompanied George Cartwright to England in 1772. Mount Caubvick hosts the highest point in both the province of Newfoundland and Labrador and Quebec, although the summit itself lies about 10 metres northeast of the Quebec provincial border and is within Labrador. Due to difficult access and unpredictable, snowy weather at any time of the year, there is no easy way to the top; the summit can be gained from the east to the west by the Koroc Ridge.
The final sections on both routes become technical in nature. American climbers Michael Adler and Christopher Goetze were the first to scale the peak in 1973; the first Canadian party climbed the mountain on August 14, 1978. In that party were Ray Chipeniuk, Ron Parker, Erik Sheer. In August 2003, two climbers from Mississauga, Ontario perished during their descent from the summit. A search was initiated in late August; the approaching winter weather forced an early end to the search in 2003. In August 2004, their bodies were discovered high up on the mountain; the most plausible scenario appears to be that one of the climbers became injured and was unable to continue the descent. The other climber made an attempt to seek help, taking an alternate route down and fell about 150 feet down a steep headwall. List of highest points of Canadian provinces and territories List of mountain peaks of North America Mountain peaks of Canada Climbing Mount Caubvick and Mont D'Iberville Mount Caubvick in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia Peakbagger.com page
For the submarine, see HMCS Corner Brook. Corner Brook is a city located on the west coast on the island of Newfoundland in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Located on the Bay of Islands at the mouth of the Humber River, the city is the fifth-largest population centre in the province behind St. John's, smallest of three cities behind St. John's and Mount Pearl; as such, Corner Brook functions as a service centre for northern Newfoundland. It is located on the same latitude as Gaspé, Quebec, a city of similar size and landscape on the other side of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Corner Brook is the most northern city in Atlantic Canada, it is the administrative headquarters of the Qalipu Mi'kmaq First Nations band government. The Mi'kmaq name for the nearby Humber River is "Maqtukwek"; the area was surveyed by Captain James Cook in 1767. The Captain James Cook Historic Site stands on Crow Hill overlooking the city. By the middle of the 19th century the population of Corner Brook was less than 100, the inhabitants were engaged in fishing and lumber work.
The area was four distinct communities, each with unique commercial activities: Curling, with its fishery. In 1956, these four communities were amalgamated to form the present-day City of Corner Brook. Between 1948 and 1958 about 70 people from Latvia and Germany settled in Corner Brook, they came as part of Premier Joseph Smallwood's New Industries program. They worked at North Star Cement and the Atlantic Gypsum Plant. Corner Brook is home to the Corner Brook Pulp & Paper Mill, a major employer for the region; the city has the largest regional hospital in western Newfoundland. It has a wide array of shopping and retail businesses and federal and provincial government offices, it is home to Grenfell Campus, Memorial University, as well as campuses of Academy Canada and College of the North Atlantic. Corner Brook is home to the province's newest high school, Corner Brook Regional High, an amalgamation of the former Regina and Herdman Collegiate high schools. Near Corner Brook is Marble Mountain Ski Resort, a downhill skiing resort, Blow-Me-Down trails, a cross country ski area.
The Corner Brook Royals play in the West Coast Senior Hockey League and were the winners of the 1986 National Title, the Allan Cup. The Royals play their home games at the Corner Brook Civic Centre the Canada Games Centre; the arena was built in 1997 and was one of the main venues used when the city of Corner Brook hosted the 1999 Canada Games. Corner Brook was host of the 2011 Special Olympics Provincial Winter Games from February 18–20; the city twice hosted Raid the North Extreme, a televised 6-day multi-sport expedition race held in wilderness locations across Canada, was a leg of the ITU World Cup Triathlon. Corner Brook is home to Grenfell Campus, Memorial University where a strong and vivacious arts community exists both within the school and well into the public; the campus houses the Grenfell Art Gallery. The Corner Brook Arts and Culture Centre among other institutions thrive in promoting the arts on all levels from visual arts to theatre and well beyond. In 2015, the City's newest theatre and gallery, the Rotary Arts Centre opened.
Corner Brook is home to Gros Morne Summer Music, a classical music festival that spans July and August. For 32 years, the March Hare literary festival ran every March and celebrated poetry and written works by poets and writers from around Newfoundland and Labrador and the world. Atlantic Canada's largest poetry festival was founded in the late 1980s by poet and playwright Al Pittman, Corner Brook author, historian Rex Brown; the last March Hare was held in 2018. Corner Brook is home to the region's only community radio station, Bay of Islands Radio; the station was only available online. However, the station received its broadcast license from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission on October 6, 2016, commenced FM broadcasting on November 5, 2017; the radio station is located in the city's downtown district. The Corner Brook City Council has six city councillors, in addition to a Mayor; the highest voting winning councillor becomes Deputy Mayor. The current mayor of the city is Jim Parsons.
The deputy mayor is Bill Griffin. Municipal elections in Corner Brook are held every four years, on the last Tuesday in September. In the 2017 municipal elections held on September 26, 2017. Route 1, the Trans-Canada Highway, passes the south side of the city on a high ridge before descending to the east, into the Humber Valley; the city is accessed by air services at Stephenville International Airport, 65 km southwest, Deer Lake Regional Airport, 55 km northeast. Corner Brook Transit is a operated local bus service; the city is served by four taxi cab companies. Corner Brook has a humid continental climate typical of most of Newfoundland, it is warmer in summer than St. John's due to less maritime exposure, whereas winters are colder than in the provincial capital. In terms of its overall climate, it is quite maritime taking into account how the climate is in mainland Canada on similar latitudes. Precipitation is heavy year-round, but highest in December and January and lowest in April and May, with more dry, s