A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health. A healthy diet provides the body with essential nutrition: fluid, macronutrients and adequate calories. For people who are healthy, a healthy diet is not complicated and contains fruits and whole grains, includes little to no processed food and sweetened beverages; the requirements for a healthy diet can be met from a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods, although a non-animal source of vitamin B12 is needed for those following a vegan diet. Various nutrition guides are published by medical and governmental institutions to educate individuals on what they should be eating to be healthy. Nutrition facts labels are mandatory in some countries to allow consumers to choose between foods based on the components relevant to health. A healthy lifestyle includes getting exercise every day along with eating a healthy diet. A healthy lifestyle may lower disease risks, such as obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer.
There are specialized healthy diets, called medical nutrition therapy, for people with various diseases or conditions. There are prescientific ideas about such specialized diets, as in dietary therapy in traditional Chinese medicine; the World Health Organization makes the following 5 recommendations with respect to both populations and individuals: Maintain a healthy weight by eating the same number of calories that your body is using. Limit intake of fats. Not more than 30% of the total calories should come from fats. Prefer unsaturated fats to saturated fats. Avoid trans fats. Eat at least 400 grams of fruits and vegetables per day. A healthy diet contains legumes, whole grains and nuts. Limit the intake of simple sugars to less than 10% of calorie. Limit salt / sodium from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized. Less than 5 grams of salt per day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. WHO stated that insufficient vegetables and fruit is the cause of 2.8% of deaths worldwide. Other WHO recommendations include: ensuring that the foods chosen have sufficient vitamins and certain minerals.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans by the United States Department of Agriculture recommends three healthy patterns of diet, summarized in table below, for a 2000 kcal diet. It emphasizes a flexible approach; the committee that drafted it wrote: "The major findings regarding sustainable diets were that a diet higher in plant-based foods, such as vegetables, whole grains, legumes and seeds, lower in calories and animal-based foods is more health promoting and is associated with less environmental impact than is the current U. S. diet. This pattern of eating can be achieved through a variety of dietary patterns, including the “Healthy U. S.-style Pattern”, the “Healthy Vegetarian Pattern" and the "Healthy Mediterranean-style Pattern". Food group amounts are per day; the American Heart Association, World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research recommend a diet that consists of unprocessed plant foods, with emphasis a wide range of whole grains and non-starchy vegetables and fruits.
This healthy diet is full of a wide range of various non-starchy vegetables and fruits, that provide different colors including red, yellow, white and orange. They note that tomato cooked with oil, allium vegetables like garlic, cruciferous vegetables like cauliflower, provide some protection against cancer; this healthy diet is low in energy density, which may protect against weight gain and associated diseases. Limiting consumption of sugary drinks, limiting energy rich foods, including “fast foods” and red meat, avoiding processed meats improves health and longevity. Overall and medical policy conclude that this healthy diet can reduce the risk of chronic disease and cancer. In children, consuming less than 25 grams of added sugar is recommended per day. Other recommendations include no extra sugars in those under 2 years old and less than one soft drink per week; as of 2017, decreasing total fat is no longer recommended, but instead, the recommendation to lower risk of cardiovascular disease is to increase consumption of monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats, while decreasing consumption of saturated fats.
The Nutrition Source of Harvard School of Public Health makes the following 10 recommendations for a healthy diet: Choose good carbohydrates: whole grains, vegetables and beans. Avoid white bread, white rice, the like as well as pastries, sugared sodas, other processed food. Pay attention to the protein package: good choices include fish, poultry and beans. Try to avoid red meat. Choose foods containing healthy fats. Plant oils and fish are the best choices. Limit consumption of saturated fats, avoid foods with trans fat. Choose a fiber-filled diet which includes whole grains and fruits. Eat more vegetables and fruits—the more colorful and varied, the better. Include adequate amounts of calcium in the diet. Good sources of calcium are collards, bok choy, fortified soy milk, baked beans, supplements containing calcium and vitamin D. Prefer water over oth
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
A meal replacement is a drink, soup, etc. intended as a substitute for a solid food meal with controlled quantities of calories and nutrients. Some drinks are in the form of a health shake. Medically prescribed meal replacement drinks include the required minerals. Bodybuilders sometimes use meal replacements, not formulated for weight loss, to save food preparation time when they are eating 5 to 6 meals a day. In the European Union, weight-reduction meal replacements intended either to supplement or to replace normal meals are regulated as to their energy content, the nutrients they must provide, information and advice on packaging by COMMISSION DIRECTIVE 96/8/EC of 26 February 1996 on foods intended for use in energy-restricted diets for weight reduction. For example, a meal replacement must provide between 200 and 400 food calories of energy, of which not more than 30% from fat, not less than specified amounts for various vitamins and minerals. Labeling information is prescribed, packaging must provide information such as a statement that the product should not be used for more than three weeks without medical advice.
This protects users of meal replacements without other food from inadvertent malnutrition. In the United States, the term "meal replacement" is not defined in federal Food and Drug Administration regulations, but refers to a calorie-controlled, prepackaged product in the form of a bar or beverage, that replaces a regular meal. Meal-replacement products provide 200 to 250 calories per serving, are fortified with more than 20 vitamins and minerals at "good" or "excellent source" levels and bear nutrient content claims, such as percent fat free and reduced sugar. Meal replacement products can be regulated as functional foods. In Canada, meal replacements are regulated by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and must meet minimum calorie and vitamin requirements, causing some American products to be rejected. Meal replacements have been a regular feature of science fiction the space travel genre, at least since the film Santa Claus Conquers the Martians and TV's Lost in Space. In the EU countries, meal replacements are divided into two categories: food supplements for weight control and preparations that replace conventional food for the same purpose.
The nutrients that make up the mixtures are regulated by Directive 96/8 / EC of February 26, 1996, "About food products intended for use in low-calorie diets to reduce weight". For example, meal replacements should provide between 200 and 400 calories of food energy, of which fats account for no more than 30%, should contain at least a specified amount of various vitamins and minerals; the label should be an indication of the inadmissibility of use for more than three weeks without consulting a doctor, which protects consumers from accidental malnutrition. In the US, the concept of "meal replacement" is not defined by the rules of the Food and Drug Administration; as a rule, this concept refers to controlled-calorie foods marketed as beverages or powders. Meal replacements contain from 200 to 250 calories per serving with the addition of 20 or more vitamins and minerals and low fat and sugar. In Canada, food substitutes are governed by Canadian food inspection standards and must meet minimum calorie and vitamin requirements.
Therefore, some American products are not allowed to be sold in Canada. Energy bar Infant formula Liquid diet Therapeutic food
Diet in Hinduism
Diet in Hinduism varies with its diverse traditions. The ancient and medieval Hindu texts do not explicitly prohibit eating meat, but they do recommend ahimsa—non-violence against all life forms including animals. Many Hindus prefer a vegetarian or lacto-vegetarian lifestyle, methods of food production that are in sync with nature and respectful of other life forms as well as nature; the diet of Hindus does not include eggs, fish or meat. However, if included, Hindus favor jhatka style preparation of meat since Hindus believe that this method minimizes trauma and suffering to the animal. Ancient Hindu texts describe the whole of creation as a vast food chain, the cosmos as a giant food cycle. Hindu mendicants avoid preparing their own food, relying either on begging for leftovers or harvesting seeds and fruits from forests, as this minimizes the harm to other life forms and nature; the Vedic texts have conflicting verses, which scholars have interpreted to mean support or opposition to meat-based food.
A group states that some Vedic hymns mention animal sacrifice and therefore support non-vegetarianism. According to Marvin Harris, the Vedic literature is contradictory, with some suggesting ritual slaughter and meat consumption, while others suggesting a taboo on meat eating; the hymn 10.87.16 of the Hindu scripture Rigveda, states Nanditha Krishna, condemns all killings of men and horses, prays to god Agni to punish those who kill. According to Harris, from ancient times, vegetarianism became a well accepted mainstream Hindu tradition; the Upanishads and Sutra texts of Hinduism discuss moderate diet and proper nutrition, as well as Aharatattva. The Upanishads and Sutra texts invoke the concept of virtuous self-restraint in matters of food, while the Samhitas discuss what and when certain foods are suitable. A few Hindu texts such as Hathayoga Pradipika combine both. Moderation in diet is called Mitahara, this is discussed in Shandilya Upanishad, as well as by Svātmārāma as a virtue, it is one of the yamas discussed in ancient Indian texts.
Some of the earliest ideas behind Mitahara trace to ancient era Taittiriya Upanishad, which in various hymns discusses the importance of food to healthy living, to the cycle of life, as well as to its role in one's body and its effect on Self. The Upanishad, states Stiles, notes “from food life springs forth, by food it is sustained, in food it merges when life departs”. Many ancient and medieval Hindu texts debate the rationale for a voluntary stop to cow slaughter and the pursuit of vegetarianism as a part of a general abstention from violence against others and all killing of animals; some significant debates between pro-non-vegetarianism and pro-vegetarianism, with mention of cattle meat as food, is found in several books of the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata its Book III, XII, XIII and XIV. It is found in the Ramayana; these two epics are not only literary classics, but they have been popular religious classics. The Bhagavad Gita includes verses on diet and moderation in food in Chapter 6.
It states in verse 6.16 that a Yogi must neither eat too much nor too little, neither sleep too much nor too little. Understanding and regulating one’s established habits about eating and recreation is suggested as essential to the practice of yoga in verse 6.17. Another ancient Indian text, Tirukkuṛaḷ written in the South Indian language of Tamil, states moderate diet as a virtuous life style and criticizes "non-vegetarianism" in its Pulaan Maruthal chapter, through verses 251 through 260. Verse 251, for instance, questions "how can one be possessed of kindness, who, to increase his own flesh, eats the flesh of other creatures." It says that "the wise, who are devoid of mental delusions, do not eat the severed body of other creatures", suggesting that "flesh is nothing but the despicable wound of a mangled body". It continues to say that not eating meat is a practice more sacred than the most sacred religious practices known and that only those who refrain from killing and eating the kill are worthy of veneration.
This text, written before 400 CE, sometimes called the Tamil Veda, discusses eating habits and its role in a healthy life, dedicating Chapter 95 of Book 7 to it. Tirukkuṛaḷ states in verses 943 through 945, "eat in moderation, when you feel hungry, foods that are agreeable to your body, refraining from foods that your body finds disagreeable". Tiruvalluvar emphasizes overeating has ill effects on health, in verse 946, as “the pleasures of health abide in the man who eats moderately; the pains of disease dwell with him who eats excessively.”Verses 1.57 through 1.63 of the Hathayoga Pradipika suggests that taste cravings should not drive one's eating habits, rather the best diet is one, tasty and likable as well as sufficient to meet the needs of one's body and for one’s inner self. It recommends that one must "eat only when one feels hungry" and "neither overeat nor eat to fill the capacity of one's stomach. Verses 1.59 to 1.61 of Hathayoga Pradipika suggest a mitahara regimen of a yogi avoids foods with excessive amounts of sour, bitterness, spice burn, unripe vegetables, fermented foods or alcohol.
The practice of Mitahara, in Hathayoga Pradipika, includes avoiding stale and tamasic foods, consuming moderate amounts of fresh and sattvic foods. Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita – two major ancient Hindu texts on health related subjects, include many chapters on the role of diet and
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, animal foods & feed and veterinary products; as of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget is paid by people who consume pharmaceutical products, due to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act. The FDA was empowered by the United States Congress to enforce the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, which serves as the primary focus for the Agency; these include regulating lasers, cellular phones and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Human Services. Scott Gottlieb, M. D. is the current commissioner, who took over in May 2017. The FDA has its headquarters in Maryland; the agency has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. In 2008, the FDA began to post employees to foreign countries, including China, Costa Rica, Chile and the United Kingdom. In recent years, the agency began undertaking a large-scale effort to consolidate its 25 operations in the Washington metropolitan area, moving from its main headquarters in Rockville and several fragmented office buildings to the former site of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in the White Oak area of Silver Spring, Maryland; the site was renamed from the White Oak Naval Surface Warfare Center to the Federal Research Center at White Oak. The first building, the Life Sciences Laboratory, was dedicated and opened with 104 employees on the campus in December 2003. Only one original building from the naval facility was kept.
All other buildings are new construction. The project is slated to be completed by 2021, assuming future Congressional funding While most of the Centers are located in the Washington, D. C. area as part of the Headquarters divisions, two offices – the Office of Regulatory Affairs and the Office of Criminal Investigations – are field offices with a workforce spread across the country. The Office of Regulatory Affairs is considered the "eyes and ears" of the agency, conducting the vast majority of the FDA's work in the field. Consumer Safety Officers, more called Investigators, are the individuals who inspect production and warehousing facilities, investigate complaints, illnesses, or outbreaks, review documentation in the case of medical devices, biological products, other items where it may be difficult to conduct a physical examination or take a physical sample of the product; the Office of Regulatory Affairs is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 20 districts. Districts are based on the geographic divisions of the federal court system.
Each district comprises a main district office and a number of Resident Posts, which are FDA remote offices that serve a particular geographic area. ORA includes the Agency's network of regulatory laboratories, which analyze any physical samples taken. Though samples are food-related, some laboratories are equipped to analyze drugs and radiation-emitting devices; the Office of Criminal Investigations was established in 1991 to investigate criminal cases. Unlike ORA Investigators, OCI Special Agents are armed, don't focus on technical aspects of the regulated industries. OCI agents pursue and develop cases where individuals and companies have committed criminal actions, such as fraudulent claims, or knowingly and willfully shipping known adulterated goods in interstate commerce. In many cases, OCI pursues cases involving Title 18 violations, in addition to prohibited acts as defined in Chapter III of the FD&C Act. OCI Special Agents come from other criminal investigations backgrounds, work with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assistant Attorney General, Interpol.
OCI receives cases from a variety of sources—including ORA, local agencies, the FBI—and works with ORA Investigators to help develop the technical and science-based aspects of a case. OCI is a smaller branch; the FDA works with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administration and Border Protection, Consumer Product Safety Commission. Local and state government agencies work with the FDA to provide regulatory inspections and enforcement action; the FDA regulates more than US$2.4 trillion worth of consumer goods, about 25% of consumer expenditures in the United States. This includes $466 billion in food sales, $275 billion in drugs, $60 billion in cosmetics and $18 billion in vitamin supplements. Much of these expenditures are for goods imported into the United States; the FDA's federal budget request for fiscal year 2012 totaled $4.36 billion, while the proposed 2014 budget is $4.7 billion. About $2 billion of this budget is generated by user fees.
Pharmaceutical firms pay th
Western pattern diet
The Western pattern diet or standard American diet is a modern dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of red meat, processed meat, pre-packaged foods, fried foods, high-fat dairy products, refined grains, potatoes and high-sugar drinks. The modern standard American diet was brought about by fundamental lifestyle changes following the Neolithic Revolution, the Industrial Revolution. By contrast, a healthy diet has higher proportions of unprocessed fruits, vegetables, whole-grain foods and fish; this diet is "rich in red meat, dairy products and artificially sweetened foods, salt, with minimal intake of fruits, fish and whole grains." Various foods and food processing procedures, introduced during the Neolithic and Industrial Periods had fundamentally altered 7 nutritional characteristics of ancestral hominin diets: glycemic load, fatty acid composition, macronutrient composition, micronutrient density, acid-base balance, sodium-potassium ratio, fiber content. The typical American diet is about 2,200 calories per day, with 50% of calories from carbohydrates, 15% protein, 35% fat.
These macronutrient intakes fall within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges for adults identified by the Food and Nutrition Board of the United States Institute of Medicine as "associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients," which are 45-65% carbohydrate, 10-35% protein, 20-35% fat as a percentage of total energy. However, the nutritional quality of the specific foods comprising those macronutrients is poor, as with the "Western" pattern discussed above. Complex carbohydrates such as starch are believed to be more healthy than the sugar so consumed in the Standard American Diet. A review of eating habits in the United States in 2004 found that about 75% of restaurant meals were from fast-food restaurants. Nearly half of the meals ordered from a menu were hamburger, French fries, or poultry — and about one third of orders included a carbonated beverage drink. From 1970 to 2008, the per capita consumption of calories increased by nearly one-quarter in the United States and about 10% of all calories were from high-fructose corn syrup.
Americans consume more than 13% of their daily calories in the form of added sugars. Beverages such as flavored water, soft drinks, sweetened caffeinated beverages make up 47% of these added sugars. Americans ages 1 and above consume more added sugars, saturated fats, sodium than recommended in the Dietary Guidelines outlined by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. 89 % of Americans consume more sodium. Additionally, excessive consumption of oils, saturated fats, added sugars is seen in 72%, 71%, 70% of the American population, respectively. Consumers began turning to margarine due to concerns over the high levels of saturated fats found in butter. By 1958, margarine had become more consumed than butter, with the average American consuming 8.9 pounds of margarine per year. Margarine is produced by refining vegetable oils, a process that introduces trans elaidic acid not found in food; the consumption of trans fatty acids such as trans elaidic acid has been linked to cardiovascular disease.
By 2005, margarine consumption had fallen below butter consumption due to the risks associated with trans fat intake. Vegetable consumption is low among Americans, with only 13% of the population consuming the recommended amounts. Boys ages 9 to 13 and girls ages 14 to 18 consume the lowest amounts of vegetables relative to the general population. Potatoes and tomatoes, which are key components of many meals, account for 39% of the vegetables consumed by Americans. 60% of vegetables are consumed individually, 30% are included as part of a dish, 10% are found in sauces. Whole grains should consist of over half of total grain consumption, refined grains should not exceed half of total grain consumption. However, 85.3% of the cereals eaten by Americans are produced with refined grains, where the germ and bran are removed. Grain refining increases shelf life and softens pastries. Based on epidemiological studies, compared to a healthy diet, the Western pattern diet is positively correlated with an elevated incidence of obesity, death from heart disease and other "Western pattern diet"-related diseases.
There is an evolutionary mismatch between the ancient physiology of humans and a Western pattern diet. There is a correlation between a Western pattern diet and an increase in inflammatory diseases, evident in relation to fiber and fat-content; the high level of omega-6 fatty acids compared to omega-3 fatty acids in the Western diet is believed to contribute to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, as well as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Acne is one of the inflammatory diseases, increased by the Western pattern diet, due to too much carbohydrates with high glycemic load such as refined sugars or refined starches and dairy products, trans fats and saturated fats, along with a deficiency in omega-3 fatty acids. A Western pattern diet consisting of refined sugars and polyunsaturated fatty acids has been associated with Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease has its effects on the symbiotic bacteria within the human gut that show a positive correlation with a Western pattern diet. Crohn's is an inflammatory disease th
Dried fruit is fruit from which the majority of the original water content has been removed either through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia, is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value, long shelf life. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold are raisins, followed by dates, figs, peaches and pears; these are referred to as "conventional" or "traditional" dried fruits: fruits that have been dried in the sun or in heated wind tunnel dryers. Many fruits such as cranberries, cherries and mango are infused with a sweetener prior to drying; some products sold as dried fruit, like papaya, kiwi fruit and pineapple are most candied fruit. Dried fruits retain most of the nutritional value of fresh fruits; the specific nutrient content of the different dried fruits reflects their fresh counterpart and the processing method.
Traditional dried fruit such as raisins, dates and apples have been a staple of Mediterranean diets for millennia. This is due to their early cultivation in the Middle Eastern region known as the Fertile Crescent, made up by parts of modern Iran, southwest Turkey, Lebanon and northern Egypt. Drying or dehydration happened to be the earliest form of food preservation: grapes and figs that fell from the tree or vine would dry in the hot sun. Early hunter-gatherers observed that these fallen fruit took on an edible form, valued them for their stability as well as their concentrated sweetness; the earliest recorded mention of dried fruits can be found in Mesopotamian tablets dating to about 1700 BC, which contain what are the oldest known written recipes. These clay slabs, written in Akkadian, the daily language of Babylonia, were inscribed in cuneiform and tell of diets based on grains and fruits such as dates, apples and grapes; these early civilizations used dates, date juice evaporated into syrup and raisins as sweeteners.
They included dried fruits in their breads for which they had more than 300 recipes, from simple barley bread for the workers to elaborate, spiced cakes with honey for the palaces and temples. Because cuneiform was complex and only scribes who had studied for years could read it, it is unlikely that the tablets were meant for everyday cooks or chefs. Instead they were written to document the culinary art of the times. Many recipes are quite elaborate and have rare ingredients so we may assume that they represent "Mediterranean haute cuisine"; the date palm was one of the first cultivated trees. It was domesticated in Mesopotamia more than 5,000 years ago, it grew abundantly in the Fertile Crescent and it was so productive that dates were the cheapest of staple foods. Because they were so valuable they were well recorded in Assyrian and Babylonian monuments and temples; the villagers in Mesopotamia ate them as sweets. Whether fresh, soft-dried or hard-dried, they helped to give character to meat dishes and grain pies.
They were recommended as stimulants against fatigue. Figs were prized in early Mesopotamia and Egypt where their daily use was greater than or equal to that of dates; as well as appearing in wall paintings, many specimens have been found in Egyptian tombs as funerary offerings. In Greece and Crete, figs grew readily and they were the staple of poor and rich alike in their dried form. Grape cultivation first began in Armenia and the eastern regions of the Mediterranean in the 4th century BC. Here, raisins were manufactured by burying grapes in the desert sun. Viticulture and raisin production spread across northern Africa including Morocco and Tunisia; the Phoenicians and the Egyptians popularized the production of raisins due to the perfect environment for sun drying. They allotted them to the different temples by the thousands, they included them in their breads and their various pastries, some made with honey, some with milk and eggs. From the Middle East, these fruits spread through Greece to Italy where they became a major part of the diet.
Ancient Romans ate raisins in spectacular quantities and all levels of society, including them as a key part of their common meals, along with olives and fruits. Raisined breads were common for breakfast and were consumed with their grains and cultured milks. Raisins were so valued that they transcended the food realm and became rewards for successful athletes as well as premium barter currency. Having dried fruits was a must in ancient Rome as these instructions for housekeepers around 100 BC tell: "She must keep a supply of cooked food on hand for you and the servants, she must have plenty of eggs. She must have a large store of dried pears, figs, sorbs in must, preserved pears and grapes and quinces, she must keep preserved grapes in grape-pulp and in pots buried in the ground, as well as fresh Praenestine nuts kept in the same way, Scantian quinces in jars, other fruits that are preserved, as well as wild fruits. All these she must store away diligently every year."Figs again were popular in Rome.
Dried figs were formed a major part of the winter food of country people. They were rubbed with spices such as cumin and fennel seeds, or toasted sesame, wrapped in fig leaves and stored in jars. Plums and peaches had their origins in Asia. Th