CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Videotape is magnetic tape used for storing video and sound in addition. Information stored can be in the form of either digital signal. Videotape is used in both video tape recorders or, more videocassette recorders and camcorders. Videotapes are used for storing scientific or medical data, such as the data produced by an electrocardiogram; because video signals have a high bandwidth, stationary heads would require high tape speeds, in most cases, a helical-scan video head rotates against the moving tape to record the data in two dimensions. Tape is a linear method of storing information and thus imposes delays to access a portion of the tape, not under the heads; the early 2000s saw the introduction and rise to prominence of high quality random-access video recording media such as hard disks and flash memory. Since videotape has been relegated to archival and similar uses; the electronics division of entertainer Bing Crosby's production company, Bing Crosby Enterprises, gave the world's first demonstration of a videotape recording in Los Angeles on November 11, 1951.
Developed by John T. Mullin and Wayne R. Johnson since 1950, the device gave what were described as "blurred and indistinct" images using a modified Ampex 200 tape recorder and standard quarter-inch audio tape moving at 360 inches per second. A year an improved version using one-inch magnetic tape was shown to the press, who expressed amazement at the quality of the images although they had a "persistent grainy quality that looked like a worn motion picture". Overall the picture quality was still considered inferior to the best kinescope recordings on film. Bing Crosby Enterprises hoped to have a commercial version available in 1954 but none came forth; the BBC experimented from 1952 to 1958 with a high-speed linear videotape system called VERA, but this was unfeasible. It used half-inch tape on 20-inch reels traveling at 200 inches per second. RCA demonstrated the magnetic tape recording of both black-and-white and color television programs at its Princeton laboratories on December 1, 1953.
The high-speed longitudinal tape system, called Simplex, in development since 1951, could record and play back only a few minutes of a television program. The color system used half-inch tape on 10-1/2 inch reels to record five tracks, one each for red, green and audio; the black-and-white system used quarter-inch tape on 10-1/2 inch reels with two tracks, one for video and one for audio. Both systems ran at 360 inches per second with 2,500 feet on a reel. RCA-owned NBC first used it on The Jonathan Winters Show on October 23, 1956 when a prerecorded song sequence by Dorothy Collins in color was included in the otherwise live television program. In 1953, Dr. Norikazu Sawazaki developed a prototype helical scan video tape recorder. BCE demonstrated a color system in February 1955 using a longitudinal recording on half-inch tape. CBS, RCA's competitor, was about to order BCE machines when Ampex introduced the superior Quadruplex system. BCE was acquired by 3M Company in 1956. In 1959, Toshiba released the first commercial helical scan video tape recorder.
The first commercial professional broadcast quality videotape machines capable of replacing kinescopes were the two-inch quadruplex videotape machines introduced by Ampex on April 14, 1956 at the National Association of Broadcasters convention in Chicago. Quad employed a transverse four-head system on a two-inch tape, stationary heads for the sound track. CBS Television first used the Ampex VRX-1000 Mark IV at its Television City studios in Hollywood on November 30, 1956 to play a delayed broadcast of Douglas Edwards and the News from New York City to the Pacific Time Zone. On January 22, 1957, the NBC Television game show Truth or Consequences, produced in Hollywood, became the first program to be broadcast in all time zones from a prerecorded videotape. Ampex introduced a color videotape recorder in 1958 in a cross-licensing agreement with RCA, whose engineers had developed it from an Ampex black-and-white recorder. NBC's special, An Evening With Fred Astaire, is the oldest surviving television network color videotape, has been restored by the UCLA Film and Television Archive.
On December 7, 1963, instant replay was used for the first time during the live transmission of the Army–Navy Game by its inventor, director Tony Verna. Although Quad became the industry standard for thirty years, it has drawbacks such as an inability to freeze pictures, no picture search. In early machines, a tape could reliably be played back using only the same set of hand-made tape heads, which wore out quickly. Despite these problems, Quad is capable of producing excellent images. Subsequent videotape systems have used helical scan, where the video heads record diagonal tracks onto the tape. Many early videotape recordings were not preserved. While much less expensive and more convenient than kinescope, the high cost of 3M Scotch 179 and other early videotapes meant that most broadcasters erased and reused them, regarded videotape as a better and more cost-effective means of time-delaying broadcasts than kinescopes, it was the four time zones of the continental United States which had made the system desirable in the first place.
However, some classic television programs recorded on studio videotape still exist, are available on DVD – among them NBC's Peter Pan with Mary Martin as Peter, several episodes o
Pamelyn Wanda Ferdin is an American animal rights activist and a former child actress. Ferdin's acting career was during the 1960s and 1970s, though she appeared in projects sporadically in the 1980s and years. Ferdin began her career in numerous television series, gained renown for her work as a voice actress supplying the voice of Lucy Van Pelt in A Boy Named Charlie Brown, as well as in two other Peanuts television specials, she had supporting roles in The Beguiled with Clint Eastwood and Geraldine Page, a lead role in the exploitation film The Toolbox Murders with Cameron Mitchell. She supplied the voice of Fern Arable in Charlotte's Web, she was to be the voice of Penny in the 1977 Disney film The Rescuers, but was replaced by Michelle Stacy. Ferdin distanced herself from acting in the late 1980s, shifted her career to animal rights activism, working as an activist and protester in animal protection programs in New York City and Los Angeles. Ferdin attended Herbert Hoover High School, graduating in 1977.
Ferdin played the Bumsteads' daughter Cookie in the 1968–1969 CBS revival series Blondie. She played Felix Unger's daughter Edna in the 1970s ABC series version of The Odd Couple and Paul Lynde's daughter Sally on the short-lived The Paul Lynde Show, she appeared on Star Trek in 1968 as one of a group of orphaned children led by an alien with sinister motives in the episode "And the Children Shall Lead" and in the 1977 series Space Academy as Laura Gentry. Ferdin provided the voice of Lucy van Pelt in three Peanuts cartoons: the 1969 TV special It Was a Short Summer, Charlie Brown, a 1969 feature film A Boy Named Charlie Brown and the 1971 TV special Play It Again, Charlie Brown. Ferdin was a frequent guest star on episodic television in the 1960s and 1970s, with appearances on Bewitched, Green Acres, The Andy Griffith Show, Daniel Boone, The Monkees, The Flying Nun, The Second Hundred Years, Shazam!, The High Chaparral, The Brady Bunch, Family Affair, American Style, Marcus Welby, M. D. Sigmund and the Sea Monsters, Apple's Way, The Streets of San Francisco, Baretta, CHiPS, 240-Robert.
She had a brief and uncredited role in The Reluctant Astronaut and was featured in the Walt Disney musical The One and Only, Original Family Band. She appeared as Mary Constable in the supernatural thriller Daughter of the Mind and as Abby Clarkson in the horror film The Mephisto Waltz with Alan Alda; the same year, Ferdin appeared in The Christine Jorgensen Story, based on the life of the first trans woman in the United States to undergo sex reassignment surgery, in The Beguiled alongside Clint Eastwood and Geraldine Page. She appeared in the Kurt Vonnegut adaptation Happy Birthday Wanda June, in the exploitation horror film The Toolbox Murders, she voiced Fern Arable, the little girl who raises Wilbur the pig, in the 1973 animated film Charlotte's Web. Ferdin was considered for the role of Regan MacNeil, the demon-possessed girl in the 1973 William Friedkin film The Exorcist, but casting directors decided she was too well-known and cast the then-less-familiar actress Linda Blair, she withdrew from acting in the mid-1980s, but did voice the character of Shelley Kelley in the Kids' WB series Detention in 1999.
After leaving her job as a public relations director in the mid-1990s, Ferdin began working for the Center for Animal Care and Control in New York City. In August 2004, Ferdin accepted the presidency of Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty, according to statements filed under oath in U. S. District Court in New Jersey; the incumbent, Kevin Kjonaas, resigned after being indicted on charges of conspiracy and interstate stalking. When Kjonaas and six other SHAC activists were jailed in 2006, Ferdin vowed to continue the campaign. According to salon.com, she defined her role as "a squeaky-clean representative for SHAC USA," but warned that if the SHAC seven were convicted, "eople, I think, are going to get hurt. There's going to be a lot of violence."In 2004, she accused the parents of Kelly Keen, a three-year-old child killed in a coyote attack, of murdering their daughter and using the story of an animal attack to cover up the crime. This was part of her protest against public efforts to control the coyote population near suburban homes.
On June 22, 2006, Ferdin was sentenced to 90 days in jail for trespassing and "targeted demonstration" outside the home of an employee of the Los Angeles Department of Animal Services. She stated that the conviction "is not going to affect my speaking out and exposing the atrocities occurring at our six city shelters", she was released for serving the full sentence due to prison overcrowding. In December 2006, Ferdin's group, the Animal Defense League, Los Angeles, announced that it had been awarded $75,000 against the city of Los Angeles for an anti-strategic lawsuit against public participation motion. In 2008, Ferdin was found in contempt of court, after violating an injunction; the conviction was overturned and she filed a federal lawsuit against UCLA for harassment. Pamelyn Ferdin's official personal website Pamelyn Ferdin on IMDb Pamelyn Ferdin interview at Classic Film & TV Cafe AnimalScam scans of court documents Hoover High School "Scroll" yearbook, 1974 Pamelyn Ferdin: ‘From Child Actress to Animal Activist’, Washington Times, December 1, 2016
The Cat in the Hat
The Cat in the Hat is a children's book written and illustrated by Theodor Geisel under the pen name Dr. Seuss and first published in 1957; the story centers on a tall anthropomorphic cat, who wears a red and white-striped hat and a red bow tie. The Cat shows up at her brother one rainy day when their mother is away. Despite the repeated objections of the children's fish, the Cat shows the children a few of his tricks in an attempt to entertain them. In the process he and his companions, Thing One and Thing Two, wreck the house; the children and the fish become more and more alarmed until the Cat produces a machine that he uses to clean everything up and disappears just before the children's mother comes home. Geisel created the book in response to a debate in the United States about literacy in early childhood and the ineffectiveness of traditional primers such as those featuring Dick and Jane. Geisel was asked to write a more entertaining primer by William Spaulding, whom he had met during World War II and, director of the education division at Houghton Mifflin.
However, because Geisel was under contract with Random House, the two publishers agreed to a deal: Houghton Mifflin published the education edition, sold to schools, Random House published the trade edition, sold in bookstores. Geisel gave varying accounts of how he created The Cat in the Hat, but in the version he told most he was so frustrated with the word list from which he could choose words to write his story that he decided to scan the list and create a story based on the first two words he found that rhymed; the words he found were hat. The book was met with immediate commercial success. Reviewers praised it as an exciting alternative to traditional primers. Three years after its debut, the book had sold over a million copies, in 2001 Publishers Weekly listed the book at number nine on its list of best-selling children's books of all time; the book's success led to the creation of Beginner Books, a publishing house centered on producing similar books for young children learning to read.
In 1983, Geisel said, "It is the book I'm proudest of because it had something to do with the death of the Dick and Jane primers." The book was adapted into a 2003 live-action film. The story begins as a girl named Sally and her brother, who serves as the narrator of the book, sit alone in their house on a cold, rainy day, staring wistfully out the window, they hear a loud bump, followed by the arrival of the Cat in the Hat, a tall anthropomorphic cat in a red and white striped hat and a red bow tie. The Cat proposes to entertain the children with some tricks; the children's pet fish refuses. The Cat responds by balancing the fish on the tip of his umbrella; the game becomes trickier, as the Cat balances himself on a ball and tries to balance lots of household items on his limbs until he falls on his head, dropping everything he was holding. The fish admonishes him again; the Cat brings in a big red box from outside, from which he releases two identical characters, or "Things" as he refers them to, with blue hair and red suits called Thing One and Thing Two.
The Things cause more trouble, such as flying kites in the house, knocking pictures off the wall and picking up the children's mother's new polka-dotted gown. All this comes to an end. In response, Sally's brother catches the Things in a net, the Cat ashamed, stores them back in the big red box, he takes it out the front door as the fish and the children survey the mess he has made. But the Cat soon returns, riding a machine that picks everything up and cleans the house, delighting the fish and the children; the Cat leaves just before their mother arrives, the fish and the children are back where they started at the beginning of the story. As she steps in, the mother asks the children what they did while she was out, but the children are hesitant and do not answer; the story ends with the question, "What would you do if your mother asked you?" Theodor Geisel, writing as Dr. Seuss, created The Cat in the Hat in response to the May 24, 1954, Life magazine article by John Hersey titled "Why Do Students Bog Down on First R?
A Local Committee Sheds Light on a National Problem: Reading". In the article, Hersey was critical of school primers like those featuring Dick and Jane: In the classroom boys and girls are confronted with books that have insipid illustrations depicting the slicked-up lives of other children... All feature abnormally courteous, unnaturally clean boys and girls.... In bookstores anyone can buy brighter, livelier books featuring strange and wonderful animals and children who behave i.e. sometimes misbehave... Given incentive from school boards, publishers could do as well with primers. After detailing many issues contributing to the dilemma connected with student reading levels, Hersey asked toward the end of the article: Why should not have pictures that widen rather than narrow the associative richness the children give to the words they illustrate—drawings like those of the wonderfully imaginative geniuses among children's illustrators, Howard Pyle, "Dr. Seuss", Walt Disney? This article caught the attention of William Spaulding, who had met Geisel during the war and, the director of Houghton Mifflin's education division.
Spaulding had read the best-selling 1955 book Why Johnny Can't Read by Rudolf Flesch. Flesch, like Hersey, criticized primers as boring but criticized them for teaching reading through word recognition rather than phon
Allan Sherman was an American comedy writer, television producer and actor who became famous as a song parodist in the early 1960s. His first album, My Son, the Folk Singer, became the fastest-selling record album up to that time, his biggest hit single was "Hello Muddah, Hello Fadduh", a comic novelty in which a boy describes his summer camp experiences to the tune of Ponchielli's Dance of the Hours. Sherman was born to Percy Copelon and Rose Sherman. Percy was an auto mechanic and race car driver who suffered from obesity and died while attempting a 100-day diet, his family was Jewish. Sherman's parents divorced when he was in grade school, he adopted his mother's maiden name; because his parents moved to new residences, Sherman attended 21 public schools in Chicago, New York, Los Angeles, Miami. He attended the University of Illinois, where he earned "C" grades and contributed a humor column to The Daily Illini, the college newspaper. Sherman was expelled for breaking into the Sigma Tau Delta sorority house with his girlfriend and future wife Dolores "Dee" Chackes.
Sherman devised. Television producer Mark Goodson adapted Sherman's idea into I've Got a Secret, which ran on CBS from 1952 to 1967. Rather than paying him for the concept, Mark Goodson-Bill Todman Productions made Sherman the show's producer. Sherman was reported to be kindhearted to all who worked for him. However, differences occurred between Sherman and anyone, in a position to try to restrain his creativity; as producer of I've Got a Secret, broadcast live, he showed a fondness for large-scale stunts that had the potential to teeter on the brink of disaster. He once released 100 rabbits onstage as an Easter surprise for the Madison Square Boys Club, whose members were seated in the studio; the boys were invited to come up onstage to collect their prize. Although the resultant melee made a good story, it did not make for good TV. Sherman was fired from What's My Line? in 1958, after guest host Henry Morgan was left short of scripted material by seven minutes. Morgan filled the time by berating Sherman on-air.
Sherman produced a short-lived 1954 game show, What's Going On?, technologically ambitious, with studio guests interacting with multiple live cameras in remote locations. In 1961, he produced a daytime game show for Al Singer Productions called Your Surprise Package, which aired on CBS with host George Fenneman. In 1951, Sherman recorded a 78-rpm single with veteran singer Sylvia Froos which contained "A Satchel and a Seck", parodying "A Bushel and a Peck" from Guys and Dolls, coupled with "Jake's Song", parodying "Sam's Song", a contemporary hit for Bing Crosby and his son Gary; the single sold poorly and when Sherman wrote his autobiography, he did not make reference to it. He found that the song parodies he performed to amuse his friends and family were taking on a life of their own. Sherman lived in the Brentwood section of West Los Angeles next door to Harpo Marx, who invited him to perform his song parodies at parties attended by Marx's show-biz friends. After one party, George Burns phoned an executive at Warner Bros. Records and persuaded him to sign Sherman to a contract.
The result was an LP of these parodies, My Son, the Folk Singer, released in 1962. It sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc; the album was successful and was followed by My Son, the Celebrity. Capitalizing on his success, in 1962 Jubilee Records re-released Sherman's 1951 single on the album More Folk Songs by Allan Sherman and His Friends, which compiled material by various Borscht Belt comedians such as Sylvia Froos, Fyvush Finkel and Lee Tully. Sherman's first two LPs were reworkings of old folk songs to infuse them with Jewish humor, his first minor hit was "Sarah Jackman", a takeoff of "Frère Jacques" in which he and a woman exchange family gossip. The popularity of "Sarah Jackman" was enhanced after President John F. Kennedy was overheard singing the song in the lobby of the Carlyle hotel. By his peak with My Son, the Nut in 1963, Sherman had broadened both his subject matter and his choice of parody material and begun to appeal to a larger audience. Sherman wrote his parody lyrics in collaboration with Lou Busch.
A few of the Sherman/Busch songs are original creations, featuring original music as well as lyrics, rather than new lyrics applied to an existing melody. However, Sherman had trouble in getting permission to record for profit from some well-known composers and lyricists, who did not tolerate parodies or satires of their melodies and lyrics, including Irving Berlin, Richard Rodgers and Ira Gershwin, Meredith Willson, Alan Jay Lerner, Frederick Loewe, as well as the estates of Lorenz Hart, Oscar Hammerstein, Kurt Weill, Bertolt Brecht, which prevented him from releasing parodies or satires of their songs. In the late 1950s, Sherman was inspired by a recording of a nightclub musical show called My Fairfax Lady, a parody of My Fair Lady set in the Jewish section of Los Angeles, performed at Billy Gray's Band Box. Sherman wrote his own song parodies of My Fair Lady, which appeared as a bootleg recording in 1964, were only released in 2005 on My Son, the Box. Alan Jay Lerner did not approve of having the parody being performed.
20th Century Fox Home Entertainment
Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment LLC is the home video distribution arm of the 20th Century Fox film studio. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment was founded in 1995 as the distribution outlet for FoxVideo, CBS/Fox, Fox Kids Video, CBS Video, Fox Interactive, Magnet Interactive, they serve as their film library for home media releases. Fox distributed Yari Film Group DVD titles in North America. TCFHE distributes Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and United Artists titles after MGM ended their home video agreement with Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, they distribute titles from Relativity Media, EuropaCorp U. S. A. Annapurna Pictures and Entertainment One. Fox's best selling DVD titles are the various season box sets of The Simpsons, they once served as the U. S. distributor for television and/or film products released by BBC Video until those North American distribution rights expired in 2000 and have since been transferred to Warner Home Video. They distributed HIT Entertainment releases in 2006 until 2008 when video distribution moved to Lionsgate Home Entertainment Universal Pictures Home Entertainment, as well as distributing DreamWorks Animation films from 2013 to 2017.
In late 2006, the company began releasing its titles on Blu-ray. 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment on IMDb Fox Video on IMDb Fox Home Entertainment's US website Fox Home Entertainment's UK site, which distributes their TV shows on DVD
The CBS/Fox Company, or CBS/Fox Video was a home video entertainment company formed and established in June 1982, as a merger between 20th Century-Fox Video, CBS Video Enterprises which sold film libraries from major American film studios and was the North American licensee of BBC Video releases. These products were released in the VHS, Betamax home video formats; the company was based in Michigan until 1985, when it moved to Livonia, Michigan. In 1989, it moved its headquarters to New York City, where it stayed until it became Fox Video in 1991. CBS/Fox Video was founded under a 50-50 venture with 20th Century Fox in 1982 when CBS broke off a previous venture formed in 1980 with MGM. During this period, both companies continued to operate independently while maintaining their partnership. A reorganization occurred in 1990 with CBS selling products under the CBS Video name and mainstream Fox titles being controlled by FoxVideo. In the early 2000s, CBS/Fox ceased operations. Before CBS/Fox Video existed, 20th Century Fox Video released a few titles for rental only, including Dr. No, A Fistful of Dollars, Taps, For Your Eyes Only and Star Wars.
While sale tapes were in big boxes that were used by CBS/Fox in its early years, Video Rental Library tapes were packaged in black clamshell cases. Similar approaches were taken by other companies. In 1982, CBS formed a 50-50 venture with 20th Century Fox after Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer broke off a joint venture with CBS, MGM/CBS Home Video, to market videocassettes and videodiscs; this was publicly announced on June 18, 1982, where they announced CBS's 40-acre film and production facility in Studio City, California would be operated by both companies. In the process, CBS and Fox continued to independently supply programs for the home video market, while CBS/Fox supplied films from motion picture studios. CBS/Fox inherited deals from its' predecessors Magnetic Video and 20th Century-Fox Video to distribute films from other companies, such as United Artists films; the UA titles distributed by CBS/Fox consisted of pre-MGM merger titles, films from the James Bond and Rocky series, some low profile post-merger films under license from MGM/UA.
These UA films were issued through MGM/UA Home Video starting in 1989. Other deals gave CBS/Fox films including films inherited from Allied Artists. Certain Tri-Star Pictures releases went through CBS/Fox, as CBS, alongside Columbia Pictures and HBO, was a partner in Tri-Star. CBS/Fox secured rights from George Lucas for the video release of The Empire Strikes Back for $12 million on August 30, 1984. Lucas claimed. In 1985, CBS and 20th Century Fox secured a financial package that saw both companies generate between $75 and $100 million; the deal included the offering of bonds with the investment firm Drexel Burnham Lambert. That year, CBS/Fox became the American licensee of BBC Video products. In 1987, the company increased its rights to BBC Video after buying the rights to 600 titles; when asked about how the agreement came to light, then-CBS/Fox president Leonard White said "The deal is timed to coincide with the BBC's 50th anniversary". Within a month of the announcement, CBS/Fox released a definitive line-up of films named "Five Star Collection IV" which included 28 films.
Such films included Revenge of Cat's Eye and Oxford Blues. In November 1989, the company filed a lawsuit against MGM/UA over a video distribution agreement, broken; the claim was that CBS/Fox lost revenue after video releases ended up being films that did not perform well in cinemas while MGM/UA distributed higher-grossing films. The two companies had been placed in a bad relationship since 1981 when MGM bought United Artists and CBS broke away from their previous joint venture with MGM to form CBS/Fox; the case was settled on June 1992, when both companies resolved their differences. In 1990–1991, CBS/Fox began releasing titles from the then-bankrupt Media Home Entertainment. At the end of 1990, CBS/Fox reported they controlled 6.5% of the home video market and reported revenues of $249 million. In March 1991, a reorganization of the company was made, which would give Fox greater control of the joint venture. All of CBS/Fox's distribution functions were transferred to the newly formed FoxVideo, which would take over exclusive distribution of all 20th Century Fox products.
CBS began releasing their products under the "CBS Video" name, with CBS/Fox handling marketing and FoxVideo handling distribution. CBS/Fox would retain the license to non-theatrical products from third parties, including those from BBC Video. 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment was founded in 1995, as an umbrella encompassing FoxVideo, CBS/Fox, several other divisions, including Fox Interact