Camilla Antoinette Clifford was a Belgian-born stage actress and the most famous model for the "Gibson Girl" illustrations. Her towering coiffure and hourglass figure defined the Gibson Girl style. Clifford was born on 29 June 1885 in Antwerp, Belgium to Matilda Ottersen. Camille was raised in Sweden and Boston. In the early 1900s she won US$2,000 in a magazine contest sponsored by illustrator Charles Dana Gibson to find a living version of his Gibson Girl drawings: his ideal woman. Clifford became an actress, performing in the United States from 1902 and in England from 1904, she returned from London to Boston on 3 July 1906. While only playing walk-on, non-speaking roles, Clifford became famous nonetheless: not for her talent, but for her beauty, her trademark style was a long, elegant gown wrapped around her corseted, eighteen-inch wasp waist. She retired from the stage and married Captain the Honourable Henry Lyndhurst Bruce in 1906, they had one child, but the child died five days after birth.
Her first husband was killed during The Great War in 1914. She made a brief return to the stage after the death of her first husband. In 1917, married Captain John Meredyth Jones Evans. After the war she left the stage for good and owned a stable of successful racehorses, her second husband died in 1957. She died on 28 June 1971. Despite her reputation as "the quintessential Gibson Girl", she was by no means the only person to pose for the popular character. Photographs of her taken by Lizzie Caswall Smith in 1905 appear in historical fashion books and on websites to illustrate the Edwardian style
Cosmo Hamilton, born Henry Charles Hamilton Gibbs, was an English playwright and novelist. He was the brother of writers A. Hamilton Gibbs and Sir Philip Gibbs. Hamilton was born in Norwood, he took his mother's maiden name. Hamilton was married twice: first to Beryl Faber, née Crossley Smith, who died in 1912. Hamilton married Julia Bolton, the former wife of playwright Guy Bolton, his London musicals include The The Belle of Mayfair, The Beauty of Bath. During the First World War Hamilton was a lieutenant in the Royal Naval Air Service, he wrote a number of Broadway shows and many screenplays, his novels were the basis for several films. Hamilton died, aged 72, in England. Hamilton wrote dozens of novels, his novels include: Plain brown A Plea for the Younger Generation The Door that Has No Key The Miracle of Love The Sins of the Children Two Kings and Other Romances Who Cares? A Story of Adolescence ISBN 978-1-4069-2525-8 The Rustle of Silk His Majesty, the King: A Romantic Love Chase of the Seventeenth Century ISBN 978-0-548-02418-8 Paradise, read on radio 1925 Twentieth Century Authors: A Biographical Dictionary of Modern Literature, edited by Stanley J. Kunitz and Howard Haycraft, New York, The H. W. Wilson Company, 1942.
Works by Cosmo Hamilton at Project Gutenberg Works by Cosmo Hamilton at LibriVox Works by or about Cosmo Hamilton at Internet Archive Site includes list of Hamilton's novels Cosmo Hamilton on IMDb Cosmo Hamilton at the Internet Broadway Database Obituary
Louisa Emma Amelia "Louie" Pounds was an English singer and actress, known for her performances in musical comedies and in mezzo-soprano roles with the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company. Intended for a secretarial career, Pounds joined the chorus of a George Edwardes show in 1890 and achieved advancement to leading roles in burlesque and musical comedy. In 1899, she joined the D'Oyly Carte company, she was the youngest of five siblings. Her older brother Courtice was a principal tenor with the company in the 1880s and'90s, her three sisters, Lily and Rosy appeared with the company. After four years with D'Oyly Carte, Pounds resumed her career in musical comedies and non-musical plays switching from juvenile to character parts, her career continued into the 1930s. Pounds was born in Brompton, London, she studied to become a secretary, attending the Metropolitan School of Shorthand in Chancery Lane. In the early 1890s she suffered from the obsessional devotion of a man, at the shorthand school with her, he was imprisoned for threatening to kill her.
Pounds made her first professional stage appearance in 1890 as a chorus girl under the management of George Edwardes. After three months he gave her a small role in Joan of Arc at the Opera Comique in January 1891; the following year, she was in Blue-Eyed Susan, by F. Osmond Carr, as Daisy Meadows, in which she "had not much to do but wear smart costumes and look pretty, so far succeeded"; that year she played Lord Soho in the burlesque Cinder Ellen up too Late, with Edwardes's company, on tour and in London. In 1893 she appeared in Edwardes's musical, In Town, in London and on tour, the following year she was one of the stars of the hit musical A Gaiety Girl. In 1895 she appeared with Marie Tempest, Leonora Braham and Sybil Grey in another Edwardes hit, An Artist's Model, in London, appeared in the same show on a three-month tour in America, she next played in Gentleman Joe on a provincial tour. In 1896–98 Pounds played Dorothy Travers in The French Maid in a pre-London tour and in the West End.
In 1897, at Terry's Theatre, she played in a series of special matinée performances of adaptations by Basil Hood and Walter Slaughter of Hans Andersen fairy stories. Her major West End role in 1898 was in the breeches role of Prince Rollo in Her Royal Highness. In 1899, while Pounds was performing in a revue, A Dream of Whitaker's Almanack, at the Crystal Palace, Sir Arthur Sullivan approached her about the forthcoming season at the Savoy Theatre, she joined the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, creating the part of "Heart's Desire" in The Rose of Persia in 1899. She appeared as the title character in the companion piece Pretty Polly. Pounds was at the Coronet Theatre in the summer of 1900 in Hood's The Great Silence. In 1901 for D'Oyly Carte, she created the role of Molly O'Grady in The Emerald Isle, her reviews were enthusiastic: "Miss Louie Pounds so far carries off the honours … that she is allotted the sweetest airs, does justice to them with her dulcet contralto voice.… Pretty of face and comely of figure, she makes the most winsome of colleens, and'tis a lucky … Mr. Henry Lytton to be the accepted sweetheart of such a purty lassie."
Pounds next played Christina in another Savoy piece, Ib and Little Christina, after which, she played the title role in the first revival of Iolanthe. Next at the Savoy were two original works by Edward German. Pounds played "Jill-all-alone" in Merrie England, Joy Jellicoe in A Princess of Kensington. Following the latter's London run and subsequent provincial tour, Pounds left the D'Oyly Carte company, which vacated the Savoy Theatre at that time. Along with many of her colleagues from A Princess of Kensington, Pounds next appeared at the Adelphi Theatre in another hit Edwardian musical comedy, The Earl and the Girl. Over the next twenty years she appeared in numerous musicals and plays, including The Catch of the Season at the Vaudeville Theatre. At the same theatre in 1906, Pounds starred with her brother Courtice in the hit musical The Belle of Mayfair. A review in The Daily Graphic praised both siblings. Another reviewer wrote, "Miss Louie Pounds has never been seen to better advantage, she looks a typical English girl, her singing of'And the weeping willow wept' is quite inimitably artistic".
In 1908, Pounds played Lydia in a revival of the Victorian hit, Dorothy, "a part which did not tax the qualities of this accomplished actress". In 1909, she played in The Dashing Little Duke, appeared on Broadway in The Dollar Princess in 1909–1910, following which she toured in South Africa. Popular theatre stars of the period endorsed products, Pounds was photographed for this purpose. By 1910 she had started to appear in character roles, such as the wife and mother in The Girl in the Train and, in 1913, Patty in J. M. Barrie's Quality Street, Madame Jollette in Toto in 1916, another humorously manipulative wife in The Title in 1919. In 1920–21, she played the comic role of Alcolom in the first Australian production of Chu Chin Chow alongside the Ali Baba of C. H. Workman. Pounds retired in 1923 but reappeared on stage in 1926, she played Widow Windeatt in the 1928 Alfred Hitchcock film The Farmer's Wife. In 1937 she toured as Mrs Bennett with Angela Baddeley and Glen Byam Shaw in a stage adaptation of Pride and Prejudice.
Pounds wrote an article, "Memories of an Earlier Iolanthe", that appeared in the March 1931 issue of The Gilbert & Sullivan Journ
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
The Shaftesbury Theatre is a West End theatre, located on Shaftesbury Avenue, in the London Borough of Camden. Opened in 1911 as the New Prince's Theatre, it was the last theatre to be built in Shaftesbury Avenue; the theatre was designed for the brothers Walter and Frederick Melville by Bertie Crewe and opened on 26 December 1911 with a production of The Three Musketeers, as the New Prince's Theatre, becoming the Prince's Theatre in 1914. It had a stage 31' 10" wide by 31' deep; the Prince's was the last theatre to be built in Shaftesbury Avenue, is located near New Oxford Street explaining the many gaps between performances in its early years. It had considerable success with an 18-week season of Gilbert and Sullivan operas, presented by the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, in 1919; these became a regular attraction at the theatre in the 1920s, interspersed with runs of theatre productions transferred from other venues. Basil Rathbone appeared at the Prince's Theatre in May 1933 when he played Julian Beauclerc in a revival of Diplomacy.
The Rose of Persia was revived at the theatre in 1935. The D'Oyly Carte returned in 1942; the theatre was sold to EMI in 1962, became the Shaftesbury Theatre the following year. Broadway productions that transferred to the theatre for long runs in the 1960s included Gentlemen Prefer Blondes and How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying. Part of the ceiling fell in on 20 July 1973, forcing the closure of the long-running musical Hair, after 1,998 performances. Plans were made to redevelop the theatre, but a campaign by Equity succeeded in having the theatre placed on the'Statutory List of Buildings of Special architectural or Historic Interest', it was Grade II listed by English Heritage in March 1974; the theatre reopened with West Side Story a year later. Long runs in the 1980s included; the next decade included long runs of Kiss of the Spider Woman, Eddie Izzard: Definite Article and Rent. During the redevelopment of the Royal Opera House in nearby Covent Garden in the late 1990s, the theatre was booked as an alternative London venue for performances including Benjamin Britten's Paul Bunyan.
A series of musicals followed. The venue is owned by the Theatre of Comedy Company, who have owned the venue since 1984. In March 2006, the 1,400 seat theatre underwent an internal refurbishment, with the entire auditorium being reseated and recarpeted and the front of house areas redecorated. Since reopening, the theatre has hosted several revivals, including the European premiere of the Tony Award-winning Broadway hit Hairspray, which opened in October 2007 and closed in March 2010. Flashdance The Musical open in September 2010 and closing in January 2011. Stop Flirting The High Road by Frederick Lonsdale Carmen Gentlemen Prefer Blondes How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying Twang!! Hair West Side Story They're Playing Our Song Two into One Follies Out of Order Kiss of the Spider Woman by John Kander and Fred Ebb, starring Chita Rivera Carousel by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II Tommy by The Who and Des McAnuff Rent by Jonathan Larson Thoroughly Modern Millie, starring Amanda Holden and Maureen Lipman Bat Boy: The Musical by Keythe Farley, Brian Flemming and Laurence O'Keefe, starring Deven May The Far Pavilions – The Musical, starring Kulvinder Ghir Daddy Cool – The Musical by Frank Farian, starring Michelle Collins, Javine Hylton and Harvey Junior Fame: The Musical by Jacques Levy and Steve Margoshes, starring Ian Watkins and Natalie Casey Hairspray: The Musical by Marc Shaiman and Scott Wittman.
Starring Michael Ball, Leanne Jones, Mel Smith and Tracie Bennett. Burn the Floor starring Ali Bastian Flashdance Comedy Rush Derren Brown – Svengali Rock of Ages – transferred to the Garrick Theatre Burn the Floor – From Here to Eternity the Musical – The Pajama Game Memphis Motown: The Musical The Illusionists – Witness The Impossible Guide to British Theatres 1750–1950, John Earl and Michael Sell pp. 140–1 ISBN 0-7136-5688-3 Who's Who in the Theatre, edited by John Parker, tenth edition, London, 1947, p. 1184. Tottenham Court Road Holborn Theatre History Shaftesbury Theatre Scenes from the 1921–22 D'Oyly Carte season at the theatre Theatre of Comedy
Lord Dundreary is a character of the 1858 British play Our American Cousin by Tom Taylor. He is the personification of a brainless aristocrat; the role was created on stage by Edward Askew Sothern. The most famous scene involved Dundreary reading a letter from his sillier brother. Sothern expanded the scene in performance. A number of spin-off works were created, including a play about the brother, his name gave rise to two eponyms heard today: Dundrearies were a particular style of facial hair taking the form of exaggeratedly bushy sideburns called dundreary whiskers. They were popular between 1840 and 1870 and in England were called Piccadilly weepers."Dundrearyisms" were expanded malapropisms in the form of twisted and nonsensical aphorisms in the style of Lord Dundreary. These enjoyed a brief vogue. Charles Kingsley wrote an essay entitled, "Speech of Lord Dundreary in Section D, on Friday Last, On the Great Hippocampus Question", a parody of debates about human and ape anatomical features in the form of a nonsensical speech supposed to have been written by Dundreary.
Michael Diamond, Victorian Sensation, London: Anthem, 2003, ISBN 1-84331-150-X, pp. 266–268