The Callisto series is a sequence of eight science fiction novels by Lin Carter, of the sword and planet subgenre, first published by Dell Books from 1972-1978. They were written in homage to the Amtor novels of Edgar Rice Burroughs. Jandar of Callisto Black Legion of Callisto Sky Pirates of Callisto Mad Empress of Callisto Mind Wizards of Callisto Lankar of Callisto Ylana of Callisto Renegade of Callisto Callisto Volume 1 American soldier and helicopter pilot Jonathan Dark crashes in Cambodia near the ruins of the lost city of Arangkhôr. Exploring the ruins at night, he discovers a well-like structure at the center that teleports him to Callisto, one of the moons of Jupiter – or Thanator, as the moon is known to its inhabitants. There he encounters a human civilization linked to that of ancient Cambodia via the well; the inhabitants render his unfamiliar name as "Jandar." On Callisto, Jandar contends with monstrous creatures, savage insect men, barbarian hordes, sky pirates in flying ships, the dangerous Mind Wizards of Kuur while seeking to rescue and win the heart of the beautiful princess Darloona of Shondakar.
The texts of the first five volumes of the series are ostensibly transcripts of first-person narratives by Jonathan Dark recounting his adventures, written with native materials and transported back to Earth via the well. These come into the hands of Lin Carter them for publication. In the sixth novel, Carter himself visits Arangkhôr, falls into the well, experiences a Callistan adventure as "Lankar." The remaining volumes, again purportedly by Dark, recount the stories of other protagonists. The chess-like Callistan game of Darza, depicted in Renegade of Callisto, was inspired by Edgar Rice Burroughs’ Barsoomian game of Jetan, or Martian Chess. Callisto is presented as having an Earthlike tropical environment, capable of supporting human and other life. An unexplained illusion makes the moon appear an lifeless orb to outside observers; the moon is tidally locked to Jupiter. Callisto's known civilized area is limited to this side of the moon; the unknown outer hemisphere explored in some of the books, holds the stronghold of the hostile Mind Wizards.
Physically, Callisto's inner hemisphere, illuminated by Jupiter, is lushly vegetated, its land surface covered by jungle and plain which drain into two seas, one large and one small. A number of inhabited cities of pre-technological culture are known. Visited portions of the darker outer hemisphere are mountainous. Reviewing the first three volumes, Lester del Rey found the series to be "fairly entertaining reading," but noted that Carter had "copied every trick of Burroughs, including those that are faults."To Den Valdron, assessing the books in ERBzine, the series "reads as inferior Barsoom." He views Jandar as "kind of an arrogant jerk... a bit of an egotist... getting into trouble with half baked plans is rescued by his friends or saved by dumb luck." Valdron criticizes the relationship of the hero and heroine, between whom he detects no chemistry. On the plus side, he calls the series's first trilogy "quite good," noting that "he world and the hero are vivid, the action moves quickly. It's hardly deep, but it is fun."
The fourth and fifth volumes he sees as "high points" in the series, praising them as "rousing, fast paced adventure... filled with genuine tension and strangeness, the cliff hanger ending as Jon Dark conceals his notes as his pursuers close in on him is genuinely gripping." He is impressed with the second of these, Mind Wizards of Callisto, which he calls "one of the best, or better of the Callisto books, with enough novelty and action, genuine sexiness to keep things fresh all the way," though noting "for the record, not a single damned Mind Wizard shows up anywhere in this book." But the follow-up, Lankar of Callisto, he regards as "frankly embarrassing to read, what with its endless references to others' works, the obvious self consciousness and'tweeness' of the author, the fact that just about everything interesting happens offstage and to other people. It's an interesting conceit, but sadly it fails." He deems it "an odd novel, more travelogue than adventure, Carter's constant references to other works of fiction are a bit annoying... a painful lack of imagination."
He finds the plot and action thin, the author an inadequate action hero, pointing out that "the'dog' that adopts him does all the work." The seventh volume is "etter... Carter makes a real effort to keep the pages turning, but sadly, he offers nothing new and nothing remarkable, the plot is thin with complications shoehorned in." The eighth book Valdron views as "somewhat of a recovery" from the previous two weak entries, finding it "acceptable good." Lin Carter at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Lin Carter's Callisto Series - an extensive twelve-part exploration of Carter's Callisto by Den Valdron
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid. The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga some time before the 7th century. Chaturanga is the ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi and shogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania; the pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century with the introduction of "Mad Queen Chess". Play does not involve hidden information; each player begins with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn; the objective is to checkmate the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each other.
During the game, play involves making exchanges of one piece for an opponent's similar piece, but finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously, or to get a better position. In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponent runs out of time. There are several ways that a game can end in a draw; the first recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886. Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs, the game's international governing body. FIDE awards life-time master titles to skilled players, the highest of, grandmaster. Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own. FIDE organizes the Women's World Championship, the World Junior Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Blitz and Rapid World Championships, the Chess Olympiad, a popular competition among international teams. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee, which can be considered as a recognition of chess as a sport.
Several national sporting bodies recognize chess as a sport. Chess was included in 2010 Asian Games. There is a Correspondence Chess World Championship and a World Computer Chess Championship. Online chess has opened professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Since the second half of the 20th century, chess engines have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where the strongest personal computers play at a higher level than the best human players. Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed to chess theory in the endgame; the IBM computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about cheating during tournaments. There are many variants of chess that utilize pieces, or boards. One of these, Chess960, incorporates standard rules but employs 960 different possible starting positions, thus negating any advantage in opening preparation.
Chess960 has gained widespread popularity as well as some FIDE recognition. The rules of chess are published by chess's international governing body, in its Handbook. Rules published by national governing bodies, or by unaffiliated chess organizations, commercial publishers, etc. may differ. FIDE's rules were most revised in 2017. Chess is played on a square board of eight columns; the 64 squares are referred to as light and dark squares. The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player. By convention, the game pieces are divided into white and black sets, the players are referred to as White and Black, respectively; each player begins the game with 16 pieces of the specified color, consisting of one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, eight pawns. The pieces are set out as shown in the diagram and photo, with each queen on a square of its own color. In competitive games, the colors are allocated by the organizers; the player with the white pieces moves first.
After the first move, players alternate turns. Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, captured and removed from play. With the sole exception of en passant, all pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies. A player may not make any move that would leave the player's own king under attack. A player cannot "pass" a turn. If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; each piece has its own way of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece of either color; the king moves one square in any direction. The king has
A dandy is a man who places particular importance upon physical appearance, refined language, leisurely hobbies, pursued with the appearance of nonchalance in a cult of self. A dandy could be a self-made man who strove to imitate an aristocratic lifestyle despite coming from a middle-class background in late 18th- and early 19th-century Britain. Previous manifestations of the petit-maître and the Muscadin have been noted by John C. Prevost, but the modern practice of dandyism first appeared in the revolutionary 1790s, both in London and in Paris; the dandy cultivated cynical reserve, yet to such extremes that novelist George Meredith, himself no dandy, once defined cynicism as "intellectual dandyism". Some took a more benign view. Honoré de Balzac introduced the worldly and unmoved Henri de Marsay in La fille aux yeux d'or, a part of La Comédie Humaine, who fulfils at first the model of a perfect dandy, until an obsessive love-pursuit unravels him in passionate and murderous jealousy. Charles Baudelaire defined the dandy, in the "metaphysical" phase of dandyism, as one who elevates æsthetics to a living religion, that the dandy's mere existence reproaches the responsible citizen of the middle class: "Dandyism in certain respects comes close to spirituality and to stoicism" and "These beings have no other status, but that of cultivating the idea of beauty in their own persons, of satisfying their passions, of feeling and thinking....
Dandyism is a form of Romanticism. Contrary to what many thoughtless people seem to believe, dandyism is not an excessive delight in clothes and material elegance. For the perfect dandy, these things are no more than the symbol of the aristocratic superiority of mind." The linkage of clothing with political protest had become a English characteristic during the 18th century. Given these connotations, dandyism can be seen as a political protest against the levelling of egalitarian principles including nostalgic adherence to feudal or pre-industrial values, such as the ideals of "the perfect gentleman" or "the autonomous aristocrat". Paradoxically, the dandy required an audience, as Susann Schmid observed in examining the "successfully marketed lives" of Oscar Wilde and Lord Byron, who exemplify the dandy's roles in the public sphere, both as writers and as personae providing sources of gossip and scandal. Nigel Rodgers in The Dandy: Peacock or Enigma? Questions Wilde's status as a genuine dandy, seeing him as someone who only assumed a dandified stance in passing, not a man dedicated to the exacting ideals of dandyism.
The origin of the word is uncertain. Eccentricity, defined as taking characteristics such as dress and appearance to extremes, began to be applied to human behavior in the 1770s. A later Scottish border ballad, circa 1780 features the word, but without all the contextual aspects of its more recent meaning; the original, full form of'dandy' may have been jack-a-dandy. It was a vogue word during the Napoleonic Wars. In that contemporary slang, a "dandy" was differentiated from a "fop" in that the dandy's dress was more refined and sober than the fop's. In the twenty-first century, the word dandy is a jocular sarcastic adjective meaning "fine" or "great"; the model dandy in British society was George Bryan "Beau" Brummell, in his early days, an undergraduate student at Oriel College, Oxford and an associate of the Prince Regent. Brummell was not from an aristocratic background. A. Barbey d'Aurevilly observed in 1845. Never unpowdered or unperfumed, immaculately bathed and shaved, dressed in a plain dark blue coat, he was always brushed fitted, showing much starched linen, all freshly laundered, composed with an elaborately knotted cravat.
From the mid-1790s, Beau Brummell was the early incarnation of "the celebrity", a man chiefly famous for being famous. By the time Pitt taxed hair powder in 1795 to help pay for the war against France and to discourage the use of flour in such a frivolous product, Brummell had abandoned wearing a wig, had his hair cut in the Roman fashion, "à la Brutus". Moreover, he led the transition from breeches to snugly tailored dark "pantaloons," which directly led to contemporary trousers, the sartorial mainstay of men's clothes in the Western world for the past two centuries. In 1799, upon coming of age, Beau Brummell inherited from his father a fortune of thirty thousand pounds, which he spent on costume and high living. In 1816 he suffered the dandy's stereotyped fate. Men of more notable accomplishments than Beau Brummell adopted the dandiacal pose: George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron
Planetary romance is a subgenre of science fiction or science fantasy in which the bulk of the action consists of adventures on one or more exotic alien planets, characterized by distinctive physical and cultural backgrounds. Some planetary romances take place against the background of a future culture where travel between worlds by spaceship is commonplace. In either case, it is the planetside adventures which are the focus of the story, not the mode of travel; the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction mentions two caveats as to the usage of the term. First, while the setting may be in an alien world, its nature is of little relevance to the plot, as is the case of James Blish's A Case of Conscience. Second, hard science fiction tales are excluded from this category, where an alien planet, while being a critical component of the plot, is just a background for a scientific endeavor, such as Hal Clement' s Mission of Gravity with embellishments. A significant precursor of the genre is Edwin L. Arnold's Lieut.
Gullivar Jones: His Vacation. In Science Fiction: The 100 Best Novels and critic David Pringle named Marion Zimmer Bradley and Anne McCaffrey two "leading practitioners nowadays" for the planetary romance type of science fiction. There is a significant overlap of the genre with that of planet. Almuric by Robert E. Howard Arrakis by Frank Herbert Barsoom and Amtor by Edgar Rice Burroughs Darkover by Marion Zimmer Bradley Eldorado by Francis Carsac Gor by John Norman Hainish Cycle by Ursula K. Le Guin Helliconia by Brian Aldiss Jack of Shadows by Roger Zelazny Kregen by Kenneth Bulmer Krishna by L. Sprague de Camp Majipoor by Robert Silverberg Pern by Anne McCaffrey The Radio Man by Ralph Milne Farley Riverworld, The Green Odyssey and World of Tiers by Philip José Farmer The Saga of the Skolian Empire by Catherine Asaro, including the worlds of Raylicon, Parthonia and Skyfall; the Space Trilogy by C. S. Lewis. Michael Kane of Old Mars by Michael Moorcock Tormance in A Voyage to Arcturus by David Lindsay Much of the science fiction work of Jack Vance: the Big Planet duo, the Alastor trio, the Durdane tetralogy, the Cadwal Chronicles trilogy, the Tschai or Planet of Adventure tetralogy, most of the Magnus Ridolph stories, the Demon Princes pentalogy, various stand-alone novels such as Maske: Thaery and short stories such as The Moon Moth.
Adam Strange Buck Rogers Flash Gordon Space Family Robinson World of Two Moons/Abode—Elfquest Den The Trigan Empire Apokolips and New Genesis—Fourth World The Joker System—Five Star Stories Planet Hulk World War Hulk Ythaq: The Forsaken World Avatar – James Cameron film set on the fictional world of Pandora. Defiance – TV series set on a terraformed, altered version of Earth itself. Earth 2 – TV series set on an Earth-like planet known as'G889'. Forbidden Planet — an early film in the genre, set on the planet Altair IV. Irandaam Ulagam – Indian Tamil language film John Carter – A film depicting a romanticised version of Mars. Thor: Ragnarok - A film based on Planet Hulk. Byston Well— Aura Battler Dunbine Eternia and Etheria— Masters of the Universe Sagar— Blackstar Third Earth— Thundercats Planets in science fiction Soft science fiction Space opera Planetary romance on The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction
Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli, was an Italian astronomer and science historian. He studied at the University of Turin, graduating in 1854, did research at Berlin Observatory, under Encke. In 1859–1860 he worked in Pulkovo Observatory near St Petersburg, worked for over forty years at Brera Observatory in Milan, he was a senator of the Kingdom of Italy, a member of the Accademia dei Lincei, the Accademia delle Scienze di Torino and the Regio Istituto Lombardo, is known for his studies of Mars. Among Schiaparelli's contributions are his telescopic observations of Mars. In his initial observations, he named the "seas" and "continents" of Mars. During the planet's "Great Opposition" of 1877, he observed a dense network of linear structures on the surface of Mars which he called "canali" in Italian, meaning "channels" but the term was mistranslated into English as "canals". While the term "canals" indicates an artificial construction, the term "channels" connotes that the observed features were natural configurations of the planetary surface.
From the incorrect translation into the term "canals", various assumptions were made about life on Mars. Among the most fervent supporters of the artificial-canal hypothesis was the American astronomer Percival Lowell, who spent much of his life trying to prove the existence of intelligent life on the red planet. After Lowell's death in 1916, astronomers developed a consensus against the canal hypothesis, but the popular concept of Martian canals excavated by intelligent Martians remained in the public mind for the first half of the 20th century, inspired a corpus of works of classic science fiction. With notable thanks to the observations of the Italian astronomer Vincenzo Cerulli, scientists came to the conclusion that the famous channels were mere optical illusions; the last popular speculations about canals were put to rest during the spaceflight era beginning in the 1960s, when visiting spacecraft such as Mariner 4 photographed the surface with much higher resolution than Earth-based telescopes, confirming that there are no structures resembling "canals".
In his book Life on Mars, Schiaparelli wrote: "Rather than true channels in a form familiar to us, we must imagine depressions in the soil that are not deep, extended in a straight direction for thousands of miles, over a width of 100, 200 kilometers and maybe more. I have pointed out that, in the absence of rain on Mars, these channels are the main mechanism by which the water can spread on the dry surface of the planet." An observer of objects in the Solar System, Schiaparelli worked on binary stars, discovered the large main-belt asteroid 69 Hesperia on 29 April 1861, demonstrated that the meteor showers were associated with comets. He proved, for example, that the orbit of the Leonid meteor shower coincided with that of the comet Tempel-Tuttle; these observations led the astronomer to formulate the hypothesis, subsequently proved to be correct, that the meteor showers could be the trails of comets. He was a keen observer of the inner planets Mercury and Venus, he determined their rotation periods.
In 1965, it was shown that his and most other subsequent measurements of Mercury's period were incorrect. Schiaparelli was a scholar of the history of classical astronomy, he was the first to realize that the concentric spheres of Eudoxus of Cnidus and Callippus, unlike those used by many astronomers of times, were not to be taken as material objects, but only as part of an algorithm similar to the modern Fourier series. Lalande Prize Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society Bruce Medal The main-belt asteroid 4062 Schiaparelli, named on 15 September 1989; the lunar crater Schiaparelli The Martian crater Schiaparelli Schiaparelli Dorsum on Mercury The 2016 ExoMars' Schiaparelli lander. His niece, Elsa Schiaparelli, became a noted maker of haute couture. 1873 – Le stelle cadenti 1893 – La vita sul pianeta Marte 1925 – Scritti sulla storia della astronomia antica in three volumes. Bologna. Reprint: Milano, Mimesis, 1997. "Schiaparelli, Giovanni Virginio", biography from www.daviddarling.info. Obituaries: G. V. Schiaparelli, J. G. Galle, J. B. N. Hennessey J. Coles, J. E. Gore, The Observatory, Vol. 33, p. 311–318, August 1910 Source texts from Wikisource in Italian and English.
Le Mani su Marte: I diari di G. V. Schiaparelli. Observational diaries, manuscripts & drawings. Historical Archive of Brera Observatory. Works by Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Giovanni Schiaparelli at Internet Archive AN 185 193/194 ApJ 32 313 MNRAS 71 282 PASP 22 164
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics and chemistry in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, stars, nebulae and comets. More all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject is physical cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is one of the oldest of the natural sciences; the early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Indians, Nubians, Chinese and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky. Astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now considered to be synonymous with astrophysics. Professional astronomy is split into theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, analyzed using basic principles of physics.
Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain observational results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results. Astronomy is one of the few sciences in which amateurs still play an active role in the discovery and observation of transient events. Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, such as finding new comets. Astronomy means "law of the stars". Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two fields share a common origin, they are now distinct. Both of the terms "astronomy" and "astrophysics" may be used to refer to the same subject. Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the Earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties," while "astrophysics" refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with "the behavior, physical properties, dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena."
In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject. However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could be called astrophysics; some fields, such as astrometry, are purely astronomy rather than astrophysics. Various departments in which scientists carry out research on this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics" depending on whether the department is affiliated with a physics department, many professional astronomers have physics rather than astronomy degrees; some titles of the leading scientific journals in this field include The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Astronomy and Astrophysics. In early historic times, astronomy only consisted of the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye.
In some locations, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops and in understanding the length of the year. Before tools such as the telescope were invented, early study of the stars was conducted using the naked eye; as civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Persia, China and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop. Most early astronomy consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, the nature of the Sun and the Earth in the Universe were explored philosophically; the Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the Ptolemaic system, named after Ptolemy.
A important early development was the beginning of mathematical and scientific astronomy, which began among the Babylonians, who laid the foundations for the astronomical traditions that developed in many other civilizations. The Babylonians discovered. Following the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena. In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, he proposed a model of the Solar System where the Earth and planets rotated around the Sun, now called the heliocentric model. In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and inven