The Graveyard Game
The Graveyard Game is the fourth installment in the series of science fiction time travel novels by Kage Baker concerning the exploits of The Company. The protagonists of the series are immortal cyborgs the botanist Mendoza, the Facilitator Joseph, they were recruited as children to serve the Company in its ostensible mission to preserve artifacts from the past for a better future. Like the second novel, Sky Coyote, this is a volume which fills in background, not apparent to Mendoza, the narrator of the first and third books; the principal characters are his friend, the Literature Specialist Lewis. Action continues through the next 250 years. Over this period the world changes profoundly. Japan suffers violent sinks into the sea. Japanese society relocates to Mexico; the USA fragments into independent republics. Animal rights movements and other activists pass laws eliminating the consumption of meat, dairy products, chocolate, alcohol and many other stimulants and foods. Los Angeles becomes an anarchic war-zone walled off from the rest of California.
Terrorists use a nuclear weapon to destroy Belfast, Northern Ireland. Anti-gravity is "re-discovered". Graveyards, both figurative and literal, recur as a motif in the narrative. Porfirio is introduced during a traditional visit to a cemetery on the Day of the Dead festival; the repositories where cyborgs Enforcers, are held in suspended animation, are a kind of graveyard. One such has its entrance inside a tomb. Joseph has to disinter Budu from an urban park, as neat as any cemetery, take him to a repository for revival. Segments titled "Joseph in the darkness" appear before and after each of the episodes described below. Joseph talking to his father-figure, fills in historical detail in the storyline and discusses his own motivations. In Mendoza in Hollywood, the botanist Mendoza and her companion Einar were thrown forward in time from 1863 to 1996 in Laurel Canyon, Los Angeles; this is supposed to be impossible, but Mendoza is a Crome generator, a psychic who cannot control her potential, Laurel Canyon is a focus of Crome radiation.
As the action of this novel opens, Lewis is arriving at Company HQ in Laurel Canyon in 1996. Entering the building he is just in time to see Mendoza being sent back to her own time, tries to warn her "Don't go with him!", meaning the English agent she encounters later. From his point of view, that encounter was the cause of her disappearance, she vanishes. Lewis takes advantage of work in San Francisco to contact Joseph, working in the hi-tech industry there. Joseph persuades him to try out a new virtual reality helmet, which turns out to have a fault that disables cyborgs' implanted monitors for 24 hours. Joseph and Lewis can now talk without Company eavesdropping. Reluctant, Joseph drives Lewis to Bodega Bay to talk to Juan Bautista, the last cyborg to see Mendoza, they give him a dose of VR and pump him for information. Juan Bautista is able to draw a picture of the man Mendoza met in 1863 and subsequently ran away with. To Joseph's shock, the man is a double for Nicholas Harpole, the religious fanatic with whom Mendoza fell in love in Tudor England, and, subsequently burned at the stake.
Joseph sees Nicholas as the main cause of Mendoza's troubles. He hates religious fanatics of all stripes. Leaving Juan Bautista and Lewis agree to meet from time to time as circumstances allow, as they learn more. A family is celebrating the "Day of the Dead" at a graveyard in Texas; the paterfamilias an uncle, is Porfirio, Mendoza's Facilitator in 1863. Under cover of an electrical storm, Joseph contacts asks what he knows about Mendoza. Porfirio tells him Mendoza; the Company operated resorts for rich clients back before the arrival of humans in the New World. She must have been sent there, but why? Porfirio sends Joseph on his way with one request: don't come back. Lewis poses as an antiquarian, buying old papers and books, comes into possession of a box which contains a picture of a man named Edward Alton Bell-Fairfax, who he recognizes as the man in the picture drawn by Juan Bautista. Further research turns up a well-born man a natural son of someone in high places, with powerful friends who guide his life.
He served as an agent of various shadowy entities. Lewis contacts Joseph and they meet in London, they make a junket to the north of England. They spend time in the country of "The Innocents", an imagined novel combining elements of Animal Farm and Watership Down; this novel and its loony fans are among the catalysts for the growing animal-rights movement which will ban meat consumption in many countries. They stay at a house run by two of the more extreme fans, he has decoded some information Budu forced on him, he means to act on it. Under cover of another storm, Joseph sneaks out with Lewis tailing him, they uncover a secret installation in a hillside, containing many cyborgs suspended in tanks of fluid. Are Mendoza and Budu in places like this? Lewis' Company conditioning, intended to keep cyborgs out of forbidden places, causes him to re-experience his suppressed memories of being disabled and kidnapped in medieval Ireland, he begins to understand why the Company left him in South America for 700 years, until the events recorded in Sky Coyote.
Lewis is still researching Edward. He learns that Nennius, another cyborg, was monitoring or guiding Edward being the
The Life of the World to Come
The Life of the World to Come is the fifth installment in the series of science fiction time travel novels by Kage Baker concerning the exploits of The Company. This novel is another chapter in the disastrous life of the cyborg botanist Mendoza, recruited by the Company in 16th century Spain, exiled to the far past. Twice in her life the same man, in different identities, has visited her, become her lover, been killed. Neither seemed to know her at first. Alec Checkerfield is a 24th-century data smuggler who steals a time machine, he encounters Mendoza. She encounters him. It's deja vu all over again for her, he is mystified. This meeting catalyzes the most horrific event in human history. All involved are left wondering what they have done, why. Meanwhile, Dr. Zeus seems to go from strength to strength; the first part is an extension of the first person accounts supplied by Mendoza, which accounts are previous chapters in her journal, written on any material she can get. Somehow all of this manages to stay intact for the unknown amount of time 3000 years, that Mendoza spends in exile on Santa Catalina.
The period is uncertain. From time to time she looks down at her plants, next time she looks up months or years have slipped by, she may just be doing the cyborg version of'zoning out', but since she has slipped forward in time once, there's no telling what might be happening. What is certain is that she is about 150,000 years in the past, growing fruit and vegetables for a Company resort on Santa Cruz island. One day, a man shows up in a Company Time Shuttle; these unknown vessels let the Company ship tourists back to the past, but can only be piloted by cyborgs. Nonetheless the man is the image of her two previous lovers, she does unto him what she did unto them; this time, however, he leaves behind genetic material. She is able to in a different way, his name is Alec Checkerfield. Next we learn about "Smart Alec", precocious scion of rich privileged 24th century Londoners, who leave him in the care of their housekeepers so they can get on with their lives away from dismal, puritanical England.
Alec affects all around him machines. Given a controlled moral teaching unit at a young age, he is able to re-program it by instinct to become his personal assistant and partner in crime; this entity becomes "The Captain", after the pirate Captain Morgan. They resolve to rule the oceans of the world. Since meat, chocolate etc. are illegal in most of the developed world, this is both easy and lucrative. With the assistance of the Captain, Alec outwits the Company and becomes master of his own time machine; this is in no small part thanks to Mendoza, who disables the self-destruct device on the one he stole from the Company. However, at the peak of his achievements, he finds he has committed one of the most heinous crimes of history. He, Mendoza and the Inklings all become aware of their parts in this. All are left filled with self-loathing and worse. Alec Checkerfield grows up in part of a privileged class of Administrators. Alec is different, he instinctively understands computers, can impose his will on others to some extent.
At first he uses these abilities to get the usual things, women etc. but he comes to the attention of Dr. Zeus Inc. which operates at this time. Warned by his Artificial Intelligence companion, "The Captain", that a person he is talking to is a cyborg, he makes an exit from the Company offices, begins to work on finding out the truth, while living off the proceeds of smuggling alcohol, coffee and other illegal commodities. Alec Checkerfield, Nicholas Harpole, Edward Alton Bell-Fairfax are one and the same, or at least different versions of the same man, created for the Adonai project. Genetically they are tetraploid, which means that if Mendoza were still human, there would be certain obstacles to her enjoying full connubial bliss with any one of them; the "New Inklings" are idle geniuses who have, at least in their own minds and deployed, from their lofty perches in the 24th century, all the Enforcers, Facilitators and other cyborgs working for the Company throughout history. Given how much trouble it was to deal with the Enforcers once they stopped being useful, since they could hardly be passed off as normal humans, they begin the project Adonai, creating a non-cyborg human who will have the qualities they want and be easier to control, not to mention kill if necessary.
Their first test run involves a man in Tudor England who grows up to be Nicholas Harpole.... In previous episodes, Santa Catalina Island off of California seems to be a focus of Company attention and the key to its history. In this episode one learns more of what is there, how Mendoza's lovers, indirectly the "New Inklings," played a part in its initial discovery, which gave rise to the Company itself. Other major players in previous novels, such as Joseph and Lewis, do not appear here. In fact the only cyborg named is Mendoza herself. Kage Baker official site - About the novel Excerpt from the novel
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Library of Congress Classification
The Library of Congress Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U. S. and several other countries. LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books, which defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "82006074" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/82006074". The Classification is distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically; the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982"; the classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, the Putnam Classification System.
It was designed for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K and parts of B were well developed. LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is enumerative in nature; that is, it provides a guide to the books in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system; the National Library of Medicine classification system uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC. Others include Medicine R. Subclass AC -- Collections. Series. Collected works Subclass AE – Encyclopedias Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works Subclass AI – Indexes Subclass AM – Museums.
Collectors and collecting Subclass AN – Newspapers Subclass AP – Periodicals Subclass AS – Academies and learned societies Subclass AY – Yearbooks. Almanacs. Directories Subclass AZ – History of scholarship and learning; the humanities Subclass B – Philosophy Subclass BC – Logic Subclass BD – Speculative philosophy Subclass BF – Psychology Subclass BH – Aesthetics Subclass BJ – Ethics Subclass BL – Religions. Mythology. Rationalism Subclass BM – Judaism Subclass BP – Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc. Subclass BQ – Buddhism Subclass BR – Christianity Subclass BS – The Bible Subclass BT – Doctrinal theology Subclass BV – Practical Theology Subclass BX – Christian Denominations Subclass C – Auxiliary Sciences of History Subclass CB – History of Civilization Subclass CC – Archaeology Subclass CD – Diplomatics. Archives. Seals Subclass CE – Technical Chronology. Calendar Subclass CJ – Numismatics Subclass CN – Inscriptions. Epigraphy Subclass CR – Heraldry Subclass CS – Genealogy Subclass CT – Biography Subclass D – History Subclass DA – Great Britain Subclass DAW – Central Europe Subclass DB – Austria – Liechtenstein – Hungary – Czechoslovakia Subclass DC – France – Andorra – Monaco Subclass DD – Germany Subclass DE – Greco-Roman World Subclass DF – Greece Subclass DG – Italy – Malta Subclass DH – Low Countries – Benelux Countries Subclass DJ – Netherlands Subclass DJK – Eastern Europe Subclass DK – Russia.
Soviet Union. Former Soviet Republics – Poland Subclass DL – Northern Europe. Scandinavia Subclass DP – Spain – Portugal Subclass DQ – Switzerland Subclass DR – Balkan Peninsula Subclass DS – Asia Subclass DT – Africa Subclass DU – Oceania Subclass DX – Romanies Class E does not have any subclasses. Class F does not have any subclasses, however Canadian Universities and the Canadian National Library use FC for Canadian History, a subclass that the LC has not adopted, but which it has agreed not to use for anything else Subclass G – Geography. Atlases. Maps Subclass GA – Mathematical geography. Cartography Subclass GB – Physical geography Subclass GC – Oceanography Subclass GE – Environmental Sciences Subclass GF – Human ecology. Anthropogeography Subclass GN – Anthropology Subclass GR – Folklore Subclass GT – Manners and customs Subclass GV – Recreation. Leisure Subclass H – Social sciences Subclass HA – Statistics Subclass HB – Economic theory. Demography Subclass HC – Economic history and conditions Subclass HD – Industries.
Land use. Labor Subclass HE – Transportation and communications Subclass HF – Commerce Subclass HG – Finance Subclass HJ – Public finance Subclass HM – Sociology Subclass HN – Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform Subclass HQ – The family. Marriage and Sexuality Subclass HS – Societies: secret, etc. Subclass HT – Communities. Classes. Races Subclass HV – Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology Subclass HX – Socialism. Communism. Anarchism Subclass J – General legislative and executive papers Subclass JA – Political science Subclass JC – Political theory Subclass JF – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JJ – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JK – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JL – Political instit
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Kage Baker was an American science fiction and fantasy writer. Baker was born and raised in Hollywood and lived in Pismo Beach in life. Before becoming a professional writer she spent many years in theater, including teaching Elizabethan English as a second language, her unusual first name is a combination of the names of her two grandmothers and Genevieve. She is best known for her "Company" series of historical time travel science fiction, her first stories were published in Asimov's Science Fiction in 1997, her first novel, In the Garden of Iden, by Hodder & Stoughton in the same year. Other notable works include Mendoza in Hollywood and "The Empress of Mars", which won the Theodore Sturgeon Award and was nominated for a Hugo Award. In 2008, she donated her archive to the department of Rare Books and Special Collections at Northern Illinois University. In 2009, her short story "Caverns of Mystery" and her novel House of the Stag were both nominated for World Fantasy Awards, but neither piece won.
In January 2010, it was reported that Baker was ill with cancer. She died from uterine cancer at 1:00 a.m. on January 31, 2010, in Pismo Beach, California. She was survived by five younger siblings located in southern and central California. In 2010, Baker's The Women of Nell Gwynne's was nominated for a Hugo Award and a World Fantasy Award in the Best Novella categories. On May 15, 2010, that work was awarded the 2009 Nebula Award in the Best Novella category. Baker left an unfinished novel, Nell Gwynne's On Land and At Sea, completed by Kathleen Bartholomew based on extensive notes left by Baker, was published in 2012. In the Garden of Iden Sky Coyote Mendoza in Hollywood The Graveyard Game The Life of the World to Come The Children of the Company The Machine's Child The Sons of Heaven The Empress of Mars Not Less than Gods Nell Gwynne's On Land and At Sea Black Projects, White Knights: The Company Dossiers Gods and Pawns In the Company of Thieves The Empress of Mars The Angel in the Darkness Rude Mechanicals The Women of Nell Gwynne's The Anvil of the World The House of the Stag The Bird of the River Where the Golden Apples Grow Or Else My Lady Keeps the Key The Hotel Under the Sand Tachyon Publications Mother Ægypt and Other Stories "Dark Mondays" The Best of Kage Baker Ancient Rockets: Treasures and Trainwrecks of the Silent Screen Tachyon Publications Eldridge, Cat.
"An Interview with Kage Baker". The Green Man Review. Archived from the original on December 8, 2011. Retrieved March 11, 2012. Gevers, Nick. "Interview: Of Mars and the Spanish Main: An Interview with Kage Baker by Nick Gevers". Subterranean Press. Archived from the original on March 11, 2012. Retrieved March 11, 2012. Hartwell, David. "On Kage Baker". Tor.com. Macmillan. Retrieved March 11, 2012. Martini, Adrienne. "An Interview with Kage Baker". Bookslut. Retrieved March 11, 2012. Vandermeer, Jeff. "An Interview with Kage Baker". Clarkesworld Magazine. Retrieved March 11, 2012. Official website Kathleen, Kage & the Company Kage's sister Kathleen's blog about continuing Kage's legacy Kage Baker at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Kage Baker, entry at the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, 3rd edition Kage Baker's online fiction at Free Speculative Fiction Online Susan O'Fearna's illustrated bibliography Review, In the Garden of Iden Review, Sky Coyote Review, The Anvil of the World
Enlil known as Elil, is an ancient Mesopotamian god associated with wind, air and storms. He is first attested as the chief deity of the Sumerian pantheon, but he was worshipped by the Akkadians, Babylonians and Hurrians. Enlil's primary center of worship was the Ekur temple in the city of Nippur, believed to have been built by Enlil himself and was regarded as the "mooring-rope" of heaven and earth, he is sometimes referred to in Sumerian texts as Nunamnir. According to one Sumerian hymn, Enlil himself was so holy that not the other gods could look upon him. Enlil rose to prominence during the twenty-fourth century BC with the rise of Nippur, his cult fell into decline after Nippur was sacked by the Elamites in 1230 BC and he was supplanted as the chief god of the Mesopotamian pantheon by the Babylonian national god Marduk. The Babylonian god Bel was a syncretic deity of Enlil and the dying god Dumuzid. Enlil plays a vital role in the Sumerian creation myth. In the Sumerian Flood myth, Enlil rewards Ziusudra with immortality for having survived the flood and, in the Babylonian flood myth, Enlil is the cause of the flood himself, having sent the flood to exterminate the human race, who made too much noise and prevented him from sleeping.
The myth of Enlil and Ninlil is about Enlil's serial seduction of the goddess Ninlil in various guises, resulting in the conception of the moon-god Nanna and the Underworld deities Nergal and Enbilulu. Enlil was regarded as the patron of agriculture. Enlil features prominently in several myths involving his son Ninurta, including Anzû and the Tablet of Destinies and Lugale. Enlil's name comes from ancient Sumerian EN, meaning "lord" and LÍL meaning "wind", his name therefore translates as "Lord Wind". Enlil's name is not a genitive construction, indicating that Enlil was seen as the personification of the wind itself rather than the cause of wind. Enlil was the patron god of the Sumerian city-state of Nippur and his main center of worship was the Ekur temple located there; the name of the temple means "Mountain House" in ancient Sumerian. The Ekur was believed to have been established by Enlil himself, it was believed to be the "mooring-rope" of heaven and earth, meaning that it was seen as "a channel of communication between earth and heaven".
A hymn written during the reign of Ur-Nammu, the founder of the Third Dynasty of Ur, describes the E-kur in great detail, stating that its gates were carved with scenes of Imdugud, a lesser deity sometimes shown as a giant bird, slaying a lion and an eagle snatching up a sinner. The Sumerians believed, they thought. As such, cult statues were given constant care and attention and a set of priests were assigned to tend to them. People worshipped Enlil by other human necessities to him; the food, ritually laid out before the god's cult statue in the form of a feast, was believed to be Enlil's daily meal, after the ritual, it would be distributed among his priests. These priests were responsible for changing the cult statue's clothing; the Sumerians envisioned Enlil as a benevolent, fatherly deity, who watches over humanity and cares for their well-being. One Sumerian hymn describes Enlil as so glorious that the other gods could not look upon him; the same hymn states that, without Enlil, civilization could not exist.
Enlil's epithets include titles such as "the Great Mountain" and "King of the Foreign Lands". Enlil is sometimes described as a "raging storm", a "wild bull", a "merchant"; the Mesopotamians envisioned him as a creator, a father, a king, the supreme lord of the universe. He was known as "Nunamnir" and is referred to in at least one text as the "East Wind and North Wind". Kings sought to emulate his example. Enlil was said to be intolerant towards evil. Rulers from all over Sumer would travel to Enlil's temple in Nippur to be legitimized, they would return Enlil's favor by precious objects to his temple as offerings. Nippur was the only Sumerian city-state. During the Babylonian Period, when Marduk had superseded Enlil as the supreme god, Babylonian kings still traveled to the holy city of Nippur to seek recognition of their right to rule. Enlil first rose to prominence during the twenty-fourth century BC, when the importance of the god An began to wane. During this time period, Enlil and An are invoked together in inscriptions.
Enlil remained the supreme god in Mesopotamia throughout the Amorite Period, with Amorite monarchs proclaiming Enlil as the source of their legitimacy. Enlil's importance began to wane after the Babylonian king Hammurabi conquered Sumer; the Babylonians worshipped Enlil under the name "Elil" and the Hurrians syncretized him with their own god Kumarbi. In one Hurrian ritual and Apantu are invoked as "the father and mother of Išḫara". Enlil is invoked alongside Ninlil as a member of "the mighty and established gods". During the Kassite Period, Nippur managed to regain influence in the region and Enlil rose to prominence once again. From around 1300 BC onwards, Enlil was syncretized with the Assyrian national god Aššur, the most important deity in the Assyrian pantheon. In 1230 BC, the Elamites attacked Nippur and the city fell into decline