Album, is a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item on CD, record, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century, first as books of individual 78rpm records, vinyl LPs are still issued, though in the 21st century album sales have mostly focused on compact disc and MP3 formats. The audio cassette was a format used from the late 1970s through to the 1990s alongside vinyl, an album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places. Recording may take a few hours to years to complete, usually in several takes with different parts recorded separately. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed live, the majority of studio recordings contain an abundance of editing, sound effects, voice adjustments, etc. With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, and sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, historically, the term album was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Later, collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums, the LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. It was adopted by the industry as a standard format for the album. Apart from relatively minor refinements and the important later addition of stereophonic sound capability, the term album had been carried forward from the early nineteenth century when it had been used for collections of short pieces of music. Later, collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums, as part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some commenters have declared that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. Sometimes shorter albums are referred to as mini-albums or EPs, Albums such as Tubular Bells, Amarok, Hergest Ridge by Mike Oldfield, and Yess Close to the Edge, include fewer than four tracks. There are no rules against artists such as Pinhead Gunpowder referring to their own releases under thirty minutes as albums. These are known as box sets, material is stored on an album in sections termed tracks, normally 11 or 12 tracks. A music track is a song or instrumental recording. The term is associated with popular music where separate tracks are known as album tracks. When vinyl records were the medium for audio recordings a track could be identified visually from the grooves
Alvin and the Chipmunks
Alvin and the Chipmunks, originally David Seville and the Chipmunks or simply The Chipmunks, is an American animated music group created by Ross Bagdasarian, Sr. for a novelty record in 1958. The trio is managed by their adoptive father, David Seville. In reality, David Seville was Bagdasarians stage name, and the Chipmunks themselves are named after the executives of their record label. The characters became a success, and the singing Chipmunks and their manager were given life in animated cartoon productions, using redrawn, anthropomorphic chipmunks. The voices of the group were all performed by Bagdasarian, who sped up the playback to create high-pitched voices, Bagdasarian, performing as the Chipmunks, released a long line of albums and singles, with The Chipmunk Song becoming a number-one single in the United States. After the death of Bagdasarian in 1972, the voices were performed by his son Ross Bagdasarian, Jr. In the 2007 CGI/live-action film adaptation and its 2009 sequel, they were voiced in dialogue by Justin Long, Matthew Gray Gubler, Bagdasarian, Jr. and Karman continue to perform the singing voices for Alvin, Theodore and the Chipettes, but Steve Vining does Simons singing voice. The project has earned five Grammy awards, an American Music Award, a Golden Reel Award, a third film installment, Alvin and the Chipmunks, Chipwrecked, was released in theaters on December 16,2011. Fox 2000 Pictures and Regency Enterprises announced a fourth installment, titled Alvin, a CGI-animated TV series revival, titled ALVINNN. and the Chipmunks, premiered on Nickelodeon on August 3,2015. In 1958, Ross Bagdasarian, Sr. released a novelty song about being unsuccessful at love until he found a doctor who told him how to woo his woman. The words themselves are nonsense, Oo-ee, oo-ah-ah, ting-tang, walla-walla, the song was a hit, holding number one for three weeks in the Billboard Top 100 chart. Nothing makes any reference to chipmunks, but the song is included on Chipmunk compilations. Bagdasarian did record a Chipmunks version of Witch Doctor, which appeared on the second Chipmunks album, Sing Again with the Chipmunks, Bagdasarian performed the song live on The Ed Sullivan Show. Bagdasarian recorded a song, The Bird on My Head. It also reached the Top 40, peaking at No.34, the technique was imitated by Sheb Wooleys Purple People Eater and The Big Boppers The Purple People Eater Meets The Witch Doctor. The Chipmunks first officially appeared on the scene in a novelty record released in late fall 1958 by Bagdasarian, the song, originally listed on the record label as The Chipmunk Song, featured the singing skills of the chipmunk trio. One phrase in the chorus has Alvin wishing for a hula hoop, the novelty record was highly successful, selling more than 4 million copies in seven weeks, and it launched the careers of its chipmunk stars. It spent four weeks at Number 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart from December 22,1958 to January 12,1959 and it also earned three Grammy Awards and a nomination for Record of the Year
Liberty Records was a United States-based record label. It was started by chairman Simon Waronker in 1955 with Al Bennett as president and it was reactivated in 2001 in the United Kingdom and had two previous revivals. Libertys early releases focused on film and orchestral music and its first single was Lionel Newmans The Girl Upstairs. Its first big hit, in 1955, was by Julie London singing her version of the song, Cry Me a River. It helped Liberty sell her first album, Julie Is Her Name and she was to record 32 albums in her career. In 1956 Liberty signed the little-known Henry Mancini and they released two singles and several albums for him, but he left in 1959 when he gained in popularity. Billy Rose and Lee Davids song, Tonight You Belong to Me, scored a number 4 and number 28 as performed by teen sisters Patience and Prudence and their biggest early rock and roll artist was Eddie Cochran, who had just starred in his second film, Untamed Youth. His first hit for the label was John D. Loudermilks Sittin in the Balcony in 1957, then came Summertime Blues, the label was also home to R&B veterans Billy Ward and His Dominoes after Jackie Wilson quit, replacing him with ex-Lark Eugene Mumford. They hit with Hoagy Carmichaels 1927 song, Stardust – already recorded by many artists – which rode the pop chart for 24 weeks, the track also reached number 13 in the UK Singles Chart in October 1957. It was to be their only million seller, the song became a number 1 hit and rescued the company. In just a few months leading up to Christmas in 1958 and it became the only Christmas record to reach number 1 on the pop chart, selling 4.5 million copies. Its success led to a string of similar albums by Denny for Liberty over the next decade. In 1965 Liberty acquired Pacific Jazz Records, founded in 1952, in 1958 Liberty formed a sublabel called Freedom Records which lasted through 1959. In 1959 Liberty moved to its long-time address at 6920 Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood, Libertys most successful signing of the early 1960s was Bobby Vee. They picked up his single recorded for Soma with his combo the Shadows, Suzie Baby and he covered the Clovers 1955 doo-wop ballad, Devil or Angel in mid-1960 and later that year recorded Gene Pitneys Rubber Ball which made him an international star. In the summer of 1961 Vee had a big hit with Take Good Care of My Baby and he regularly had Hot 100 hits until 1970. Other major signings included Willie Nelson, Jan and Dean, Johnny Burnette, Gene McDaniels, Del Shannon, Gary Lewis and the Playboys, Timi Yuro, in 1963 the Liberty Records label was sold to Avnet for $12 million. Avnet also bought Blue Note Records, Imperial Records, Dolton Records, Aladdin Records, after two years of losses, Avnet sold the labels back to Al Bennett for $8 million
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performers music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has many roles during the recording process, the roles of a producer vary. The producer may perform these roles himself, or help select the engineer, the producer may also pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record companies budget. A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording. Producers also often take on an entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules, contracts. In the 2010s, the industry has two kinds of producers with different roles, executive producer and music producer. Executive producers oversee project finances while music producers oversee the process of recording songs or albums. In most cases the producer is also a competent arranger, composer. The producer will also liaise with the engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record, indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation actually is music director. The music producers job is to create, shape, and mold a piece of music, at the beginning of record industry, producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1950s and 1960s due to technological developments, the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously, all of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio and the performance had to be recorded. As well, for a song that used 20 instruments, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. Examples include the rock sound effects of the 1960s, e. g. playing back the sound of recorded instruments backwards or clanging the tape to produce unique sound effects. These new instruments were electric or electronic, and thus they used instrument amplifiers, new technologies like multitracking changed the goal of recording, A producer could blend together multiple takes and edit together different sections to create the desired sound. For example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis album Bitches Brew, producers like Phil Spector and George Martin were soon creating recordings that were, in practical terms, almost impossible to realise in live performance. Producers became creative figures in the studio, other examples of such engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu
Ross Bagdasarian Sr.
Rostom Sipan Ross Bagdasarian, otherwise known by his stage name David Seville, was an American pianist, musician, actor, voice actor, and record producer of Armenian descent. Bagdasarian was the creator of Alvin and the Chipmunks and the founder of Bagdasarian Productions, Bagdasarian was born in Fresno, California, the youngest child of Dick and Virginia Bagdasarian, Armenian immigrants from the Ottoman Empire. He enlisted in the United States Army one month after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Bagdasarian performed in the Broadway cast of The Time of Your Life, written by his famous cousin William Saroyan. Bagdasarians first musical success was the song that he wrote with Saroyan Come on-a My House, the lyrics are based on dialogue from Saroyans novel The Human Comedy. Bagdasarian played minor roles in films, the best known of which is his appearance in Alfred Hitchcocks 1954 murder mystery Rear Window, Bagdasarian portrays a piano-playing songwriter who composes, plays, and sings the song Lisa. His character lives in an apartment opposite the protagonists, in keeping with the screenplays theme of social voyeurism, his dialogue is never clearly heard and he appears only in long shots, sometimes seen through a window. He stands next to Hitchcock in his cameo appearance. Bagdasarian had small parts in The Greatest Show on Earth, Viva Zapata, destination Gobi, Stalag 17, Alaska Seas, The Proud and Profane, Three Violent People, Hot Blood, The Deep Six, and The Devils Hairpin. In 1956, Bagdasarian had a hit as Alfi and Harry with a novelty record The Trouble with Harry. He wrote The Ballad of Colin Black, a song to The Proud. According to Ross Bagdasarian Jr. his father was down to his last $200 when he spent $190 on a V-M tape recorder that would let him vary the tape speed and he followed this with The Bird on My Head, which barely made the Top 40. Then for the 1958 Christmas season came The Chipmunk Song with the Chipmunks, Bagdasarian named the three Chipmunk characters after record executives, Simon Waronker, Ted Keep, and Alvin Bennett. Most consumer tape recorders of the day had changeable speeds, but usually only in simple binary multiples, doubling or halving the speed, changing speeds of voices in these limited multiples creates extremely high or low pitches that sound too extreme for most purposes. The first Chipmunk record, The Chipmunk Song, had Bagdasarian doing all the voices, after the success of The Chipmunk Song, a series of follow-up hit singles were quickly released, also on Liberty Records. Alvins Harmonica was the second, Ragtime Cowboy Joe the third, albums continued this trend, the first album being released on red vinyl, successfully continuing well into the 60s with an album of the Chipmunks singing various early hits of the Beatles in 1964. Other trick-recording producers tried to imitate Sevilles Chipmunks, with embarrassing results. A failed novelty single by Shirley and Squirrelly is a good example, following his hit records, Bagdasarian provided the voice for David Seville and Alvin in the Chipmunks short-lived 1961–62 animated television series The Alvin Show. The Chipmunks recordings had the performers often labeled as David Seville and the Chipmunks, bagdasarians last album was The Chipmunks Go to the Movies, released in 1969, almost three years before his death