The Pharisees were at various times a political party, a social movement, a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple Judaism. After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Pharisaic beliefs became the foundational and ritualistic basis for Rabbinic Judaism. Conflicts between Pharisees and Sadducees took place in the context of much broader and longstanding social and religious conflicts among Jews, made worse by the Roman conquest. Another conflict was cultural, between those who favored those who resisted it. A third was juridico-religious, between those who emphasized the importance of the Second Temple with its rites and services, those who emphasized the importance of other Mosaic Laws. A fourth point of conflict religious, involved different interpretations of the Torah and how to apply it to current Jewish life, with Sadducees recognizing only the Written Torah and rejecting doctrines such as the Oral Torah, the Prophets, the Writings, the resurrection of the dead.
Josephus, believed by many historians to be a Pharisee, estimated the total Pharisee population before the fall of the Second Temple to be around 6,000. Josephus claimed that Pharisees received the full support and goodwill of the common people in contrast to the more elite Sadducees, who were the upper class. Pharisees claimed Mosaic authority for their interpretation of Jewish Laws, while Sadducees represented the authority of the priestly privileges and prerogatives established since the days of Solomon, when Zadok, their ancestor, officiated as High Priest; the phrase "common people" in Josephus' writings suggests that most Jews were "just Jewish people", distinguishing them from the main liturgical groups. Outside Jewish history and literature, Pharisees have been made notable by references in the New Testament to conflicts with John the Baptist and with Jesus. There are several references in the New Testament to the Apostle Paul being a Pharisee; the relationship between Early Christianity and Pharisees was not always hostile however: e.g. Gamaliel is cited as a Pharisaic leader, sympathetic to Christians.
"Pharisee" is derived from Ancient Greek Pharisaios, from Aramaic Pərīšā, plural Pərīšayyā, meaning "set apart, separated", related to Hebrew pārûš, plural pĕrûšîm, the Qal passive participle of the verb pāraš. The first historical mention of the Pharisees and their beliefs comes in the four gospels and the Book of Acts, in which both their meticulous adherence to their interpretation of the Torah as well as their eschatological views are described. A historical mention of the Pharisees comes from the Jewish-Roman historian Josephus in a description of the "four schools of thought", or "four sects", into which he divided the Jews in the 1st century CE. Other sects emerged at this time, such as the Early Christians in Jerusalem and the Therapeutae in Egypt. 2 Maccabees, a deuterocanonical book of the Bible, focuses on the Jews' revolt against the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes and concludes with the defeat of his general, Nicanor, in 161 BCE by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. It was written by a Pharisee or someone sympathetic toward Pharisees, as it includes several theological innovations: propitiatory prayer for the dead, judgment day, intercession of saints and merits of the martyrs.
Judah haNasi redacted the Mishnah, an authoritative codification of Pharisaic interpretations, around 200 CE. Most of the authorities quoted in the Mishnah lived after the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE; the Mishnah was supremely important because it compiled the oral interpretations and traditions of the Pharisees and on the Rabbis into a single authoritative text, thus allowing oral tradition within Judaism to survive the destruction of the Second Temple. However, none of the Rabbinic sources include identifiable eyewitness accounts of the Pharisees and their teachings; the deportation and exile of an unknown number of Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar II, starting with the first deportation in 597 BCE and continuing after the fall of Jerusalem and destruction of the Temple in 587 BCE, resulted in dramatic changes to Jewish culture and religion. During the 70-year exile in Babylon, Jewish houses of assembly and houses of prayer were the primary meeting places for prayer, the house of study was the counterpart for the synagogue.
In 539 BCE the Persians conquered Babylon, in 537 BCE Cyrus the Great allowed Jews to return to Judea and rebuild the Temple. He did not, allow the restoration of the Judean monarchy, which left the Judean priests as the dominant authority. Without the constraining power of the monarchy, the authority of the Temple in civic life was amplified, it was around this time that the Sadducee party allied elites. However, the Second Temple, completed in 515 BCE, had been constructed under the auspices of a foreign power, there were lingering questions about its legitimacy; this provided the condition for the development of various sects or "schools of thought
A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws. Such an event may be attributed to a supernatural being, magic, a miracle worker, a saint, or a religious leader. Informally, the word miracle is used to characterise any beneficial event, statistically unlikely but not contrary to the laws of nature, such as surviving a natural disaster, or a "wonderful" occurrence, regardless of likelihood, such as a birth, a human conclusion reached after an actual, or supposed event, has occurred. Other such miracles might be: survival of an illness diagnosed as terminal, escaping a life-threatening situation or'beating the odds'; some coincidences may be seen as miracles. A true miracle would, by definition, be a non-natural phenomenon, leading many thinkers to dismiss them as physically impossible or impossible to confirm by their nature; the former position is expressed for instance by the latter by David Hume. Theologians say that, with divine providence, God works through nature yet, as a creator, is free to work without, above, or against it as well.
The word "miracle" is used to describe any beneficial event, physically impossible or impossible to confirm by nature. Wayne Grudem defines miracle as "a less common kind of God's activity in which he arouses people's awe and wonder and bears witness to himself." Deistic perspective of God's relation to the world defines miracle as a direct intervention of God into the world. A miracle is a phenomenon not explained by known laws of nature. Criteria for classifying an event as a miracle vary. A religious text, such as the Bible or Quran, states that a miracle occurred, believers may accept this as a fact. Statistically "impossible" events are called miracles. For instance, when three classmates accidentally meet in a different country decades after having left school, they may consider this as "miraculous". However, a colossal number of events happen every moment on earth. Events that are considered "impossible" are therefore not impossible at all — they are just rare and dependent on the number of individual events.
British mathematician J. E. Littlewood suggested that individuals should statistically expect one-in-a-million events to happen to them at the rate of about one per month. By Littlewood's definition miraculous events are commonplace; the Aristotelian view of God has God as pure actuality and considers him as the prime mover doing only what a perfect being can do, think. Jewish neo-Aristotelian philosophers, who are still influential today, include Maimonides, Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon, Gersonides. Directly or indirectly, their views are still prevalent in much of the religious Jewish community. In his Tractatus Theologico-Politicus Spinoza claims that miracles are lawlike events whose causes we are ignorant of. We should not treat them as having no cause or of having a cause available. Rather the miracle is like a political project. According to the philosopher David Hume, a miracle is "a transgression of a law of nature by a particular volition of the Deity, or by the interposition of some invisible agent".
The crux of his argument is this: "No testimony is sufficient to establish a miracle, unless the testimony be of such a kind, that its falsehood would be more miraculous, than the fact which it endeavours to establish." Hume defines a miracles as "a violation of the laws of nature", or more "a transgression of a law of nature by a particular volition of the Deity, or by the interposition of some invisible agent." By this definition, a miracle goes against our regular experience of. As miracles are single events, the evidence for them is always limited and we experience them rarely. On the basis of experience and evidence, the probability that miracle occurred is always less than the probability that it did not occur; as it is rational to believe what is more probable, we are not supposed to have a good reason to believe that a miracle occurred. According to the Christian theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher "every event the most natural and usual, becomes a miracle as soon as the religious view of it can be the dominant".
The philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, following Hume and Johann Georg Hamann, a Humean scholar, agrees with Hume's definition of a miracle as a transgression of a law of nature, but Kierkegaard, writing as his pseudonym Johannes Climacus, regards any historical reports to be less than certain, including historical reports of miracles, as all historical knowledge is always doubtful and open to approximation. James Keller states that "The claim that God has worked a miracle implies that God has singled out certain persons for some benefit which many others do not receive implies that God is unfair." According to a 2011 poll by the Pew Research Center, more than 90 percent of evangelical Christians believe miracles still take place. While Christians see God as sometimes intervening in human activities, Muslims see Allah as a direct cause of all events. "God’s overwhelming closeness makes it easy for Muslims to admit the miraculous in the world." The Haedong Kosung-jon of Korea records that King Beopheung of Silla had desired to promulgate Buddhism as the state religion.
However, officials in his court opposed him. In the fourteenth year of his reign, Beopheung's "Grand Secretary", devised a strategy to overcome court opposition. Ichadon schemed with the king, convincing him to make a procla
A parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles. It differs from a fable in that fables employ animals, inanimate objects, or forces of nature as characters, whereas parables have human characters. A parable is a type of analogy; some scholars of the canonical gospels and the New Testament apply the term "parable" only to the parables of Jesus, though, not a common restriction of the term. Parables such as "The Prodigal Son" are central to Jesus's teaching method in the canonical narratives and the apocrypha; the word parable comes from the Greek παραβολή, meaning "comparison, analogy." It was the name given by Greek rhetoricians to an illustration in the form of a brief fictional narrative. Parables are used to explore ethical concepts in spiritual texts; the Bible contains numerous parables in the Gospels section of the New Testament. These are believed by some scholars to have been inspired by a form of Hebrew comparison.
Examples of Jesus' parables include the Prodigal Son. Mashalim from the Old Testament include the parable of the ewe-lamb and the parable of the woman of Tekoah. Parables appear in Islam. In Sufi tradition, parables are used for imparting values. Recent authors such as Idries Shah and Anthony de Mello have helped popularize these stories beyond Sufi circles. Modern parables exist. A mid-19th-century example, the Parable of the broken window, criticises a part of economic thinking. A parable is a short tale, it sketches a setting, describes an action, shows the results. It may sometimes be distinguished from similar narrative types, such as the allegory and the apologue. A parable involves a character who faces a moral dilemma or one who makes a bad decision and suffers the unintended consequences. Although the meaning of a parable is not explicitly stated, it is not intended to be hidden or secret but to be quite straightforward and obvious; the defining characteristic of the parable is the presence of a subtext suggesting how a person should behave or what he should believe.
Aside from providing guidance and suggestions for proper conduct in one's life, parables use metaphorical language which allows people to more discuss difficult or complex ideas. Parables express an abstract argument by means of using a concrete narrative, understood; the allegory is a more general narrative type. Like the parable, the allegory makes a unambiguous point. An allegory may have multiple noncontradictory interpretations and may have implications that are ambiguous or hard to interpret; as H. W. Fowler put it, the object of both parable and allegory "is to enlighten the hearer by submitting to him a case in which he has no direct concern, upon which therefore a disinterested judgment may be elicited from him..." The parable is more condensed than the allegory: it rests upon a single principle and a single moral, it is intended that the reader or listener shall conclude that the moral applies well to his own concerns. Medieval interpreters of the Bible treated Jesus' parables as allegories, with symbolic correspondences found for every element in his parables.
But modern scholars, beginning with Adolf Jülicher, regard their interpretations as incorrect. Jülicher held that Jesus' parables are intended to make a single important point, most recent scholarship agrees. Gnostics suggested that Jesus kept some of his teachings secret within the circle of his disciples and that he deliberately obscured their meaning by using parables. For example, in Mark 4:11–12: And he said to them, “To you has been given the secret of the kingdom of God, but for those outside, everything comes in parables. A parable is like a metaphor in that it uses concrete, perceptible phenomena to illustrate abstract ideas, it may be said that a parable is a metaphor, extended to form a brief, coherent narrative. A parable resembles a simile, i.e. a metaphorical construction in which something is said to be "like" something else. However, unlike the meaning of a simile, a parable's meaning is implicit. Akhfash's goat – a Persian parable The parables of Ignacy Krasicki: Abuzei and Tair The Blind Man and the Lame The Drunkard The Farmer Son and Father The parables of Jesus The Rooster Prince – a Hasidic parable Amplification Exemplification Jewish Encyclopedia: Parable Catholic Encyclopedia: Parable Spiritual Parables Secular Parables
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Legalism, in Christian theology, is the act of putting law above gospel by establishing requirements for salvation beyond repentance and faith in Jesus Christ and reducing the broad and general precepts of the Bible to narrow and rigid moral codes. It is an over-emphasis on discipline of conduct, or legal ideas implying an allegation of misguided rigour, superficiality, the neglect of mercy, ignorance of the grace of God or emphasizing the letter of law at the expense of the spirit. Legalism is alleged against any view that obedience to law, not faith in God's grace, is the pre-eminent principle of redemption. On the Biblical viewpoint that redemption is not earned by works, but that obedient faith is required to enter and remain in the redeemed state, see Covenantal nomism; the words ` legalism' or ` legalist' do not occur in the New Testaments. Legalism's root word, "law", occurs in the New Testament, sometimes is interpreted as legalism. In 1921, Ernest De Witt Burton stated that in Gal. 2:16, "nomou is here evidently used... in its legalistic sense, denoting divine law viewed as a purely legalistic system made up of statutes, on the basis of obedience or disobedience to which individuals are approved or condemned as a matter of debt without grace.
This is divine law as the legalist defined it." The Greek of Paul's day lacked any term corresponding to the distinct position of "legalism", "legalist", or "legalistic", leading C. E. B. Cranfield to commend "the possibility that Pauline statements which at first sight seem to disparage the law, were directed not against the law itself but against that misunderstanding and misuse of it for which we now have a convenient terminology". Messianic Jewish Bible translator David H. Stern cited these two scholars to support the translation framework that "'nomos' means'legalism' and not God's Torah" in Paul's constructs erga nomou and upo nomon. One concept of legalism, the belief that salvation can be earned by obedience to laws, is referred to in various New Testament books, including Galatians. In this case, some Jews who had become Christians believed that in order to obtain salvation, both faith in Christ, obedience to the Mosiac laws were required, such as the cases of the circumcision controversy and the Incident at Antioch.
However, these cases are referred to as the Judaizer controversy, rather than a legalism controversy, but the two are related. Legalism refers to any doctrine which states salvation comes from adherence to the law, it can be thought of as a works-based religion. Groups in the New Testament said to be falling into this category include the Pharisees, Scribes and Nicolaitans, they are legalists because they emphasized obeying the Law of Moses, in the case of the Pharisees and Scribes, to the letter without understanding the concept of grace. Jesus condemned their legalism in Matthew 23; the Pharisees love of the praises of men for their strict adherence is said to be a prime example of legalism. Legalism is sometimes confused with obedience. New Testament books such as Romans, speak of obedience together. An example is found in Romans 1:5 speaking of Christ'through whom we have received grace and apostleship to bring about the obedience of faith among all the Gentiles, for His name's sake...' The goal of receiving the grace was to bring about obedience of faith.
Here grace and obedience are tied together. Other references are in Acts 5:29, 32. Legalism is confused with discipline, spoken of in a positive light. See 1 Corinthians 9:17. A third common misunderstanding of legalism is the word law. Law in many places in the Bible refers to the Law of Moses, see Biblical law in Christianity. In Galatians the Judaizers were trying to insist that salvation required that a person be circumcised prior to obeying the Law of Christ. Galatians 2:16 says, "Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified"; the faith here is the Law of Christ and the law here is the Law of Moses. The legalism of the Judaizers was. Legalism in the New Testament is believed by some as being revealed by the life of Saul prior to his conversion; some believe that Saul sought to redeem himself by his works of persecution of the church and its ultimate destruction.
Acts 26:9–11 reveals, "I verily thought with myself, that I ought to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth. Which thing I did in Jerusalem: and many of the saints did I shut up in prison, having received authority from the chief priests, and I punished them oft in every synagogue, compelled them to blaspheme. Galatians 1:13–14 states, "For ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the church of God, wasted it: And profited in the Jews' religion above many my equals in mine own nation, being more exceedingly zealous of the traditions of my fathers" (King J
Henry Sulley was an English architect and writer on the temples of Jerusalem. Sulley was born to English parents in Brooklyn, Long Island, USA, 30 January 1845, but relocated back to Nottingham when still young; as an architect, Sulley is noted for several buildings in Nottingham, among them 2 Hamilton Road,'a fine Victorian dwelling' designed for James White the lace manufacturer in 1883. Although he had no formal training in archaeology, Sulley's background in architecture allowed him to develop various ideas about Solomon's Temple and the City of David, his primary area of activity was in writing concerning the temples in Jerusalem: Solomon's Temple, Herod's Temple and Ezekiel's Temple. In 1929 Sulley was the first to propose that the watercourse of Siloam tunnel was following a natural crack, a theory developed by Ruth Amiran, Dan Gill. Sulley had been baptised as a Christadelphian in October 1871 at the age of 26 following lectures by Robert Roberts and reading Elpis Israel; when he was only 28 the bulk of the Nottingham Ecclesia left following Edward Turney into the Nazarene Fellowship for six years until Turney's death in 1879, after which most of those who had left returned.
As a Christadelphian Sulley toured Australia, New Zealand and Canada, showing his large illustrated architectural designs for Ezekiel's temple, in lecture halls and museums over two or three nights. These public lectures followed a regular pattern: archaeology, architecture and preaching. On his journeys he would write articles for publication in England giving impressions on the buildings he saw: for example, noting that the Washington Monument was a marvel, but that the corner-towers of Ezekiel's temple would be two-and-a-half times taller. During the period from 1898 onwards he was a regular assistant to the second editor of The Christadelphian, Charles Curwen Walker. Upnah House, 22 Balmoral Road, Nottingham 1873 Malvern House, 41 Mapperley Road, Nottingham 1874 2 Hamilton Road, Nottingham 1873 Oakfield, Cyprus Road, Mapperley Park, Nottingham 1882 Elmsleigh, Hamilton Road, Mapperley Park, Nottingham 1883 Addison Street Congregational Church 1884 Warehouse, Peachey Street, Nottingham 1887-88 Temple of Ezekiel's prophecy A Handbook to the Temple of Ezekiel's Prophecy Pentaletheia: Five writings on the Truth The Sign of the Coming of the Son of Man What is the Substance of Faith?
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