Appomattox Court House National Historical Park
The Appomattox Court House National Historical Park is a National Historical Park of original and reconstructed 19th century buildings in Appomattox County, Virginia. The McLean House was the site of the conference. The park was established August 3,1935, the village was made a national monument in 1940 and a national historical park in 1954. It is located three miles east of Appomattox, the location of the Appomattox Station and the new Appomattox Court House. It is in the center of the state about 25 miles east of Lynchburg, the antebellum village started out as Clover Hill named after its oldest existing structure, the Clover Hill Tavern. The village was a stop along the Richmond-Lynchburg stage road. The activity in Clover Hill centered around Clover Hill Tavern, the tavern provided lodging to travelers. Fresh horses for the line were provided at the stop. It was the site of meetings and so when Appomattox County was established by an Act on February 8,1845. It was parts of Buckingham, Prince Edward, the jurisdiction took its name from the headwaters that emanate there, the Appomattox River.
Early Virginians believe the name Appomattox came from an Indian tribe called Apumetec, from about 1842, Hugh Raine basically owned most of the Clover Hill area. He obtained it from his brother John Raine who defaulted on his loans, later, he sold the property to a Colonel Samuel D. McDearmon. Since his acquisition, it became the county seat and he surveyed 30 acres of the hamlet and he designated 2 acres to be used by the new county to build a courthouse and other government buildings. The courthouse was to be built across the Stage Road from the Clover Hill Tavern, the jail was to be built behind the courthouse. McDearmon divided the land surrounding the courthouse into 1-acre lots. He felt that with Clover Hills new status as a county seat he would find professional people ready and his hopes were dashed in 1854 as the train depot stopped three miles west in Appomattox, Virginia. The American Civil War put the nails in the coffin. The district once known as Clover Hill and renamed to Appomattox Court House continued to decline as businesses moved to the area of the Appomattox Station, the village contained 30 acres of the original Pattesons Clover Hill Tavern property of some 200 acres
Battle of Antietam
After pursuing the Confederate general Robert E. Lee into Maryland, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan of the Union Army launched attacks against Lees army, in defensive positions behind Antietam Creek. At dawn on September 17, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hookers corps mounted an assault on Lees left flank. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Millers Cornfield, and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church, Union assaults against the Sunken Road eventually pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up. In the afternoon, Union Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnsides corps entered the action, capturing a bridge over Antietam Creek. At a crucial moment, Confederate Maj. Gen. A. P. Hills division arrived from Harpers Ferry and launched a counterattack, driving back Burnside. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, during the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout September 18, despite having superiority of numbers, McClellans attacks failed to achieve force concentration, which allowed Lee to counter by shifting forces and moving interior lines to meet each challenge.
Therefore, despite ample reserve forces that could have been deployed to exploit localized successes, McClellan had halted Lees invasion of Maryland, but Lee was able to withdraw his army back to Virginia without interference from the cautious McClellan. McClellans refusal to pursue Lees army led to his removal from command by President Abraham Lincoln in November, although the battle was tactically inconclusive, the Confederate troops had withdrawn first from the battlefield, making it, in military terms, a Union victory. Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia—about 55,000 men—entered the state of Maryland on September 3,1862, emboldened by success, the Confederate leadership intended to take the war into enemy territory. Lees invasion of Maryland was intended to run simultaneously with an invasion of Kentucky by the armies of Braxton Bragg and it was necessary for logistical reasons, as northern Virginias farms had been stripped bare of food. They sang the tune Maryland, My Maryland, as they marched, but by the fall of 1862 pro-Union sentiment was winning out, especially in the western parts of the state.
Civilians generally hid inside their houses as Lees army passed through their towns, or watched in cold silence, while the Army of the Potomac was cheered and encouraged. While McClellans 87, 000-man Army of the Potomac was moving to intercept Lee, the order indicated that Lee had divided his army and dispersed portions geographically, thus making each subject to isolation and defeat if McClellan could move quickly enough. McClellan waited about 18 hours before deciding to take advantage of this intelligence and reposition his forces, McClellans Army of the Potomac, bolstered by units absorbed from John Popes Army of Virginia, included six infantry corps. The I Corps, under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, consisted of the divisions of, the II Corps, under Maj. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner, consisted of the divisions of, Maj. Gen. Israel B. The V Corps, under Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, consisted of the divisions of, the VI Corps, under Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin, consisted of the divisions of, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum, Maj.
Gen. William F. Baldy Smith
Battle of Hampton Roads
The battle was a part of the effort of the Confederacy to break the Union blockade, which had cut off Virginias largest cities and Richmond, from international trade. The major significance of the battle is that it was the first meeting in combat of ironclad warships, i. e. the USS Monitor, the Confederate fleet consisted of the ironclad ram Virginia and several supporting vessels. On the first day of battle, they were opposed by several conventional, on that day, Virginia was able to destroy two ships of the Federal flotilla, USS Congress and USS Cumberland, and was about to attack a third, USS Minnesota, which had run aground. Determined to complete the destruction of Minnesota, Catesby ap Roger Jones, acting as captain in Buchanans absence, returned the ship to the fray the next morning, during the night, the ironclad Monitor had arrived and had taken a position to defend Minnesota. When Virginia approached, Monitor intercepted her, the two ironclads fought for about three hours, with neither being able to inflict significant damage on the other.
The duel ended indecisively, Virginia returning to her home at the Gosport Navy Yard for repairs and strengthening, the ships did not fight again, and the blockade remained in place. The battle received worldwide attention, and it had immediate effects on navies around the world, the preeminent naval powers, Great Britain and France, halted further construction of wooden-hulled ships, and others followed suit. A new type of warship, was produced based on the principle of the original. The use of a number of very heavy guns, mounted so that they could fire in all directions was first demonstrated by Monitor. Shipbuilders incorporated rams into the designs of warship hulls for the rest of the century, on April 19,1861, shortly after the outbreak of hostilities at Charleston Harbor, US President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a blockade of ports in the seceded states. On April 27, after Virginia and North Carolina had passed ordinances of secession, even before the extension, local troops seized the Norfolk area and threatened the Gosport Navy Yard in Portsmouth.
Merrimack burned only to the waterline and her engines were more or less intact, the destruction of the navy yard was mostly ineffective, in particular, the large drydock there was relatively undamaged and soon could be restored. Without firing a shot, the advocates of secession had gained for the South its largest navy yard, as well as the hull and they had seized more than a thousand heavy guns, plus gun carriages and large quantities of gunpowder. With Norfolk and its yard in Portsmouth, the Confederacy controlled the southern side of Hampton Roads. To prevent Union warships from attacking the yard, the Confederates set up batteries at Sewells Point and Craney Island, the Union retained possession of Fort Monroe, at Old Point Comfort on the Virginia Peninsula. They held a small island known as the Rip Raps, on the far side of the channel opposite Fort Monroe. With Fort Monroe went control of the lower Peninsula as far as Newport News, forts Monroe and Wool gave the Union forces control of the entrance to Hampton Roads.
The blockade, initiated on April 30,1861, cut off Norfolk, to further the blockade, the Union Navy stationed some of its most powerful warships in the roadstead
Jackson's Valley Campaign
Jacksons Valley Campaign was Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons famous spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia during the American Civil War. Jackson suffered a defeat at the First Battle of Kernstown against Col. On May 8, after more than a month of skirmishing with Banks, Jackson moved deceptively to the west of the Valley, Frémonts army in the Battle of McDowell, preventing a potential combination of the two Union armies against him. Jackson headed down the Valley once again to confront Banks, concealing his movement in the Luray Valley, Jackson joined forces with Maj. Gen. Richard S. Ewell and captured the Federal garrison at Front Royal on May 23, causing Banks to retreat to the north. On May 25, in the First Battle of Winchester, Jackson defeated Banks, bringing in Union reinforcements from eastern Virginia, Brig. Gen. James Shields recaptured Front Royal and planned to link up with Frémont in Strasburg. Jackson was now threatened by three small Union armies, withdrawing up the Valley from Winchester, Jackson was pursued by Frémont and Shields.
Jackson followed up his campaign by forced marches to join Gen. Robert E. Lee for the Seven Days Battles outside Richmond. His audacious campaign elevated him to the position of the most famous general in the Confederacy and has been studied ever since by military organizations around the world, in the spring of 1862 Southern morale. Was at its nadir and prospects for the Confederacys survival seemed bleak, following the successful summer of 1861, particularly the First Battle of Bull Run, its prospects declined quickly. Union armies in the Western Theater, under Ulysses S. Grant and others, captured Southern territory and won significant battles at Fort Donelson, and in the East, Maj. Gen. George B. During the Civil War, the Shenandoah Valley was one of the most strategic geographic features of Virginia, by the conventions of local residents, the upper Valley referred to the southwestern end, which had a generally higher elevation than the lower Valley to the northeast. Moving up the Valley meant traveling southwest, for instance, between the North and South Forks of the Shenandoah River, Massanutten Mountain soared 2,900 feet and separated the Valley into two halves for about 50 miles, from Strasburg to Harrisonburg.
During the 19th century, there was but a road that crossed over the mountain. The Valley offered two advantages to the Confederates. First, a Northern army invading Virginia could be subjected to Confederate flanking attacks pouring through the many wind gaps across the Blue Ridge, early in the Valley Campaigns of 1864. In contrast, the orientation of the Valley offered little advantage to a Northern army headed toward Richmond, but denying the Valley to the Confederacy would be a significant blow. It was an agriculturally rich area—the 2, If the Federals could reach Staunton in the upper Valley, they would threaten the vital Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, which ran from Richmond to the Mississippi River. Stonewall Jackson wrote to a member, If this Valley is lost
Battle of Ball's Bluff
The Battle of Balls Bluff in Loudoun County, Virginia on October 21,1861, was one of the early battles of the American Civil War, in which Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac suffered a humiliating defeat, the operation was planned as a minor reconnaissance across the Potomac to establish whether the Confederates were occupying Leesburg. A false report of an unguarded Confederate camp encouraged Brig. Gen. Charles Pomeroy Stone to order a raid, which clashed with enemy forces. A prominent US Senator in uniform, Colonel Edward Baker, tried to reinforce the Union troops, but failed to ensure there were enough boats for the river crossings. Baker was killed, and a newly-arrived Confederate unit routed the rest of Stone’s expedition, the Union losses, although modest by standards, alarmed Congress, which set-up the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, a body which would provoke years of bitter political infighting. Three months after the First Battle of Bull Run, Maj-Gen, George B.
McClellan was building up the Army of the Potomac in preparation for an eventual advance into Virginia. Evans had, in fact, left the town on October 16–17 but had done so on his own authority, beauregard expressed his displeasure at this move, Evans returned. By the evening of October 19, he had taken up a position on the Alexandria-to-Winchester Turnpike east of town. McClellan came to Dranesville to consult with McCall that same evening and ordered McCall to return to his camp at Langley, Virginia. Having gotten no reaction from Colonel Evans with all of this activity, Stone recalled his troops to their camps, Stone ordered Col. Devens sent Capt. Chase Philbrick and approximately 20 men to carry out Stones order, Stone immediately ordered Devens to cross some 300 men and, as soon as it was light enough to see, attack the camp and, per his orders, return to your present position. This was the genesis of the Battle of Balls Bluff, contrary to the long-held traditional interpretation, it did not come from a plan by either McClellan or Stone to take Leesburg.
The initial crossing of troops was a small reconnaissance and that was followed by what was intended to be a raiding party. To make matters worse, Stone was not advised that McCall, on the morning of October 21, Colonel Devens raiding party discovered the mistake made the previous evening by the patrol, There was no camp to raid. Opting not to recross the river immediately, Devens deployed his men in a line and sent a messenger back to report to Stone. On hearing the report, Stone sent him back to tell Devens that the remainder of the 15th Massachusetts would cross the river. When they arrived, Devens was to turn his raiding party back into a reconnaissance, while the messenger was going back to Col. Devens with this new information, Colonel and U. S. Senator Edward Dickinson Baker showed up at Stones camp to find out about the mornings events and he had not been involved in any of the activities to that point
Battle of Pea Ridge
The Battle of Pea Ridge was a battle of the American Civil War. It was fought from March 6–8,1862, at Pea Ridge in northwest Arkansas, Union forces, led by Brigadier-General Samuel Curtis, moved south from central Missouri, driving Confederate forces into northwestern Arkansas. Major-General Earl Van Dorn launched a Confederate counter-offensive, hoping to recapture northern Arkansas, Curtis held off the Confederate attack on the first day and drove Van Dorns force off the field on the second. This battle, one of the few in which a Confederate army outnumbered its opponent, essentially established Federal control of most of Missouri and northern Arkansas. United States forces in Missouri during the part of 1861. By spring 1862, Federal Brig. Gen. Samuel Ryan Curtis determined to pursue the Confederates into Arkansas with his Army of the Southwest, Curtis moved his approximately 10,250 Federal soldiers and 50 artillery pieces into Benton County and along Little Sugar Creek. The Federal forces consisted primarily of soldiers from Iowa, Illinois, over half of the Union soldiers were German immigrants, grouped into the 1st and 2nd Divisions, which were under the command of Brig.
Gen. Franz Sigel, himself a German immigrant. Van Dorn was aware of the Federal movements into Arkansas and was intent on destroying Curtiss Army of the Southwest and he intended to flank Curtis and attack his rear, forcing Curtis to retreat north or be encircled and destroyed. Van Dorn had ordered his army to travel light so each soldier carried three days rations, forty rounds of ammunition, and a blanket. Each division was allowed a train and an additional day of rations. All other supplies, including tents and cooking utensils, were to be left behind, for speed, Van Dorn left his supply trains behind, which proved a crucial decision. Amid a freezing storm, the Confederates made a forced march from Fayetteville through Elm Springs and Osage Spring to Bentonville, arriving stretched out along the road, hungry. But Curtiss right flank suffered from the mistake of General Sigel, who sent a 360-man task force to the west, when Van Dorns advance guard blundered into one of these patrols near Elm Springs, the Federals were alerted.
Still, Sigel was so slow in evacuating Bentonville that his guard was nearly snared by Van Dorn on March 6 as he advanced. Waiting until the Confederate advance was nearly upon him, Sigel ordered his 600 men, the Confederate 1st Missouri Cavalry led by Elijah Gates attacked from the south to cut off Sigels retreat. They managed to surprise and capture a company of the 36th Illinois, Sigel managed to fight his way through Gates men, helped by a blunder by confederate Brig. Gen. James M. McIntosh. McIntosh had planned to envelop Sigels force from the northwest while Gates closed the trap on the south, however, McIntosh mistakenly took his 3, 000-man cavalry brigade too far up a northerly road. After marching three miles out of his way, he turned his troopers onto the road leading east into the Little Sugar Creek valley
First Battle of Bull Run
It was the first major battle of the American Civil War. The Unions forces were slow in positioning themselves, allowing Confederate reinforcements time to arrive by rail, each side had about 18,000 poorly trained and poorly led troops in their first battle. It was a Confederate victory, followed by a retreat of the Union forces. Yielding to political pressure, Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell led his unseasoned Union Army across Bull Run against the equally inexperienced Confederate Army of Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Confederate reinforcements under Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston arrived from the Shenandoah Valley by railroad, the Confederates launched a strong counterattack, and as the Union troops began withdrawing under fire, many panicked and the retreat turned into a rout. McDowells men frantically ran without order in the direction of Washington, both armies were sobered by the fierce fighting and many casualties, and realized that the war was going to be much longer and bloodier than either had anticipated.
The Battle of First Bull Run highlighted many of the problems, McDowell, with 35,000 men, was only able to commit about 18,000, and the combined Confederate forces, with about 32,000 men, committed only 18,000. Earlier, South Carolina and seven other Southern states had declared their secession from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. To suppress the rebellion and restore Federal law in the Southern states and he accepted an additional 40,000 volunteers with three-year enlistments and increased the strength of the U. S. Army to almost 20,000. In Washington, D. C. as thousands of volunteers rushed to defend the capital, General in Chief Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott laid out his strategy to subdue the rebellious states. He proposed that an army of 80,000 men be organized and sail down the Mississippi River, while the Army strangled the Confederacy in the west, the U. S. Navy would blockade Southern ports along the eastern and Gulf coasts. The press ridiculed what they dubbed as Scotts Anaconda Plan, many believed the capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond, only one hundred miles south of Washington, would quickly end the war.
By July 1861 thousands of volunteers were camped in and around Washington, since General Scott was seventy-five years old and physically unable to lead this force, the administration searched for a more suitable field commander. Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase championed fellow Ohioan, although McDowell was a West Point graduate, his command experience was limited. In fact, he had spent most of his career engaged in staff duties in the Adjutant Generals Office. While stationed in Washington he had become acquainted with Chase, a former Ohio governor and senator, McDowell immediately began organizing what became known as the Army of Northeastern Virginia,35,000 men arranged in five divisions. Under public and political pressure to begin operations, McDowell was given very little time to train the newly inducted troops. Units were instructed in the maneuvering of regiments, but they received little or no training at the brigade or division level and he was reassured by President Lincoln, You are green, it is true, but they are green also, you are all green alike
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War, and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign. It was fought from April 30 to May 6,1863, in Spotsylvania County, two related battles were fought nearby on May 3 in the vicinity of Fredericksburg. The campaign pitted Union Army Maj. Gen. Joseph Hookers Army of the Potomac against a less than half its size. Chancellorsville is known as Lees perfect battle because his risky decision to divide his army in the presence of a larger enemy force resulted in a significant Confederate victory. The Chancellorsville Campaign began with the crossing of the Rappahannock River by the Union army on the morning of April 27,1863, Union cavalry under Maj. Gen. George Stoneman began a long distance raid against Lees supply lines at about the same time. Crossing the Rapidan River via Germanna and Elys Fords, the Federal infantry concentrated near Chancellorsville on April 30, combined with the Union force facing Fredericksburg, Hooker planned a double envelopment, attacking Lee from both his front and rear.
Despite the objections of his subordinates, Hooker withdrew his men to the lines around Chancellorsville. On May 2, Lee divided his army again, sending Stonewall Jacksons entire corps on a march that routed the Union XI Corps. While performing a reconnaissance in advance of his line, Jackson was wounded by fire from his own men. Stuart temporarily replaced him as corps commander and that same day, Sedgwick advanced across the Rappahannock River, defeated the small Confederate force at Maryes Heights in the Second Battle of Fredericksburg, and moved to the west. The Confederates fought a delaying action at the Battle of Salem Church and by May 4 had driven back Sedgwicks men to Banks Ford. Sedgwick withdrew across the early on May 5, and Hooker withdrew the remainder of his army across U. S. Ford the night of May 5–6, the campaign ended on May 7 when Stonemans cavalry reached Union lines east of Richmond. In the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, the objective of the Union had been to advance and seize the Confederate capital, Virginia.
In the first two years of the war, four attempts had failed, the first foundered just miles away from Washington. Robert E. Lee in the Seven Days Battles and that summer, Maj. Gen. John Popes Army of Virginia was defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run. In January 1863, the Army of the Potomac, following the Battle of Fredericksburg, Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside decided to conduct a mass purge of the Army of the Potomacs leadership, eliminating a number of generals who he felt were responsible for the disaster at Fredericksburg. In reality, he had no power to anyone without the approval of Congress
Battle of Fort Donelson
The Battle of Fort Donelson was fought from February 12–16,1862, in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. The Union capture of the Confederate fort near the Tennessee–Kentucky border opened the Cumberland River, an important avenue for the invasion of the South. The Unions success elevated Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant from an obscure and largely unproven leader to the rank of major general, the battle followed the Union capture of Fort Henry on February 6. Grant moved his army 12 miles overland to Fort Donelson on February 12 and 13, on February 15, with the fort surrounded, the Confederates, commanded by Brig. Gen. John B. Floyd, launched an attack against the right flank of Grants army in an attempt to open an escape route to Nashville. Grant, who was away from the battlefield at the start of the attack, arrived to rally his men, despite achieving partial success and opening the way for a retreat, Floyd lost his nerve and ordered his men back to the fort. The battle of Fort Donelson, which began on February 12, took place shortly after the surrender of Fort Henry, Tennessee, on February 6,1862.
Fort Henry had been a key position in the center of a line defending Tennessee, about 2,500 of Fort Henrys Confederate defenders escaped before its surrender by marching the 12 miles east to Fort Donelson. With the surrender of Fort Henry, the Confederates faced some difficult choices, Grants army now divided Confederate Gen. Albert Sidney Johnstons two main forces, P. G. T. Beauregard at Columbus, with 12,000 men, Fort Donelson had only about 5,000 men. Johnston was apprehensive about the ease with which Union gunboats defeated Fort Henry and he was more concerned about the threat from Buell than he was from Grant, and suspected the river operations might simply be a diversion. Johnston decided upon a course of action that forfeited the initiative across most of his defensive line, Johnston wanted to give command of Fort Donelson to Beauregard, who had performed ably at Bull Run, but the latter declined because of a throat ailment. Instead, the responsibility went to Brig. Gen. John B, who had just arrived following an unsuccessful assignment under Robert E.
Lee in western Virginia. Floyd was a man in the North for alleged graft. Floyds background was political, not military, but he was nevertheless the senior general on the Cumberland River. On the Union side, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, Halleck had authorized Grant to capture Fort Henry, but now he felt that continuing to Fort Donelson was risky. Despite Grants success to date, Halleck had little confidence in him, Halleck attempted to convince his own rival, Don Carlos Buell, to take command of the campaign to get his additional forces engaged. Despite Johnstons high regard for Buell, the Union general was as passive as Grant was aggressive
Battle of Shiloh
The Battle of Shiloh, known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6–7,1862, in southwestern Tennessee. A Union force known as the Army of the Tennessee under Major General Ulysses S. T. Beauregard, launched an attack on Grants army from its base in Corinth. Johnston was killed in action during the fighting, who succeeded to command of the army. Overnight Grant was reinforced by one of his own divisions stationed further north and was joined by three divisions from another Union army under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell. This allowed them to launch a counterattack the next morning which completely reversed the Confederate gains of the previous day. On April 6, the first day of the battle, the Confederates struck with the intention of driving the Union defenders away from the river, Johnston hoped to defeat Grants army before the anticipated arrival of General Buells Army of the Ohio. The Confederate battle lines became confused during the fighting, and Grants men instead fell back to the northeast.
A Union position on a sunken road, nicknamed the Hornets Nest. Benjamin Prentisss and William H. L. Wallaces divisions, provided critical time for the remainder of the Union line to stabilize under the protection of artillery batteries. Wallace was mortally wounded when the position collapsed, while several regiments from the two divisions were surrounded and surrendered. General Johnston was shot in the leg and bled to death while leading an attack. Beauregard, his second in command, acknowledged how tired the army was from the days exertions, Confederate forces were forced to retreat from the area, ending their hopes of blocking the Union advance into northern Mississippi. Smiths orders were to lead raids intended to capture or damage the railroads in southwestern Tennessee, Brig. Gen. William T. Shermans troops arrived from Paducah, Kentucky, to conduct a similar mission to break the railroads near Eastport, Mississippi. Halleck ordered Grant to advance his Army of West Tennessee on an invasion up the Tennessee River, Grant left Fort Henry and headed upriver, arriving at Savannah, Tennessee, on March 14, and established his headquarters on the east bank of the river.
Grants troops set up camp farther upriver, five divisions at Pittsburg Landing, meanwhile, Hallecks command was enlarged through consolidation of Grants and Buells armies and renamed the Department of the Mississippi. With Buells Army of the Ohio under his command, Halleck ordered Buell to concentrate with Grant at Savannah, Buell began a march with much of his army from Nashville and headed southwest toward Savannah. The railroad was a supply line connecting the Mississippi River at Memphis, Tennessee to Richmond. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant developed a reputation during the war for being concerned with his own plans than with those of the enemy
The Union Army of the Tennessee under Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant gained control of the river by capturing this stronghold and defeating Lt. Gen. John C. The campaign consisted of important naval operations, troop maneuvers, failed initiatives. Military historians divide the campaign into two phases, Operations Against Vicksburg and Grants Operations Against Vicksburg. Grant conducted a number of experiments or expeditions—Grants Bayou Operations—that attempted to enable access to the Mississippi south of Vicksburgs artillery batteries. All five of these failed as well. Finally, Union gunboats and troop transport boats ran the batteries at Vicksburg, on April 29 and April 30,1863, Grants army crossed the Mississippi and landed at Bruinsburg, Mississippi. An elaborate series of demonstrations and diversions fooled the Confederates and the landings occurred without opposition, over the next 17 days, Grant maneuvered his army inland and won five battles, captured the state capital of Jackson and assaulted and laid siege to Vicksburg.
After Pembertons army surrendered on July 4, and when Port Hudson surrendered to Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P, Grants Vicksburg Campaign is studied as a masterpiece of military operations and a major turning point of the war. Vicksburg was strategically vital to the Confederates, Jefferson Davis said, Vicksburg is the nail head that holds the Souths two halves together. The natural defenses of the city were ideal, earning it the nickname The Gibraltar of the Confederacy and it was located on a high bluff overlooking a horseshoe-shaped bend in the river, De Soto Peninsula, making it almost impossible to approach by ship. About twelve miles up the Yazoo River were Confederate batteries and entrenchments at Haynes Bluff, the Louisiana land west of Vicksburg was difficult, with many streams and poor country roads, widespread winter flooding, and it was on the opposite side of the river from the fortress. The city had been under Union naval attack before, admiral David Farragut moved up the river after his capture of New Orleans and on May 18,1862, demanded the surrender of Vicksburg.
Farragut had insufficient troops to force the issue, and he moved back to New Orleans and he returned with a flotilla in June 1862, but their attempts to bombard the fortress into surrender failed. Farragut investigated the possibility of bypassing the fortified cliffs by digging a canal across the neck of the rivers bend, on June 28, Brig. Gen. Thomas Williams, attached to Farraguts command, began digging work on the canal by employing local laborers and some soldiers. Many of the men fell victim to diseases and heat exhaustion. In the fall of 1862, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck was promoted from command of the Western Theater to general-in-chief of all Union armies. Halleck has received criticism for not moving promptly overland from Memphis, Tennessee and he believed that the Navy could capture the fortress on its own, not knowing that the naval force was insufficiently manned with ground troops to finish the job. What might have achieved success in the summer of 1862 was no longer possible by November because the Confederates had amply reinforced the garrison by that time, Grants army marched south down the Mississippi Central Railroad, making a forward base at Holly Springs
Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson was a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and the best-known Confederate commander after General Robert E. Lee. His military career includes the Valley Campaign of 1862 and his service as a commander in the Army of Northern Virginia. Confederate pickets accidentally shot him at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2,1863, the general survived but lost an arm to amputation, he died of complications from pneumonia eight days later. His death was a setback for the Confederacy, affecting not only its military prospects. Jackson in death became an icon of Southern heroism and commitment, Military historians consider Jackson to be one of the most gifted tactical commanders in U. S. history. His Valley Campaign and his envelopment of the Union Armys right wing at Chancellorsville are studied worldwide, even today, as examples of innovative and bold leadership. He excelled as well in battles, the First Battle of Bull Run, where he received his famous nickname Stonewall, the Second Battle of Bull Run.
Jackson was not, universally successful as a commander as displayed by his arrival and confused efforts during the Seven Days Battles around Richmond. Thomas Jonathan Jackson was the great-grandson of John Jackson and Elizabeth Cummins, John Jackson was an Ulster Scots Protestant from Coleraine, County Londonderry, Ireland. While living in London, England, he was convicted of the crime of larceny for stealing £170. They both were transported on the merchant ship Litchfield, which departed London in May 1749 with 150 convicts and Elizabeth met on board and were in love by the time the ship arrived at Annapolis, Maryland. Although they were sent to different locations in Maryland for their bond service, the family migrated west across the Blue Ridge Mountains to settle near Moorefield, Virginia in 1758. In 1770, they moved farther west to the Tygart Valley and they began to acquire large parcels of virgin farming land near the present-day town of Buckhannon, including 3,000 acres in Elizabeths name.
While the men were in the Army, Elizabeth converted their home to a haven, Jacksons Fort and Elizabeth had eight children. Their second son was Edward Jackson, and Edwards third son was Jonathan Jackson, jonathans mother died in 1798 and his father remarried three years later. His father and stepmother had nine more children, Thomas Jackson was the third child of Julia Beckwith Jackson and Jonathan Jackson, an attorney. Both of Jacksons parents were natives of Virginia, the family already had two young children and were living in Clarksburg, in what is now West Virginia, when Thomas was born. He was named for his maternal grandfather, There is some dispute about the actual location of Jacksons birth