A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. Documentary has been described as a practice, a cinematic tradition. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film and he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de lhistoire and La photographie animée. Both were published in 1898 in French and among the written works to consider the historical. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect, the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as a factual film which is dramatic. Others further state that a documentary stands out from the types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion. Documentary practice is the process of creating documentary projects. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of journalism, early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event.
They were single-shot moments captured on film, a train entering a station and these short films were called actuality films, the term documentary was not coined until 1926. Many of the first films, such as made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons, the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and a half, using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States, in May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations, Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of.
These and five other of Doyens films survive, all these short films have been preserved. I must say I forgot those works and I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me, not many scientists have followed your way. Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century
Samuel R. Watkins
Samuel Rush Sam Watkins was an American writer and humorist. He fought through the entire Civil War and saw action in major battles. Today, he is best known for his memoir, Co. Aytch, which recounts his life as a soldier in the Confederate States Army, in May 1861, twenty-one year old Sam Watkins of Maury County, rushed to join the army when his state left the Union. When he died at sixty-two, Watkins was buried with military honors. In 1881, with a full of young rebels clustering about my elbows. Aytch is considered to be one of the greatest memoirs ever written by a soldier of the field, originally published as a serial newspaper column from 1881 to 1882 in The Columbia Herald, his stories were collected and printed in book form in 1882. Camp No.29 of the Sons of Confederate Veterans in Columbia, American literary regionalism American realism The Civil War Biographies, Sam Watkins. Recollections of the Battle of Perryville, Sam Watkins at Find a Grave Samuel R. Watkins Camp No. 29, Sons of Confederate Veterans Works by or about Sam Watkins at Internet Archive Works by Sam Watkins at LibriVox Works by Sam Watkins at Project Gutenberg
Baseball (TV series)
Baseball is a 1994 American television documentary miniseries created by Ken Burns about the game of baseball. First broadcast on PBS, this was Burns ninth documentary and won the 1995 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Informational Series, Baseball is similar to Burns previous documentaries such as The Civil War, in the use of archived pictures and film footage mixed with interviews for visual presentation. Actors provide voice over reciting written work over pictures and video, the episodes are interspersed with the music of the times taken from previous Burns series, original played music, or recordings ranging from Louis Armstrong to Elvis Presley. The series was narrated by John Chancellor, the anchor of the NBC Nightly News from 1970 to 1982. The documentary is divided into nine parts, each referred to as an inning, following the division of a baseball game. Each inning reviews a particular era in time, mentioning notable moments in the world and in America itself, in some inning episodes, a period version of the baseball anthem Take Me Out to the Ball Game is used.
Major themes explored throughout the documentary are those of race, labor relations, the series had an audience of 45 million viewers, which makes it the most watched program in Public Television history. 1st Inning – Our Game This inning serves as an introduction to the game and the series, and covers baseballs origins, original airdate, September 18,1994. Ty Cobb is discussed in depth, many of the quotes used in this inning and of the other early innings are taken from Lawrence S. Ritters The Glory of Their Times. Original airdate, September 19,1994, 3rd Inning – The Faith of Fifty Million People This inning covers approximately 1910 to 1920, and follows baseball as it goes through its greatest era of popularity yet. It heavily focuses on the Black Sox Scandal, taking its title from a line in the novel The Great Gatsby, the line refers to how easy it was for gamblers to tamper with the faith that people put in the games fairness. Original airdate, September 20,1994, the title comes from what sports writers called Ruth.
Original airdate, September 21,1994, 5th Inning – Shadow Ball This inning covers approximately 1930 to 1940. It briefly discusses the 1934 World Champion St. Louis Cardinals, original airdate, September 22,1994. 6th Inning – The National Pastime This inning covers approximately 1940 to 1950, the emphasis here is on baseball finally becoming what it had always purported to be, A national game. As African-Americans are finally permitted for good into Major League Baseball and this inning looks at how the game was influenced as a result of World War II and how the game became, more than ever, a symbol of America itself. Original airdate, September 25,1994, 7th Inning – The Capital of Baseball This inning covers approximately 1950 to 1960. Burns emphasizes the greatness of the three based in New York
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The term may be used to only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans. As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are of West and Central African descent and are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of 73. 2–80. 9% West African, 18–24% European, according to US Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities, immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, believed to be inferior to white people, they were treated as second-class citizens.
The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, in 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States. The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, the ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic, the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence they had come. The first recorded Africans in British North America were 20 and odd negroes who came to Jamestown, as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. Typically, young men or women would sign a contract of indenture in exchange for transportation to the New World, the landowner received 50 acres of land from the state for each servant purchased from a ships captain.
An indentured servant would work for years without wages. The status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery, servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Africans could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom and they raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of slavery when they sentenced John Punch. One of Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black slaves, John Casor
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Elisha Hunt Rhodes
Elisha Hunt Rhodes was an American soldier who served in the Union Army of the Potomac for the entire duration of the American Civil War, rising from corporal to colonel of his regiment by wars end. Rhodes illustrative diary of his war service was quoted prominently in Ken Burns PBS documentary The Civil War, Rhodes was born in Pawtuxet, Rhode Island, to Captain Elisha H. Rhodes and Eliza A. Chase. He had several sisters and two brothers, at age 14, Rhodes attended Potter and Hammonds Business Academy in Providence. His father drowned when his schooner, the merchant ship Worcester, was sunk by a hurricane on December 10,1858 and he was buried on Linyards Cay, Abaco in the Bahamas. Rhodes served with the 2nd Rhode Island Volunteer Infantry throughout its service during the American Civil War, Rhodes enlisted in the war with his mothers permission. At first he believed war to be an adventure, during the war, he advanced from corporal to lieutenant colonel in command of the regiment. He enlisted on June 5,1861 and was appointed to the rank of corporal and he was promoted to sergeant major on March 1,1862 and to 2nd lieutenant on July 24 of the same year.
On April 15,1863 he was promoted to 1st lieutenant and he became the regiments adjutant, with the rank of 1st lieutenant, on November 6,1863. He served in capacity until the regiment was reorganized on June 17,1864. On June 21,1864 he was promoted to captain and assigned to Company B but was ordered to command the regiment. He received a brevet to the rank of major on December 5,1864, on February 6,1865 he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and placed in command of the regiment. On April 2 he received a brevet to the rank of colonel in recognition of his service in the Petersburg campaign and he was mustered out of service, along with his regiment, on July 13,1865. After the war, he became a businessman and became active in veterans affairs. He never missed a regimental reunion of the 2nd Rhode Island Volunteer Infantry and he married Caroline Pearce Hunt on June 12,1866 and had a son, Frederick Miller Rhodes and a daughter Alice Caroline Rhodes Chace. He was appointed as collector of U. S. internal revenue of Rhode Island in 1875, from 1879 until 1893 he served as the commander of the Rhode Island Militia with the rank of brigadier general.
During his time in office he helped transform the militia into a professional organization. Rhodes was very active in the Grand Army of the Republic and he was Adjutant of Prescott Post, No. He served for one year as the GARs national senior vice commander and he was Vice President of the Society of the Army of the Potomac in 1877, and president of the Second Rhode Island Volunteer Association
William Tecumseh Sherman
William Tecumseh Sherman was an American soldier, businessman and author. Sherman began his Civil War career serving in the First Battle of Bull Run and he served under General Ulysses S. In 1864, Sherman succeeded Grant as the Union commander in the Western Theater of the war and he proceeded to lead his troops to the capture of the city of Atlanta, a military success that contributed to the re-election of Abraham Lincoln. Shermans subsequent march through Georgia and the Carolinas further undermined the Confederacys ability to continue fighting and he accepted the surrender of all the Confederate armies in the Carolinas and Florida in April 1865, after having been present at most major military engagements in the Western Theater. When Grant assumed the U. S. presidency in 1869, Sherman succeeded him as Commanding General of the Army, as such, he was responsible for the U. S. Armys engagement in the Indian Wars over the next 15 years. Sherman advocated total war against hostile Indians to force them back onto their reservations and he steadfastly refused to be drawn into politics and in 1875 published his Memoirs, one of the best-known first-hand accounts of the Civil War.
British military historian B. H. Liddell Hart famously declared that Sherman was the first modern general, Sherman was born in 1820 in Lancaster, near the banks of the Hocking River. His father Charles Robert Sherman, a lawyer who sat on the Ohio Supreme Court. He left his widow, Mary Hoyt Sherman, with eleven children, Sherman was distantly related to American founding father Roger Sherman and grew to admire him. Shermans older brother Charles Taylor Sherman became a federal judge, one of his younger brothers, John Sherman, served as a U. S. senator and Cabinet secretary. Another younger brother, Hoyt Sherman, was a successful banker, Sherman would marry his foster sister, Ellen Boyle Ewing, at age 30 and have eight children with her. Shermans unusual given name has attracted considerable attention. Sherman reported that his name came from his father having caught a fancy for the great chief of the Shawnees. Since an account in a 1932 biography about Sherman, it has often reported that, as an infant.
According to these accounts, Sherman only acquired the name William at age nine or ten and his foster mother, Maria Willis Boyle, was of Irish ancestry and a devout Roman Catholic. Sherman was raised in a Roman Catholic household, though he left the church. Sherman wrote in his Memoirs that his father named him William Tecumseh, Sherman was baptized by a Presbyterian minister as an infant, as an adult, Sherman signed all his correspondence – including to his wife – W. T. Sherman. His friends and family called him Cump
Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
Ashokan Farewell /əˈʃoʊ. kænˌ/ is a piece of music composed by American folk musician Jay Ungar in 1982. The tune was used as the theme of the 1990 PBS television miniseries The Civil War. The piece is a waltz in D major, composed in the style of a Scottish lament, Jay Ungar describes the song as coming out of a sense of loss and longing after the annual Ashokan Music & Dance Camps ended. The most famous arrangement of the piece begins with a violin, accompanied by guitar. Another arrangement, featuring Ungar and their band, is performed with two violins, an acoustic guitar, and a banjo, with the piece beginning with a solo violin. Before its use as the series theme, Ashokan Farewell was recorded on Waltz of the Wind. The musicians included Ungar and Mason and it served as a goodnight or farewell waltz at the annual Ashokan Music & Dance Camps that Ungar and Mason run in the Catskill Mountains of New York. Ashokan was the name of a village in the Catskill region that is now mostly covered by the Ashokan Reservoir.
In 1984, filmmaker Ken Burns heard Ashokan Farewell and was moved by it and he used it in two of his documentary films, Huey Long, and The Civil War, which features the original recording by Fiddle Fever in the beginning of the film. The Civil War drew the greatest attention to the piece and it is played 25 times throughout the eleven-hour series, including during the emotional reading of Sullivan Ballous letter to his wife in the first episode. The song underlies nearly an hour of film and it subsequently received airtime on some country music-formatted radio stations, which was timely as the United States went to war in the Persian Gulf. Elektra Nonesuch director of media relations Carol Yaple told Billboard magazine, is really all of the period. Theres nothing sexy or contemporary about it, except that it was attached to that series and is good music, the song was used in the Louie episode The Road, Part II, where Louie dresses up in a Civil War uniform for an old-time photograph. The song has been covered and re-recorded numerous times, Country violinist Mark OConnor released Heroes in 1993, bluegrass guitarist Tony Rice covered Ashokan Farewell on his 1994 release Live.
In 1994, Priscilla Herdman released Ashokan Farewell on Forever and Always, both Jay Ungar and Molly Mason accompanied her. A cover version appears on Chuck Leavells 2001 solo piano recording Forever Blue, Time for Three covered Ashokan Farewell on We Just Burned this for You, recorded live at Bowling Green State University in Ohio on January 13,2006. British vocal band Blake covered the song for their 2008 self-titled debut album, cape Breton fiddler Jerry Holland performed the tune on his 1992 album The Fiddlesticks Collection. In the BBC America TV series Copper, a key prop — a pocket watch that is a clue in a murder — plays a version of Ashokan Farewell
Walter Walt Whitman was an American poet and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both views in his works, Whitman is among the most influential poets in the American canon, often called the father of free verse. His work was controversial in its time, particularly his poetry collection Leaves of Grass. Born in Huntington on Long Island, Whitman worked as a journalist, a teacher, early in his career, he produced a temperance novel, Franklin Evans. Whitmans major work, Leaves of Grass, was first published in 1855 with his own money, the work was an attempt at reaching out to the common person with an American epic. He continued expanding and revising it until his death in 1892, after a stroke towards the end of his life, he moved to Camden, New Jersey, where his health further declined. When he died at age 72, his became an public spectacle. Walter Whitman was born on May 31,1819, in West Hills, Town of Huntington, Long Island, to parents with interests in Quaker thought, the second of nine children, he was immediately nicknamed Walt to distinguish him from his father.
Walter Whitman, Sr. named three of his seven sons after American leaders, Andrew Jackson, George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson, the oldest was named Jesse and another boy died unnamed at the age of six months. The couples sixth son, the youngest, was named Edward, at age four, Whitman moved with his family from West Hills to Brooklyn, living in a series of homes, in part due to bad investments. Whitman looked back on his childhood as generally restless and unhappy, one happy moment that he recalled was when he was lifted in the air and kissed on the cheek by the Marquis de Lafayette during a celebration in Brooklyn on July 4,1825. At age eleven Whitman concluded formal schooling, Whitman learned about the printing press and typesetting. He may have written sentimental bits of material for occasional issues. Clements aroused controversy when he and two attempted to dig up the corpse of Elias Hicks to create a plaster mold of his head. Clements left the Patriot shortly afterward, possibly as a result of the controversy, the following summer Whitman worked for another printer, Erastus Worthington, in Brooklyn.
His family moved back to West Hills in the spring, but Whitman remained and took a job at the shop of Alden Spooner, at age 16 in May 1835, Whitman left the Star and Brooklyn. He moved to New York City to work as a compositor though, in years, in May 1836, he rejoined his family, now living in Hempstead, Long Island. Whitman taught intermittently at various schools until the spring of 1838, after his teaching attempts, Whitman went back to Huntington, New York to found his own newspaper, the Long Islander
James W. Symington
James Wadsworth Symington is a United States attorney and politician who served as four-term member of the U. S. House of Representatives from 1969 to 1977, representing Missouri. James Wadsworth Symington, son of Stuart and Evelyn Symington, was born on September 28,1927, in Rochester and he is the great-grandson of James Wolcott Wadsworth and grandson of James Wolcott Wadsworth, Jr. He attended St. Bernards School in New York City, St. Louis Country Day School in St. Louis, in 1945, he graduated from Deerfield Academy in Massachusetts and enlisted in the United States Marine Corps at the age of 17. He served in the Marine Corps as a private first class from 1945 to 1946, Symington earned his Bachelor of Arts degree from Yale University in 1950 where he sang as a member of the Whiffenpoofs and the Glee Club. He joined Berzelius secret society and he graduated from Columbia Law School in 1954. After graduating from law school, Symington served for two years as Assistant City Counselor for St. Louis and he went into private practice from 1955 to 1958.
Beginning in the 1950s, he performed as country music and folk singer. He frequently sang at his fathers 1952 campaign appearances across Missouri, in 1958, he appeared on ABC-TVs Jubilee USA, and performed with Patti Douglas and Lee Maces Ozark Opry. Later in 1958, Symington entered the United States Foreign Service and was posted to London as assistant to John Hay Whitney and he served in this role until 1960, when he returned to private practice in Washington, D. C. In 1968, Symington was elected as a Democrat to the 91st Congress to represent Missouris 2nd Congressional District and he served four terms in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1969 to 1977. He faced Missouri Governor Warren Hearnes and Congressman Jerry Litton in the Democratic primary, Litton won the primary but was killed when his plane crashed en route to the victory party. Hearnes was named the Democratic candidate and ultimately lost to Republican Party candidate John Danforth, at the end of his congressional term, Symington returned to the D. C.
-based law firm Smathers, Symington & Herlong as a partner. Symington served as director of The Atlantic Council from 1986 to 2001, in 1992, he founded the American-Russian Cultural Cooperation Foundation, which he chaired from its inception until 2015. He made appearances as a singer. He is currently practicing law with the law firm of Nossaman LLP/OConnor & Hannan, a collection of his poems and prose, A Muse ’N Washington, Beltway Ballads and Beyond, was published in 1999. Symington appeared as a commentator in the 1990 Ken Burns film The Civil War and this article incorporates text from the U. S. government publication, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1771-Present. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, University of Missouri - St. Louis. Symington, James Wadsworth in Index to Politicians, Sword to Szyperski, James W. Symington Will Speak at St. Louis Commencement
Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson was a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and the best-known Confederate commander after General Robert E. Lee. His military career includes the Valley Campaign of 1862 and his service as a commander in the Army of Northern Virginia. Confederate pickets accidentally shot him at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2,1863, the general survived but lost an arm to amputation, he died of complications from pneumonia eight days later. His death was a setback for the Confederacy, affecting not only its military prospects. Jackson in death became an icon of Southern heroism and commitment, Military historians consider Jackson to be one of the most gifted tactical commanders in U. S. history. His Valley Campaign and his envelopment of the Union Armys right wing at Chancellorsville are studied worldwide, even today, as examples of innovative and bold leadership. He excelled as well in battles, the First Battle of Bull Run, where he received his famous nickname Stonewall, the Second Battle of Bull Run.
Jackson was not, universally successful as a commander as displayed by his arrival and confused efforts during the Seven Days Battles around Richmond. Thomas Jonathan Jackson was the great-grandson of John Jackson and Elizabeth Cummins, John Jackson was an Ulster Scots Protestant from Coleraine, County Londonderry, Ireland. While living in London, England, he was convicted of the crime of larceny for stealing £170. They both were transported on the merchant ship Litchfield, which departed London in May 1749 with 150 convicts and Elizabeth met on board and were in love by the time the ship arrived at Annapolis, Maryland. Although they were sent to different locations in Maryland for their bond service, the family migrated west across the Blue Ridge Mountains to settle near Moorefield, Virginia in 1758. In 1770, they moved farther west to the Tygart Valley and they began to acquire large parcels of virgin farming land near the present-day town of Buckhannon, including 3,000 acres in Elizabeths name.
While the men were in the Army, Elizabeth converted their home to a haven, Jacksons Fort and Elizabeth had eight children. Their second son was Edward Jackson, and Edwards third son was Jonathan Jackson, jonathans mother died in 1798 and his father remarried three years later. His father and stepmother had nine more children, Thomas Jackson was the third child of Julia Beckwith Jackson and Jonathan Jackson, an attorney. Both of Jacksons parents were natives of Virginia, the family already had two young children and were living in Clarksburg, in what is now West Virginia, when Thomas was born. He was named for his maternal grandfather, There is some dispute about the actual location of Jacksons birth