R. A. Salvatore
Robert Anthony Salvatore is an American author best known for The DemonWars Saga, his Forgotten Realms novels, for which he created the popular character Drizzt Do'Urden, Vector Prime, the first novel in the Star Wars: The New Jedi Order series. He has sold more than 15 million copies of his books in the United States alone and twenty-two of his titles have been New York Times best-sellers. Salvatore was born in Leominster, the youngest of a family of seven. A graduate of Leominster High School, Salvatore has credited his high school English teacher with being instrumental in his development as a writer. During his time at Fitchburg State College, he became interested in fantasy after reading J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, given to him as a Christmas gift, he developed an interest in fantasy and other literature, promptly changing his major from computer science to journalism. He earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Communications/Media from Fitchburg, he earned this degree in 1981 and a Bachelor of Arts in English.
Before taking up writing full-time, he worked as a bouncer. He vividly described battle scenes to his experience as a bouncer. In the fall of 1997, his letters and other professional papers were donated to the R. A. Salvatore Library at his alma mater, Fitchburg State University in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. In 1982, he started writing more developing a manuscript he titled Echoes of the Fourth Magic, he created the setting of Ynis Aielle for the novel. In an interview with comic book website Project Fanboy, Salvatore said he landed the deal for his first book when, after finishing the script for Echoes of the Fourth Magic in early 1987, he sent the work to TSR and several other publishers. TSR was looking for an author to write the second book in the Forgotten Realms line and asked Salvatore to audition. In July 1987, Salvatore won the spot to write the book, his first published novel was The Crystal Shard from TSR in 1988. The first hardcover novel from TSR was Salvatore's The Legacy. After Passage to Dawn, TSR's management picked a new author to write stories about Drizzt.
The Silent Blade won the Origins Award that year. Salvatore went on to publish several series of books in the Forgotten Realms campaign world, while his popularity surged due to his Demon Wars sagas and his two Star Wars books. One of his most popular characters is Drizzt Do'Urden, a drow, or dark elf, portrayed against the stereotypes of his race, who defies a nation of evil enemies with his swordsmanship and courage, he abandons the Underdark, a barren land of unmarked and limitless tunnels where deadly creatures continually lurk. His journey for freedom leads him to the surface where he faces discrimination at every turn because of his dark heritage. Drizzt stumbles along in a harsh world until he comes upon friends who understand the kindness of his heart. Together, they fight for justice against sinister enemies who dare to disrupt the peace of Drizzt's newfound homeland. In 1999, Salvatore was tasked with writing Vector Prime, the first novel in the Star Wars: The New Jedi Order series.
Vector Prime was controversial among Star Wars fans because its plot included the death of Chewbacca, making the Wookiee the first major character from the original trilogy to be permanently killed off in the Star Wars expanded universe novels. Salvatore was ordered by Lucasfilm Ltd. to kill off the character. Many fans thought that Salvatore himself had made this decision, but it was Randy Stradley, the then-editor at Dark Horse Comics. In February 2008, Devil's Due Publishing published Spooks, a comic book about a U. S. government anti-paranormal investigator/task force created by Larry Salvatore. Hama created the military characters and plots, Salvatore covered the monster characters. In 2010, Wizards of the Coast announced a new deal with Salvatore to write six more books featuring Drizzt the dark elf; the books were released between 2011 and 2016. In addition to his novels, Salvatore wrote the story for the PS2, Xbox and PC video game Forgotten Realms: Demon Stone, working with the design team at Stormfront Studios.
The game was published by Atari and was nominated for awards by the Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences and BAFTA. CDS books commissioned him to edit a four book series based on the interactive online EverQuest game, he wrote the bot chat lines for the Quake III bots. Salvatore was hired as creative director for upstart game developer 38 Studios, owned by former baseball player Curt Schilling, he wrote the dialogue and created a backstory spanning ten thousand years for the fantasy game Kingdoms of Amalur: Reckoning, released in February 2012, sold over one million units. However, three months 38 Studios declared bankruptcy and ceased operations; the company laid off its entire staff, including Salvatore, with the $2 million fee for his services having never been paid. Salvatore claimed. "Why would I sue Curt? Maybe he made a couple of bad business decisions... he didn't do anything nefarious, he got wiped out. He's lying in the gutter and you want me to kick him in the head? Why would anyone do that?"
Cassada, Jackie. “The Lone Drow.” Library Journal September 15, 2003, Vol. 128 Issue 15, p95 Cannon, Peter. Zaleski, Jeff. THE THOUSAND ORCS Publishers Weekly. 10/7/2002, Vol. 249 Issu
Forgotten Realms is a campaign setting for the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game. Referred to by players and game designers alike as "The Realms", it was created by game designer Ed Greenwood around 1967 as a setting for his childhood stories. Several years Greenwood brought the setting to the D&D game as a series of magazine articles, the first Realms game products were released in 1987. Role-playing game products have been produced for the setting since, as have various licensed products including novels, role-playing video game adaptations, comic books; the Forgotten Realms is one of the most popular D&D settings due to the success of novels by authors such as R. A. Salvatore and numerous role-playing video games, including Pool of Radiance, Eye of the Beholder, Baldur's Gate, Icewind Dale and Neverwinter Nights; the Forgotten Realms is a fantasy world setting, described as a world of strange lands, dangerous creatures, mighty deities, where magic and supernatural phenomena are quite real.
The premise is that, long ago, the Earth and the world of the Forgotten Realms were more connected. As time passed, the inhabitants of planet Earth have forgotten about the existence of that other world – hence the name Forgotten Realms. On the original Forgotten Realms logo, used until 2000, small runic letters read "Herein lie the lost lands", an allusion to the connection between the two worlds; the focus of the Forgotten Realms setting is the continent of Faerûn, part of the fictional world of Abeir-Toril called Toril, an Earth-like planet with many real-world influences. Unlike Earth, the lands of the Forgotten Realms are not all ruled by the human race: the planet Toril is shared by humans, elves, goblins and other peoples and creatures. Technologically, the world of the Forgotten Realms is not nearly as advanced as that of Earth. However, the presence of magic provides an additional element of power to the societies. There are several nation states and many independent cities, with loose alliances being formed for defense or conquest.
Trade is performed by ship or horse-drawn vehicle, manufacturing is based upon cottage industry. Toril consists of several large continents, including Faerûn, the western part of a continent, modeled after the Eurasian continent on Earth. Faerûn was first detailed in the original Forgotten Realms Campaign Set, published in 1987 by TSR; the other continents include Kara-Tur, Zakhara and other yet unspecified landmasses. Kara-Tur corresponding to ancient East Asia, was the focus of its own source book Kara-Tur: The Eastern Realms, published in 1988. There is a vast subterranean world called the Underdark beneath the surface. Various products detailing specific areas of Faerûn, such as the 2nd edition FR13 Anauroch, FR15 Gold and Glory, FR16 The Shining South, FRS1 The Dalelands, have been released, through these much of the continent has been detailed and documented, creating a developed setting. In early editions of the setting, The Realms shared a unified cosmology with various other campaign settings called the Great Wheel.
In this way each of the Dungeons & Dragons campaign settings were linked together to form one interwoven world connected by various planes of existence. With the release of the 2001 Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting, the setting was given its own distinct and separate cosmological arrangement, with unique planes not explicitly connected to those of the other settings. Religion plays a large part in the Forgotten Realms, with deities and their followers being an integral part of the world, they do not have a passive role, but in fact interact directly in mortal affairs, answer prayers, have their own personal agendas. All deities must have worshipers to survive, all mortals must worship a patron deity to secure a good afterlife. A huge number of diverse deities exist within several polytheistic pantheons. Much of the history of The Realms detailed in novels and source books concerns the actions of various deities and The Chosen such as Elminster, Fzoul Chembryl and the Seven Sisters. Above all other deities is the Overlord.
Ao does not sanction distances himself from mortals. He is single-handedly responsible for the Time of Troubles, or Godswar, as seen in The Avatar Trilogy; the setting is the home of several iconic characters popularized by authors, including Elminster the wizard, who has appeared in several series of novels created by Greenwood himself, Drizzt Do'Urden, the popular Drow, or dark elf, ranger created by R. A. Salvatore. Ed Greenwood began writing stories about the Forgotten Realms as a child, starting around 1967. Greenwood came up with the Forgotten Realms name from the notion of a multiverse of parallel worlds. In Greenwood's original conception, the fantastic legends of Earth derive from a fantasy world, the way to, lost. Greenwood discovered the Dungeons & Dragons game in 1975, became a serious role-playing enthusiast with the first AD&D game releases in 1978; the setting became the home of Greenwood's personal campaign. Greenwood began a Realms campaign in the city of Waterdeep started another group known
The Halfling's Gem
The Halfling's Gem is a fantasy novel by American writer by R. A. Salvatore, the third book in The Icewind Dale Trilogy; the dark elf Drizzt Do'Urden and Wulfgar the barbarian race to Calimport to rescue their friend Regis—who is being held as a captive, along with Drizzt's magical panther Guenhwyvar, by Artemis Entreri—and his stolen gem from the vengeance of Pasha Pook, Regis's former boss whom Regis betrayed by stealing his hypnotizing gem. While Drizzt and Wulfgar's chase continue, it is shown to us, it turns out that after Bruenor jumped onto the back of Shimmergloom, he survived the fall and fire due to having hold of Drizzt's scimitar, Icingdeath. Having been invulnerable to the fire, besting the dragon, he crawled back to the surface. Breunor fails to sneak past the duergar and fights through scores of them before facing off against a giant spider. Lady Alustriel finds the poisoned and near-dead dwarf, heals him back to health, reunites him with Catti-brie and sends both of them after Drizzt and Wulfgar by supplying them with a burning chariot.
Meanwhile and Wulfgar are on the sea, chasing Entreri by boat with the help of his good Captain Deudermont. In the middle of a fight with pirates and Catti-brie arrive and "The Companions of the Hall" are united once again; the heroes arrive in Calimport and storm in into Pasha Pook's palace, only to find wererats, Pasha Pook's new-found allies led by Rassiter. Bruenor, Catti-brie and Wulfgar fight the horde of wererats while Drizzt duels Artemis Entreri; the two of them duel both in the sewers and in the streets of Calimport but the duel is left unfinished when the wounded Entreri, in an effort to escape, calls to everyone that Drizzt -, hiding his appearance with the help of a magical mask acquired earlier - is a drow. Bruenor, Catti-brie and Wulfgar come to the rescue of Drizzt, protecting him from the frightened and angry crowd. In the throne room, Pook imprisons Drizzt and his friends in Tarterus with the help of a demonic artifact called "The Taros Hoop". Just when there seems to be no hope, Regis comes along, taking the wand that controls the portal and helping his friends.
Our heroes try a desperate attempt to break free from the demodands but Catti-brie becomes unconscious, floating in the air because of the circular plane, Tarterus. Drizzt rescues Catti-brie by fighting savagely with hordes of demodands. In the end, Pasha Pook dies by the claws of the freed Guenhwyar, the six companions are united once again, soldiers from the surrounding dwarven kingdoms, barbarian tribes, human cities reclaim Mithral Halls and all turns out well. Entreri plans his vengeance against Drizzt; the novel holds several key events and introduces a number of important characters like Captain Deudermont of the Sea Sprite. This novel is the starting of Drizzt's romantic feelings for Catti-brie-he kisses her during Drizzt's rescue in the demonic plane Banophernalia gave 3.5 stars for The Halfling's Gem. The Halfling's Gem reached 12 on The New York Times bestseller list on March 4, 1990, was ranked 14th in the New York Times Best seller list on March 11, 1990
Wizards of the Coast
Wizards of the Coast LLC is an American publisher of games based on fantasy and science fiction themes, an operator of retail stores for games. A basement-run role-playing game publisher, the company popularized the collectible card game genre with Magic: The Gathering in the mid-1990s, acquired the popular Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game by purchasing the failing company TSR, experienced tremendous success by publishing the licensed Pokémon Trading Card Game; the company's corporate headquarters are located in Washington in the United States. Wizards of the Coast publishes role-playing games, board games, collectible card games, they have received numerous awards, including several Origins Awards. The company has been a subsidiary of Hasbro since 1999. All Wizards of the Coast stores were closed in 2004. Wizards of the Coast was founded by Peter Adkison in 1990 just outside Seattle and its current headquarters are located in nearby Renton; the company only published role-playing games such as the third edition of Talislanta and its own The Primal Order.
The 1992 release of The Primal Order, a supplement designed for use with any game system, brought legal trouble with Palladium Books suing for references to Palladium's game and system. The suit was settled in 1993. In 1991, Richard Garfield approached Wizards of the Coast with the idea for a new board game called RoboRally, but was turned down because the game would have been too expensive for Wizards of the Coast to produce. Instead, Adkison asked Garfield if he could invent a game, both portable and quick-playing, to which Garfield agreed. Adkison set up a new corporation, Garfield Games, to develop Richard Garfield's collectible card game concept called Manaclash, into Magic: The Gathering; this kept the game sheltered from the legal battle with Palladium, Garfield Games licensed the production and sale rights to Wizards until the court case was settled, at which point the shell company was shut down. Wizards debuted Magic in July 1993 at the Origins Game Fair in Dallas; the game proved popular at Gen Con in August 1993, selling out of its supply of 2.5 million cards, scheduled to last until the end of the year.
The success of Magic generated revenue that carried the company out from the handful of employees in 1993 working out of Peter's original basement headquarters into 250 employees in its own offices in 1995. In 1994, Magic won both the Mensa Top Five mind games award and the Origins Awards for Best Fantasy or Science Fiction Board Game of 1993 and Best Graphic Presentation of a Board Game of 1993. In 1994, Wizards began an association with The Beanstalk Group, a brand licensing agency and consultancy, to license the Magic brand. After the success of Magic, Wizards published RoboRally in 1994, it soon won the 1994 Origins Awards for Best Fantasy or Science Fiction Board Game and Best Graphic Presentation of a Board Game. Wizards expanded its role-playing game line by buying SLA Industries from Nightfall Games and Ars Magica from White Wolf, Inc. in 1994. In 1995, Wizards published another card game by Richard Garfield, The Great Dalmuti, which won the 1995 Best New Mind Game award from Mensa.
In August 1995, Wizards released Everway and four months closed its roleplaying game product line. Peter Adkison explained that the company was doing a disservice to the games with lack of support and had lost money on all of Wizards' roleplaying game products. In 1995, Wizards' annual sales passed US $65 million. Wizards announced the purchase of TSR, the cash-strapped makers of Dungeons & Dragons on April 10, 1997. Wizards acquired Five Rings Publishing Group for $25 million. Many of the creative and professional staff of TSR relocated from Wisconsin to the Renton area. Wizards used TSR as a brand name for a while retired it, allowing the TSR trademarks to expire. Between 1997 and 1999, the company spun off several well-loved but poorly selling campaign settings to fan groups, focusing business on the more profitable Greyhawk and Forgotten Realms lines. In Summer 1997, Wizards revisited the concept of a 3rd edition of Dungeons & Dragons, having first discussed it soon after the purchase of TSR.
Looking back on the decision in 2004, Adkison stated: "Obviously, had a strong economic incentive for publishing a new edition. And given the change in ownership we thought this would be an excellent opportunity for WotC to'put its stamp on D&D'." He "Set overall design direction" for the new edition of D&D. Wizards released the third edition of Dungeons & Dragons in 2000, as well as the d20 System. With these releases came the Open Game License, which allowed other companies to make use of those systems; the new edition of the D&D game won the 2000 Origins Award for Best Roleplaying Game. In 2002, Wizards sponsored a design contest which allowed designers to submit their campaign worlds to Wizards, to produce an original campaign world. In 2003 Wizards released version 3.5 of the d20 system. Wizards helped to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the D&D game at Gen Con Indy 2004. On August 2, 1997, Wizards of the Coast was granted U. S. Patent 5,662,332 on collectible card games. In January 1999, Wizards of the Coast began publishing the successful Pokémon Trading Card Game.
The game proved to be popular, selling nearly 400,000 copies in less than six weeks, selling 10 times be
Streams of Silver
Streams of Silver is a fantasy novel by American writer R. A. Salvatore, it is the second book in his The Icewind Dale Trilogy. Following on from the events of The Crystal Shard, Bruenor leads his friends Drizzt Do'Urden, the barbarian Wulfgar, a enthusiastic Regis, on a quest to reclaim Mithril Hall, the ancient stronghold of his clan. However, danger is following them before they can reach their objective, for Regis has a particular reason for coming along. Just as the companions are setting out, Artemis arrives in Ten-Towns, soon locating Regis' abandoned home and finding Catti-brie there; the young woman finds herself hopelessly outmatched and paralysed by fear, telling him all about Regis and the companions' quest. Entreri allows her to live, confident. Afraid for her friends, desperate to regain her honour, she follows after both the companions and Entreri, hoping to warn her friends. On the way to Luskan however, Entreri realises that he is being followed, captures Catti-brie again, this time taking her along as a prisoner to use against the companions.
Meanwhile, the companions have reached Luskan, seek out a map of the Northlands to aid in their quest. However, their visit does not go unnoticed. Dendybar the Mottled, an ambitious wizard from the Hosttower of the Arcane has heard of the Crystal Shard and believes that Drizzt still possesses it, plots to take it for his own ends, he forges an uneasy alliance with Entreri so that both may achieve their goals, sends his apprentice Sydney with Entreri, along with his golem and a soldier named Jierdan. The companions travel across the northlands towards Silverymoon, encountering barbarian tribes, an eccentric wizard family and the soldiers of Nesme, who react to Drizzt with hostility, forcing the companions to divert across the Evermoors known as the Trollmoors, an ordeal that makes an end of them. Upon reaching Silverymoon, Drizzt is again shunned, but the companions are directed by Lady Alustriel to the Herald's Holdfast, where they obtain the final clues to the location of Mithril Hall. During her time as a captive Catti-brie overcomes her terror of Entreri, begins to play on the volatile relationships between Entreri and his allies, creating an opportunity for her to escape as the evil group closes in on the companions.
Reunited with her friends, Catti-brie accompanies them into the ancient Dwarven stronghold, discovering that the duergar who forced Bruenor's clan out are still there, working the mines for their own ends. Whilst within the upper chambers of Mithril Hall, the two groups clash, Drizzt and Entreri find themselves face-to-face; the meeting between Drizzt and Entreri marks the beginning of a long-running and deadly feud between the two. The two warriors are evenly matched in battle, each sees a twisted mirror image of himself in the other. During the battle, a cave-in separates the two groups but results in Drizzt and Entreri being trapped together deep in the complex, they are forced to work together to escape, an experience which heightens both their resentment of the other's ideology, their respect for one another's prowess. Although tasked with the capture of Regis and the return of the ruby for his master Pasha Pook, Entreri finds himself so challenged by Drizzt's existence that he uses Guenhwyvar's statue, stolen from Drizzt, to further bait the drow into following him so that they can duel to find out, the better warrior.
Bruenor, Wulfgar and Catti-brie, believing Drizzt to have perished, continue their quest with heavy hearts. They find the Hall of Dumathoin, recovering the magical bow Taulmaril which becomes Catti-brie's signature weapon. On their way out, they find themselves attacked by duergar, forced into a battle with the shadow dragon Shimmergloom, the master of the duergar, it is only because of Bruenor's heroic sacrifice that the dragon is slain and his friends survive. Shortly afterwards, Drizzt is reunited with his friends, although Entreri takes advantage of the situation to lay his hands on Regis and make his escape, taunting Drizzt to follow him; the story ends with Catti-brie making arrangements for Clan Battlehammer to reclaim the hall, along with help from Wulfgar's tribe and the dwarves of Citadel Adbar, whilst Drizzt and Wulfgar begin their chase to rescue Regis from the clutches of Entreri. Banophernalia gave 3.5 stars for Streams of Silver. Ian Strelec, Staff reviewer for d20zines.com awarded Streams of Silver with a B+ rating.
Vivid descriptions and good characterizations were praised in the novel however he was critical of unrealistic situations as well an over emphasis on combat scenarios
A role-playing game is a game in which players assume the roles of characters in a fictional setting. Players take responsibility for acting out these roles within a narrative, either through literal acting, or through a process of structured decision-making regarding character development. Actions taken within many games succeed or fail according to a formal system of rules and guidelines. There are several forms of role-playing games; the original form, sometimes called the tabletop role-playing game, is conducted through discussion, whereas in live action role-playing, players physically perform their characters' actions. In both of these forms, an arranger called a game master decides on the rules and setting to be used, while acting as the referee. Several varieties of RPG exist in electronic media, such as multiplayer text-based Multi-User Dungeons and their graphics-based successors, massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Role-playing games include single-player role-playing video games in which players control a character, or team of characters, who undertake quests, may include player capabilities that advance using statistical mechanics.
These electronic games sometimes share settings and rules with tabletop RPGs, but emphasize character advancement more than collaborative storytelling. This type of game is well-established, so some RPG-related game forms, such as trading/collectible card games and wargames, may not be included under the definition; some amount of role-playing activity may be present in such games. The term role-playing game is sometimes used to describe games involving roleplay simulation and exercises used in teaching and academic research. Both authors and major publishers of tabletop role-playing games consider them to be a form of interactive and collaborative storytelling. Events and narrative structure give a sense of a narrative experience, the game need not have a strongly-defined storyline. Interactivity is the crucial difference between traditional fiction. Whereas a viewer of a television show is a passive observer, a player in a role-playing game makes choices that affect the story; such role-playing games extend an older tradition of storytelling games where a small party of friends collaborate to create a story.
While simple forms of role-playing exist in traditional children's games of make believe, role-playing games add a level of sophistication and persistence to this basic idea with additions such as game facilitators and rules of interaction. Participants in a role-playing game will generate an ongoing plot. A consistent system of rules and a more or less realistic campaign setting in games aids suspension of disbelief; the level of realism in games ranges from just enough internal consistency to set up a believable story or credible challenge up to full-blown simulations of real-world processes. Role-playing games are played in a wide variety of formats ranging from discussing character interaction in tabletop form to physically acting out characters in LARP to playing characters in digital media. There is a great variety of systems of rules and game settings. Games that emphasize plot and character interaction over game mechanics and combat sometimes prefer the name storytelling game; these types of games tend to minimize or altogether eliminate the use of dice or other randomizing elements.
Some games are played with characters created before the game by the GM, rather than those created by the players. This type of game is played at gaming conventions, or in standalone games that do not form part of a campaign. Tabletop and pen-and-paper RPGs are conducted through discussion in a small social gathering; the GM describes its inhabitants. The other players describe the intended actions of their characters, the GM describes the outcomes; some outcomes are determined by the game system, some are chosen by the GM. This is the format; the first commercially available RPG, Dungeons & Dragons, was inspired by fantasy literature and the wargaming hobby and was published in 1974. The popularity of D&D led to the birth of the tabletop role-playing game industry, which publishes games with many different themes and styles of play; the popularity of tabletop games has decreased since the modern releases of online MMO RPGs. This format is referred to as a role-playing game. To distinguish this form of RPG from other formats, the retronyms tabletop role-playing game or pen and paper role-playing game are sometimes used, though neither a table nor pen and paper are necessary.
A LARP is played more like improvisational theatre. Participants act out their characters' actions instead of describing them, the real environment is used to represent the imaginary setting of the game world. Players are costumed as their characters and use appropriate props, the venue may be decorated to resemble the fictional setting; some live action role-playing games use rock-paper-scissors or comparison of attributes to resolve conflicts symbolically, while other LARPs use physical combat with simulated arms such as airsoft guns or foam weapons. LARPs vary in size from a handful of players to several thousand, in duration from a couple of hours to several days; because the number of players in a LARP is larger than in a tabletop role-playing game, the players may be interacting in separate physical spaces, there is less of an emphasis on maintaining a narrative or directly entertai
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not.
An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects. Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation, where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies.
Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Fantasy elements occur throughout the ancient Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh; the ancient Babylonian creation epic, the Enûma Eliš, in which the god Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat, contains the theme of a cosmic battle between good and evil, characteristic of the modern fantasy genre. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu, preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire. Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature.
The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra, for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda, includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir, dwarves, elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us