Damnation Alley is a 1969 science fiction novel by American writer Roger Zelazny, based on a novella published in 1967. A film adaptation of the novel was released in 1977; the story opens in a post-apocalyptic Southern California, in a hellish world shattered by nuclear war decades before. Several police states have emerged in place of the former United States. Hurricane-force winds above five hundred feet prevent any sort of air travel from one state to the next, sudden and unpredictable storms make day-to-day life a mini-hell. Hell Tanner, an imprisoned killer, is offered a full pardon in exchange for taking on a suicide mission—a drive through "Damnation Alley" across a ruined America from Los Angeles to Boston—as one of three Landmaster vehicles attempting to deliver an urgently needed plague vaccine. Barry Malzberg found the book "an interesting novella converted to an unfortunate novel," faulting it as "a mechanical transposed action-adventure story written, in my view, at the bottom of the man's talent."
Zelazny himself agreed with Malzberg, stating that he preferred the novella and only expanded it at his agent's request to make it more viable for a movie deal. In 1977, a film loosely based on the novel was directed by Jack Smight. Roger Zelazny had liked the original script by Lukas Heller and expected that to be the filmed version, he never was embarrassed by it. However, assertions that he requested to have his name removed from the film are unfounded; the movie was released before he discovered he did not like it. The novel Hardwired by Walter Jon Williams is an homage to Damnation Alley; the two authors became good friends. Kevin O'Neill has said; the Hawkwind album Quark and Charm contains a song inspired by the story. The setting and premise of the 2011 Lonesome Road add-on for the post-apocalyptic computer game Fallout: New Vegas was inspired by Damnation Alley, according to lead designer Chris Avellone; the film adaptation of Zelazny's novel was one of several sources of inspiration for the original Fallout, according to designer R. Scott Campbell.
Levack, Daniel J. H.. Amber Dreams: A Roger Zelazny Bibliography. San Francisco: Underwood/Miller. Pp. 26–29. ISBN 0-934438-39-0. Ackerman, Forrest J.. Reel Future: The Stories that Inspired 16 Classic Science Fiction Movies. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. Pp. 396–471. ISBN 1-56619-450-4. "Damnation Alley" title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database "Damnation Alley" at the Internet Archive Damnation Alley title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Damnation Alley on Open Library at the Internet Archive
The Punisher is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was created by writer Gerry Conway and artists John Romita Sr. and Ross Andru, with publisher Stan Lee green-lighting the name. The Punisher made his first appearance in The Amazing Spider-Man #129; the character is an Italian-American vigilante who employs murder, extortion, threats of violence, torture in his campaign against crime. Driven by the deaths of his wife and two children who were killed by the mob for witnessing a killing in New York City's Central Park, the Punisher wages a one-man war on the mob and all violent criminals in general while employing the use of various firearms, his family's killers were the first to be slain. A war veteran and a United States Marine Corps Scout Sniper, Castle is skilled in hand-to-hand combat, guerrilla warfare, marksmanship; the Punisher's brutal nature and willingness to kill made him a novel character in mainstream American comic books when he debuted in 1974.
By the late 1980s, the Punisher was part of a wave of psychologically-troubled antiheroes. At the height of his popularity, the character was featured in four monthly publications, including The Punisher, The Punisher War Journal, The Punisher War Zone, The Punisher Armory. Despite his violent actions and dark nature, the Punisher has enjoyed some mainstream success on television, making guest appearances on Spider-Man: The Animated Series, The Super Hero Squad Show, where the depiction of his violent behavior was toned down for family viewers. In feature films, Dolph Lundgren portrayed the Punisher in 1989, as did Thomas Jane in 2004, Ray Stevenson in 2008. Jon Bernthal portrays the character in the second season of Marvel's Daredevil and the spin-off The Punisher as a part of the Marvel Cinematic Universe; the Punisher was conceived of by then-writer of The Amazing Spider-Man, Gerry Conway, inspired by The Executioner, a popular book series created by author Don Pendleton, in which a Vietnam veteran, Mack Bolan, becomes a serial killer of criminals after the Mafia-related deaths of his family.
Conway described the inspiration in an interview from 1987: "I was fascinated by the Don Pendleton Executioner character, popular at the time, I wanted to do something, inspired by that, although not to my mind a copy of it. And while I was doing the Jackal storyline, the opportunity came for a character who would be used by the Jackal to make Spider-Man's life miserable; the Punisher seemed to fit."Conway helped design the character's distinctive costume. As Conway recalled in 2002, "In the'70s, when I was writing comics at DC and Marvel, I made it a practice to sketch my own ideas for the costumes of new characters—heroes and villains—which I offered to the artists as a crude suggestion representing the image I had in mind. I had done that with the Punisher at Marvel." Conway had drawn a character with a small death's head skull on one breast. Marvel art director John Romita, Sr. took the basic design, blew the skull up to huge size, taking up most of the character's chest. Amazing Spider-Man penciller Ross Andru was the first artist to draw the character for publication.
Stan Lee Marvel's editor-in-chief, recalled in 2005 that he had suggested the character's name: Gerry Conway was writing a script and he wanted a character that would turn out to be a hero on, he came up with the name the Assassin. And I mentioned that I didn't think we could have a comic book where the hero would be called the Assassin, because there's just too much of a negative connotation to that word, and I remembered that, some time ago, I had had a unimportant character... was one of Galactus' robots, I had called him the Punisher, it seemed to me that, a good name for the character Gerry wanted to write—so I said,'Why not call him the Punisher?' And, since I was the editor, Gerry said,'Okay.' Appearing for the first time in The Amazing Spider-Man #129, the Punisher was an antagonist of the titular hero. He is portrayed as a bloodthirsty vigilante who has no qualms about killing gangsters, something that most superheroes of the time refrain from doing. J. Jonah Jameson describes him as "the most newsworthy thing to happen to New York since Boss Tweed".
In this appearance, the Punisher is determined to kill Spider-Man, wanted for the apparent murder of Norman Osborn. The Punisher is shown as a formidable fighter, skilled marksman, able strategist. All he reveals about himself is that he is a former U. S. Marine, he has a fierce temper but shows signs of considerable frustration over his self-appointed role of killer vigilante. He is engaged in extensive soul-searching as to what is the right thing to do: although he has few qualms about killing, he is outraged when his then-associate, the Jackal kills an enemy by treacherous means rather than in honorable combat. Spider-Man, himself no stranger to such torment, concludes that the Punisher's problems made his own seem like a "birthday party"; the character was a hit with readers and started to appear on a regular basis, teaming up with both Spider-Man and other heroes such as Captain America and Nightcrawler throughout the 1970s and early 1980s. Conway said the Punisher's popularity took him by surprise, as he had intended him only as a second-tier character.
During his acclaimed run on Daredevil and artist Frank Miller made use of the character, contrasting his attitudes and version of vigilante action to that of the more liberal character of Daredevil. In the early 1980s, writer and college student Steven Gra
Moon Knight is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by Doug Moench and Don Perlin, the character first appeared in Werewolf by Night #32; the character debuted in Werewolf by Night #32, written by Doug Moench with art by Don Perlin, as a villain hired by the Committee to capture the title character for them in a two-part story continuing in #33. He finds out that the Committee wanted to use him as a weapon and helps the Werewolf escape fighting alongside him. Moon Knight returned in the form of a demonic apparition taking on his appearance in #37 to battle the Werewolf once again. Editors Marv Wolfman and Len Wein liked the character, prompting them to grant him a solo spot in Marvel Spotlight #28–29, again written by Doug Moench with art by Don Perlin; the story, along with the Bill Mantlo-penned Spectacular Spider-Man #22 and #23, recast Moon Knight as a hero and his villainous first appearance as a cover to infiltrate the Committee. Subsequent appearances came in Marvel Two-in-One #52, written by Steven Grant with art by Jim Craig and The Defenders #47–51, which had him join the Defenders during their war against the Zodiac Cartel.
Moon Knight gained a backup strip in Hulk! Magazine #11–15, #17–18, #20, which saw the character first drawn with artist Bill Sienkiewicz on issues #13-15, 17-18, #20 as well as a black and white story in the magazine publication Marvel Preview #21. Sienkiewicz's Neal Adams-influenced art style helped cement the early perception of Moon Knight as a mere Batman clone; the Hulk backups and Marvel Preview issue, which were all written by Doug Moench, provided Moon Knight with a partial origin story and introduced one of his most notable recurring villains: Randall Spector, who would become Shadow Knight. Moon Knight received his first ongoing series in 1980, with Doug Moench and Bill Sienkiewicz as its main creative team; the character received a complete origin story, most of his notable recurring villains were introduced. Early sales were good for the book, leading to Marvel, as of issue #15, moving the title from newsstand distribution and making it one of its flagship titles for a group of books only available in comic shops.
A companion mini-series was released, Moon Knight: Special Edition, which reprinted the Hulk and Marvel Preview Moon Knight stories in color and in comic format, as opposed to their original magazine format. Sienkiewicz left the series after issue #30, though continued to contribute covers until the final issue. In 1985, Marvel followed up the series with Moon Knight – Fist Of Khonshu by Alan Zelenetz and Chris Warner, a six issue mini-series that established Moon Knight as suffering from schizophrenia due to the stress of his various aliases. Moon Knight appeared in Marvel Fanfare for two issues and in the pages of West Coast Avengers, with the character written by Steven Englehart. With the arrival of John Byrne onto the title, Moon Knight was written out of the West Coast Avengers and after a guest spot in Punisher Annual #2, the character was given a new ongoing title in 1989, Marc Spector: Moon Knight; the series was written by Chuck Dixon, who left the title after issue #24. Dixon left the book with several storylines unresolved and the plotline with the sidekick was resolved in the pages of The Amazing Spider-Man #353–358, written by Al Milgrom.
The series was canceled with #60, with four of the last six issues drawn by Stephen Platt, hired by Image Comics based on the strength of his work on the series. Two one-shots, Marc Spector: Moon Knight Special Edition #1 and Moon Knight: Divided We Fall, were published during the run of the title. In 1998, writer Doug Moench, artist Tommy Edwards, inker Robert Campanella brought the deceased hero back in a four-part mini-series called the Resurrection Wars. In 1999, Moench and artist Mark Texeira worked together on another four-part mini-series called "High Strangeness", nominated for the Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Award for Favorite Limited Series; the title of the story was mistakenly given as "High Strangers" on the covers of the mini-series. The correct title of the story, "High Strangeness", appeared on the title page of each issue. A Moon Knight ongoing series was launched in April 2006, written by Charlie Huston with art by David Finch; as of #14 of this series, Mike Benson took over writing duties with Huston acting as story-outline adviser according to Benson in an interview with Marvel published as a one-page excerpt in various Marvel comic books throughout late 2007 and early 2008.
Peter Milligan wrote a 2008 seasonal one-shot titled "Moon Knight: Silent Knight" with artist Laurence Campbell. The 2006 series ended with #30, only one Annual in the series was printed in 2008; that series was followed by a ten-issue maxi-series titled Vengeance of the Moon Knight, beginning in September 2009, written by Gregg Hurwitz and drawn by Jerome Opena. After Vengeance of the Moon Knight was canceled, Moon Knight was placed in the team book Secret Avengers, in the Shadowland three issue storyline and in a 2010 relaunch of Heroes for Hire, it was announced at the New York Comic Con that 2011 would see the launch of a new Moon Knight series by Brian Michael Bendis and Alex Maleev. The series, which saw Moon Knight replace his multiple personalities with heroes such as Spider-Man, Captain America, Wolverine, was canceled after 12 issues due to poor sales. In March 2014, Marve
Cryptocercus is a genus of Dictyoptera and the sole member of its own family Cryptocercidae. Species are known as brown-hooded cockroaches; these roaches are subsocial. They share wood-digesting gut bacteria types with wood-eating termites, are therefore seen as evidence of a close genetic relationship, that termites are evolved from social cockroaches. Cryptocercus is notable for sharing numerous characteristics with termites, phylogenetic studies have shown this genus is more related to termites than it is to other cockroaches. Found in North America and Asia, there are 12 known species: Cryptocercus clevelandi Byers, 1997 Cryptocercus darwini Burnside, Kambhampati, 1999 Cryptocercus garciai Burnside, Kambhampati, 1999 Cryptocercus hirtus Grandcolas, Bellés, 2005 Cryptocercus kyebangensis Grandcolas, 2001 Cryptocercus matilei Grandcolas, 2000 Cryptocercus meridianus Grandcolas, Legendre, 2005 Cryptocercus parvus Grandcolas, Park, 2005 Cryptocercus primarius Bey-Bienko, 1938 Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder, 1862 Cryptocercus relictus Bey-Bienko, 1935 Cryptocercus wrighti Burnside, Kambhampati, 1999 Nalepa, C.
A. Byers, G. W. Bandi, C. and Sironi, M. 1997. "Description of Cryptocercus clevelandi from the Northwestern United States, molecular analysis of bacterial symbionts in its fat body, notes on biology and biogeography." Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 90:416-424. Burnside, C. A. P. T. Smith and S. Kambhampati, 1999. "Three New Species of the Wood Roach, from the Eastern United States." The World Wide Web Journal of Biology 4:1
Bad Mojo is an adventure video game by Pulse Entertainment, released in 1996. The player is cast as Roger Samms, an entomologist planning to embezzle money from a research grant to escape his sordid life above an abandoned bar. An accident with his mother's enchanted locket unleashes the bad mojo; the storyline in Bad Mojo is loosely based on Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis. In the game, the cat's name is Franz and the main character Roger Samms is a play on the lead character in Metamorphosis; the gameplay consists of guiding the cockroach through a series of puzzles. Got Game Entertainment re-released the game in December 2004 as Bad Mojo Redux, packaging it with a DVD containing a variety of extra material; the story takes place in a filthy bar owned by Eddie Battito. Roger, one of Eddie's tenants, has stolen a million dollars worth of loan money from a science corporation he had worked for and is planning to leave for Mexico City to start a new life, but after a small argument with Eddie, he remembers a little trinket that he had gotten in his early childhood: a cockroach-patterned locket that belonged to his dead mother, Angelina.
Upon its discovery, the locket transforms Roger's soul into a cockroach, transports him to a mysterious sewer system connected to every section of the bar. His adventure takes him to the basement, the bathroom, the kitchen, the bar room, Roger's room and his research room; as the roach explores a world filled with danger at every turn, including rats, garbage disposals, his own pet cat, Franz, he is being guided by his mother's spirit, who serves as an oracle. The game explores the sad past of both Roger and Eddie, revealing that Roger had been abandoned to an abusive nun, was the center of bullying as a young man, was never taken by his superiors. Eddie has had just as bad a life, having his beloved wife die during childbirth and giving up his son out of grief. Eddie does not realize that his wife, was Roger's mother, nor does Roger know that Angelina was Eddie's wife. During Roger's exploration, he is forced to extinguish the pilot light to a gas stove in the kitchen to save a baby cockroach that, in turn, assists him in jamming the garbage disposal with a spoon.
This act causes the whole bar to be filled with gas. Roger must set off a smoke detector to wake Eddie and finally reach the locket in his own unconscious body's hand. With both men safely out of the bar when it explodes and Eddie discover that they are, in fact and son, as the oracle planned. There are four possible endings to the storyline. If Eddie makes it out and Roger doesn't, Eddie ends up as a homeless drunk. If Roger makes it out and Eddie doesn't, Roger tries to flee the country but is caught, charged with Eddie's murder, remanded to an asylum for the criminally insane. If neither make it out, the ghost of Angelina narrates, telling of the death of both men, the destruction of the bar for urban renewal and that the ghosts of all three souls haunt the area where their dreams died. If both of them make it out, Eddie recognizes the cockroach locket and they reconcile as re-united father and son before both reveal the truth about their past; the family is reunited and they travel together to Mexico with the embezzled money, which Eddie uses to buy a new bar while Roger sets up a small lab to study roaches.
Bad Mojo's development was troubled: director Vinny Carrella noted that there was "a pall over the production" and "no happiness, just pain." It was released in February 1996. The game features a substantial electronic music soundtrack composed and performed by the American electro-industrial artist Xorcist, which has written soundtracks for other CD-ROM games, notably Iron Helix. According to co-producer Alex Louie, the original 1996 release of Bad Mojo was commercially successful. Following the game's launch, Macworld reported that it was "selling steadily." By February 1997 12 months after its release, its sales had reached 175,000 units. Louie said in 2004 that he was "pretty sure we sold over 200,000 units" by the end of Bad Mojo's shelf life, it received accolades from critics. Inside Mac Games nominated Bad Mojo as its pick for 1996's best adventure game, but presented the award to Titanic: Adventure Out of Time. Conversely, the editors of Macworld gave Bad Mojo their 1996 "Best Role-Playing Game" award.
Steven Levy of the magazine called it "an amazing experience". In 2011, Adventure Gamers named Bad Mojo the 30th-best adventure game released. Arinn Dembo, writing for Computer Gaming World, gave the game 4 stars. MacAddict magazine gave the game its highest rating of "Freakin' Awesome", with reviewer Kathy Tafel praising the game's world as "rich" and saying that it was "both amusing and disgusting." A reviewer for Maximum gave the game three out of five stars. He opined that the game's unique and eerie story and presentation make it a compelling experience in spite of the limited gameplay. However, he felt. A reviewer for Next Generation scored it three out of five stars, commenting that, "Bad Mojo isn't the best graphic adventure, but it's got something that counts a long ways - peculiarity.... No other adventure has been as willing to show the savage gruesomeness of mankind's sloth." Got Game Entertainment re-released the game in December 2004 as Bad Mojo Redux. All in-game videos were remastered from original footage.
Redux runs in truecolor only, opposed to the 1996 release. This change makes the videos more colorful; the re-release came with a
Telepathy is the purported vicarious transmission of information from one person to another without using any known human sensory channels or physical interaction. The term was coined in 1882 by the classical scholar Frederic W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research, has remained more popular than the earlier expression thought-transference. Telepathy experiments have been criticized for lack of proper controls and repeatability. There is no convincing evidence that telepathy exists, the topic is considered by the scientific community to be pseudoscience. According to historians such as Roger Luckhurst and Janet Oppenheim the origin of the concept of telepathy in Western civilization can be tracked to the late 19th century and the formation of the Society for Psychical Research; as the physical sciences made significant advances, scientific concepts were applied to mental phenomena, with the hope that this would help to understand paranormal phenomena. The modern concept of telepathy emerged in this context.
Psychical researcher Eric Dingwall criticized SPR founding members Frederic W. H. Myers and William F. Barrett for trying to "prove" telepathy rather than objectively analyze whether or not it existed. In the late 19th century, the magician and mentalist, Washington Irving Bishop would perform "thought reading" demonstrations. Bishop ascribed his powers to muscular sensitivity. Bishop was investigated by a group of scientists including the editor of the British Medical Journal and the psychologist Francis Galton. Bishop performed several feats such as identifying a selected spot on a table and locating a hidden object. During the experiment Bishop required physical contact with a subject, he would hold the wrist of the helper. The scientists concluded that Bishop was not a genuine telepath but using a trained skill to detect ideomotor movements. Another famous thought reader was the magician Stuart Cumberland, he was famous for performing blindfolded feats such as identifying a hidden object in a room that a person had picked out or asking someone to imagine a murder scene and attempt to read the subject's thoughts and identify the victim and reenact the crime.
Cumberland claimed to possess no genuine psychic ability and his thought reading performances could only be demonstrated by holding the hand of his subject to read their muscular movements. He came into dispute with psychical researchers associated with the Society for Psychical Research who were searching for genuine cases of telepathy. Cumberland argued that both telepathy and communication with the dead were impossible and that the mind of man cannot be read through telepathy, but only by muscle reading. In the late 19th century the Creery Sisters were tested by the Society for Psychical Research and believed to have genuine psychic ability. However, during a experiment they were caught utilizing signal codes and they confessed to fraud. George Albert Smith and Douglas Blackburn were claimed to be genuine psychics by the Society for Psychical Research but Blackburn confessed to fraud: For nearly thirty years the telepathic experiments conducted by Mr. G. A. Smith and myself have been accepted and cited as the basic evidence of the truth of thought transference......the whole of those alleged experiments were bogus, originated in the honest desire of two youths to show how men of scientific mind and training could be deceived when seeking for evidence in support of a theory they were wishful to establish.
Between 1916 and 1924, Gilbert Murray conducted 236 experiments into telepathy and reported 36% as successful, however, it was suggested that the results could be explained by hyperaesthesia as he could hear what was being said by the sender. Psychologist Leonard T. Troland had carried out experiments in telepathy at Harvard University which were reported in 1917; the subjects produced below chance expectations. Arthur Conan Doyle and W. T. Stead were duped into believing Julius and Agnes Zancig had genuine psychic powers. Both Doyle and Stead wrote. In 1924, Julius and Agnes Zancig confessed that their mind reading act was a trick and published the secret code and all the details of the trick method they had used under the title of Our Secrets!! in a London newspaper. In 1924, Robert H. Gault of Northwestern University with Gardner Murphy conducted the first American radio test for telepathy; the results were negative. One of their experiments involved the attempted thought transmission of a chosen number, out of 2010 replies none were correct.
In February 1927, with the co-operation of the British Broadcasting Corporation, V. J. Woolley, at the time the Research Officer for the SPR, arranged a telepathy experiment in which radio listeners were asked to take part; the experiment involved'agents' thinking about five selected objects in an office at Tavistock Square, whilst listeners on the radio were asked to identify the objects from the BBC studio at Savoy Hill. 24, 659 answers were received. The results revealed no evidence for telepathy. A famous experiment in telepathy was recorded by the American author Upton Sinclair in his book Mental Radio which documents Sinclair's test of psychic abilities of Mary Craig Sinclair, his second wife, she attempted to duplicate 290 pictures. Sinclair claimed Mary duplicated 65 of them, with 155 "partial successes" and 70 failures. However, these experiments were not condu