Dewey Decimal Classification
The Dewey Decimal Classification, colloquially the Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876. Described in a four-page pamphlet, it has been expanded to multiple volumes and revised through 23 major editions, the latest printed in 2011, it is available in an abridged version suitable for smaller libraries. OCLC, a non-profit cooperative that serves libraries maintains the system and licenses online access to WebDewey, a continuously updated version for catalogers; the Decimal Classification introduced the concepts of relative location and relative index which allow new books to be added to a library in their appropriate location based on subject. Libraries had given books permanent shelf locations that were related to the order of acquisition rather than topic; the classification's notation makes use of three-digit Arabic numerals for main classes, with fractional decimals allowing expansion for further detail.
Using Arabic numerals for symbols, it is flexible to the degree that numbers can be expanded in linear fashion to cover special aspects of general subjects. A library assigns a classification number that unambiguously locates a particular volume in a position relative to other books in the library, on the basis of its subject; the number makes it possible to find any book and to return it to its proper place on the library shelves. The classification system is used in 200,000 libraries in at least 135 countries. Melvil Dewey was self-declared reformer, he was a founding member of the American Library Association and can be credited with the promotion of card systems in libraries and business. He developed the ideas for his library classification system in 1873 while working at Amherst College library, he applied the classification to the books in that library, until in 1876 he had a first version of the classification. In 1876, he published the classification in pamphlet form with the title A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library.
He used the pamphlet, published in more than one version during the year, to solicit comments from other librarians. It is not known who received copies or how many commented as only one copy with comments has survived, that of Ernest Cushing Richardson, his classification system was mentioned in an article in the first issue of the Library Journal and in an article by Dewey in the Department of Education publication "Public Libraries in America" in 1876. In March 1876, he applied for, received copyright on the first edition of the index; the edition was 44 pages in length, with 2,000 index entries, was printed in 200 copies. The second edition of the Dewey Decimal system, published in 1885 with the title Decimal Classification and Relativ Index for arranging and indexing public and private libraries and for pamflets, notes, scrap books, index rerums, etc. comprised 314 pages, with 10,000 index entries. Five hundred copies were produced. Editions 3–14, published between 1888 and 1942, used a variant of this same title.
Dewey modified and expanded his system for the second edition. In an introduction to that edition Dewey states that "nearly 100 persons hav contributed criticisms and suggestions". One of the innovations of the Dewey Decimal system was that of positioning books on the shelves in relation to other books on similar topics; when the system was first introduced, most libraries in the US used fixed positioning: each book was assigned a permanent shelf position based on the book's height and date of acquisition. Library stacks were closed to all but the most privileged patrons, so shelf browsing was not considered of importance; the use of the Dewey Decimal system increased during the early 20th century as librarians were convinced of the advantages of relative positioning and of open shelf access for patrons. New editions were readied as supplies of published editions were exhausted though some editions provided little change from the previous, as they were needed to fulfill demand. In the next decade, three editions followed on: the 3rd, 4th, 5th.
Editions 6 through 11 were published from 1899 to 1922. The 6th edition was published in a record 7,600 copies, although subsequent editions were much lower. During this time, the size of the volume grew, edition 12 swelled to 1243 pages, an increase of 25% over the previous edition. In response to the needs of smaller libraries which were finding the expanded classification schedules difficult to use, in 1894, the first abridged edition of the Dewey Decimal system was produced; the abridged edition parallels the full edition, has been developed for most full editions since that date. By popular request, in 1930, the Library of Congress began to print Dewey Classification numbers on nearly all of its cards, thus making the system available to all libraries making use of the Library of Congress card sets. Dewey's was not the only library classification available. Charles Ammi Cutter published the Expansive Classification in 1882, with initial encouragement from Melvil Dewey. Cutter's system was not adopted by many libraries, with one major exception: it was used as the basis for the Library of Congress Classification system.
In 1895, the International Institute of Bibliography, located in Belgium and led by Paul Otlet, contacted Dewey about the possibility of translating the classification into French, using the classification system for bibliographies. This would have
Gate of Ivrel
Gate of Ivrel is a 1976 science fiction novel by American writer C. J. Cherryh, her first published work, it is the first of four books composing the Morgaine Stories, chronicling the deeds of Morgaine, a woman consumed by a mission of the utmost importance, her chance-met companion, Nhi Vanye i Chya. It is tenuously set in her Union-Alliance universe, but has little in common with other works in that milieu; the backward land of Andur-Kursh is split into many cantons, each with ambitious clans vying for power. The loyalty of a warrior of the nobility is given to one's clan. Vanye is one of them, if only the tolerated bastard son of the ruler of one of these cantons, the result of a mere night's amusement by a Nhi lord with a captive from an enemy clan, the Chya. One day, he is brought before his father, after killing one legitimate half-brother and maiming the other with his sword, in a baiting that had gone awry. After turning down honorable suicide, he is made ilin, an exiled, clanless warrior akin to the Japanese ronin.
Hunted by his half-brothers' vengeful maternal clan, Vanye is forced to enter Morgaine's vale, a place anyone less desperate would have shunned. By chance, he releases a beautiful woman of distinctive appearance, from the Gate there. Vanye recognizes her as a legend from the past, it is winter and Vanye is weary and hungry. So when Morgaine provides food and shelter, he accepts them. Only does he remember that she, alone of all women, has been given lord-right. Morgaine is determined to complete the mission she and four companions had set out on a century before: to close the master Gate at Ivrel, she explains to Vanye that the Gates that dot the land are passageways through both time. One hundred men and women had been sent by the Union Science Bureau on a one-way mission to close all the Gates, lest humanity suffer the fate of another species; the qujal had found the Gates and tapped their powers to rule an interstellar empire of lesser beings, including humans. But one reckless fool had succumbed to temptation and gone back in time, triggering a cataclysm that had wrecked qujal civilization.
After many years, the last five Union survivors had reached this world and recruited allies to attack Thiye Thiye's-son, the master of the Gate of Ivrel. But they were betrayed and nearly their entire army was swallowed up by the Gate. Fleeing before the enemy, she had been forced to seek refuge in a lesser Gate, there to wait in stasis until freed, she seeks aid from Clan Leth, a former staunch ally, but finds it changed and its lord, half mad. His chief counselor, Chya Liell, comes to them late at night and warns them to leave before harm befalls them, killing a guard to give them no choice in the matter. Liell tries to persuade Vanye to desert Morgaine. Morgaine and Vanye travel into neighboring Chya lands and find themselves uneasy guests of Chya Roh, Vanye's cousin. After questioning and some rest, they are let go, only to be attacked by Thiye's men. Morgaine is forced to draw her sword, which turns out to be more than it seems; the two run into a Nhi band. Rather than chance another fight, the wounded Morgaine orders Vanye to bargain for shelter and protection.
She is set free, though without her sword, while he is forced to remain behind by his brother Erij, now the lord of Nhi. Erij wants his brother to help him rule, bound to him by blood; when persuasion and threats alike prove useless, he draws Changeling, not knowing its powers. Vanye takes advantage of the ensuing mayhem to retrieve the dropped sword and escape to rejoin Morgaine. Roh had warned him not to trust Liell. Morgaine confirms, she knows that Thiye has prolonged his life by this method and suspects her century-old betrayer still lives. The aged Liell's attempt to suborn Vanye takes on a more sinister aspect. After another clash with Nhi warriors, Morgaine is escorted by Roh out of his domain. Fearing her intentions, he knocks out a too-trusting Vanye when Morgaine is asleep and ties them both up, but his timing could not have been worse. Liell and his men capture all three, he takes Vanye to a Gate, intent on switching bodies. The unease of Liell's men in the unnerving presence of the Gate allows Vanye to escape.
By chance, the horse he steals is carrying Changeling. But Vanye's luck still runs bad. Erij, emboldened by his possession of Changeling and for a variety of reasons, allows himself to be persuaded to go to Ivrel. After driving off Liell's men with the deadly sword, they reach Thiye's fortress, they wait for night. Vanye takes his brother by surprise and retakes Morgaine's sword. In mortal danger, Erij has no choice. Inside, they come upon the aged Thiye. Roh informs them that Liell is dead, he warns them to flee while they still can follows his own advice. Vanye surrenders the sword to her, much to Erij's dismay, she confirms Vanye's suspicion. Fearing Morgaine, Roh/Liell had sabotaged the Gate controls so that he could escape to another world, leaving his enemies trapped here, but Morgaine believes that he left too much of a safety margin before the Gates on this world close forever and that she can follow him. She departs in
Faery in Shadow
Faery in Shadow is a fantasy novel by American writer C. J. Cherryh, it was first published in the United Kingdom by Legend Books in August 1993 in trade paperback, the first United States edition was published by Ballantine Books under its Del Rey Books imprint in November 1993 in hardcover. It was nominated for the Locus Award for Best Fantasy Novel in 1994. Faery in Shadow is a sequel to Cherryh's novella "The Brothers", first published in her 1986 collection of short fiction, Visible Light, is based in part on Celtic Mythology, featuring such creatures as the fay race of the Sídhe, including pooka, its setting is suffused with magical forces and supernatural beings, marking it as an example of the high fantasy literary subgenre. Cherryh borrows elements from Horror Fiction for the book. A major revision of Faery in Shadow entitled Faery Moon, with a new copyright, was self-published by Cherryh as an e-book in December 2009. C. J. Cherryh's Faery is an alternate plane of existence where the Sidhe live, separate from, but still connected to, the mortal realm of humans.
Long ago the Sidhe lived alongside man, tolerant of his indiscretions, but with time, as man's abuse of Nature increased and his respect for the Sidhe diminished, the Sidhe began withdrawing to Faery. The Sidhe are free to "step" in and out of Faery at will, but only a select few mortals have that privilege, normally under the control of a fay; the Sidhe abhor iron. Broadly there are two types of Sidhe, the "bright" Sidhe, which include the Fair Folk, or Daoine, the "dark" Sidhe, including pooka and others; the dark Sidhe are old creatures that have been corrupted by evil and won back by the bright Sidhe, are bound to the bright ones by bargains and geas. Contrary to the popular notion that all fairies are good, the Sidhe are "practical" and will do whatever is necessary to achieve their goals at the expense of mortals, they are forever striking bargains, which they stick to, to the letter. The dark Sidhe in particular enjoy playing tricks on humans; when it suits them, the Sidhe can take complete control of mortals.
They can put them to sleep, touch their dreams and steal time from them. Caith mac Sliabhin, condemned by the Sidhe in "The Brothers" for committing patricide, wanders along the river Guagach and tormented by Dubhain, a mischievous pooka, their journey takes them to Gleann Fiain where a beast from the river chases Caith up a hill to an isolated cottage. The occupants, twins Ceannann and Firinne, let Caith and Dubhain in and allow them to spend the night. Unbeknown to Caith, the birth of the twins 21 years ago set in motion a sequence of events that damned Gleann Fiain and cast a shadow over Faery; the twins were born to queen of Gleann Fiain in Dun Glas. But unbeknown to her husband, Ceannann mac Ceannann, Fianna was unable to conceive and had sought help from a wise-women, Moragacht. Moragacht struck a bargain with her, promising her twins if she lay down with a selkie, in exchange for one of the twins when they were born, but when the twins arrived and Moragacht came to claim one of them, Fianna denied any knowledge of her, mac Ceannann turned Moragacht away.
From that day onwards and misery struck the family, mac Ceannann and Fianna were forced to vacate Dun Glas and flee with the twins to an abandoned hilltop fortress. But the loch beast, under Moragacht's control, found them there and killed them all, except the twins, now aged 14, who escaped to the cottage; the witch seized control of Dun Glas from where she damned all of Gleann Fiain. But the wards that had protected the cottage from Moragacht fall when Dubhain arrive. Riders from Dun Glas capture the twins. Caith and Dubhain give chase, but as they approach the riders, Dubhain is overcome by the witch's magic and falls into the loch, abandoning Caith. Caith and the twins are taken to Dun Glas. Caith lapses into a dream where he enters the loch to find Dubhain duelling with the loch beast, he draws Dubhain back to his cell, who in turn calls Nuallan from Faery, the bright Sidhe controlling their destinies. Nuallan gives Caith a silver key to unlock the iron cells and so lifts a spell enabling Nuallan to cast Caith and the twins out of Dun Glas.
Moragacht allows her prisoners to escape because with her magic she now holds Nuallan, a bigger catch and her means to controlling Faery. The twins lead Dubhain to the ruins of the hilltop fortress, their former home. There they make a fire with the remains of a staircase, but a ghost appears out of the smoke that transports Caith back to the night of the fall of the fortress and into the body of Padraic, head of mac Ceannann's household. There he relives the last few hours of the family. Firinne retrieves one of the burning timbers from the fire as a keepsake, the twins set off for the sea to search for their selkie father, with Caith and Dubhain in pursuit. Caith finds the selkie first, a whale floundering on the beach, but when the selkie shapeshifts to a man, he is killed by one of Moragacht's pursuing riders. In the ensuing confusion, Caith accidentally kills Ceannann. Firinne is devastated by the loss of her twin brother and gives Caith her keepsake from the fortress. Revealing her selkie birth, she changes into a whale and heads out to sea.
Caith rides Dubhain back to Dun Glas to free Nuallan. Once again Dubhain is weakened by the witch's spells and Caith has to enter the keep on his own, he sees Nuallan helpless in his cell, but Nuallan asks him to unlock it with the silver key Caith unknowingly still had all this time, the key that wo
A shared universe or shared world is a set of creative works where more than one writer independently contributes a work that can stand alone but fits into the joint development of the storyline, characters, or world of the overall project. It is common in genres like science fiction, it differs from collaborative writing where multiple artists are working together on the same work and from crossovers where the works and characters are independent except for a single meeting. The term shared universe is used within comics to reflect the overall milieu created by the comic book publisher in which characters and premises from one product line appear in other product lines in a media franchise. A specific kind of shared universe, published across a variety of media, each of them contributing to the growth and status of the setting is called an "imaginary entertainment environment."The term has been used in a wider, non-literary sense to convey interdisciplinary or social commonality in the context of a "shared universe of discourse".
Fiction in some media, such as most television programs and many comic book titles, is understood to require the contribution of multiple authors and does not by itself create a shared universe and is considered a collaborative art form. Incidental appearances, such as that of d'Artagnan in Cyrano de Bergerac, are considered literary cameo appearances. More substantial interaction between characters from different sources is marketed as a crossover. While crossovers occur in a shared universe, not all crossovers are intended to merge their settings' back-stories and are instead used for marketing, parody, or to explore "what-if" scenarios, it can become difficult for writers contributing to a shared universe to maintain consistency and avoid contradicting details in earlier works when a shared universe grows to be large. The version deemed "official" by the author or company controlling the setting is known as canon. Not all shared universes have a controlling entity capable of or interested in determining canonicity, not all fans agree with these determinations when they occur.
A fanon may instead find some degree of consensus within the setting's fandom. Some writers, in an effort to ensure that a canon can be established and to keep details of the setting believable, employ tools to correct contradictions and errors that result from multiple contributors working over a long period of time. One such tool is retconning, short for "retroactive continuity", which resolves errors in continuity that came about through previously-written conflicting material. Readers may object when a story or series is integrated into a shared universe, feeling it "requir one hero's fans to buy other heroes' titles"; the expansion of existing material into a shared universe is not restricted to settings licensed from movies and television. For example, Larry Niven opened his Known Space setting to other writers because he considered his lack of military experience prevented him from adequately describing the wars between mankind and the Kzinti; the degree to which he has made the setting available for other writers became a topic of controversy, when Elf Sternberg created an erotic short story set in Known Space following an author's note from Niven indicating that "f you want more Known Space stories, you'll have to write them yourself".
Niven has since clarified that his setting is still to be used only "under restricted circumstances and with permission", which Niven granted to the several authors of the Man-Kzin Wars series. By contrast, author Eric Flint has edited and published collaborations with fan fiction writers directly, expanding his 1632 series. A setting may be expanded in a similar manner after the death of its creator, although this posthumous expansion does not meet some strict definitions of a shared universe. One such example is August Derleth's development of the Cthulhu Mythos from the writings of H. P. Lovecraft, an approach whose result is considered by some to be "completely dissimilar" to Lovecraft's own works. Less controversial posthumous expansions include Ruth Plumly Thompson's and authors' sequels to L. Frank Baum's Oz stories and the further development of Isaac Asimov's Foundation universe by Greg Bear, Gregory Benford, David Brin. Many other published works of this nature take the form of a series of short-story anthologies with occasional standalone novels.
Examples include Robert Lynn Asprin's Thieves' World, C. J. Cherryh's Merovingen Nights and Janet Morris' Heroes in Hell. Within comics, the term shared universe has been used to reflect the overall milieu created by the comic book publisher in which characters and premises from one product line appear in other product lines in a media franchise. By 1961, Marvel Comics writer and editor Stan Lee, working with artists Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko, merged the bulk of the publisher's comics characters into the Marvel Universe. Marvel sets its stories in an increasing number of alternate realities, each with an assigned number in a greater "multiverse". DC Comics and Marvel have periodically co-published series in which their respective characters meet and interact; these intercompany crossovers have been written as self-limiting events that avoid implying that the DC Universe and Marvel Universe co-exist. Exceptions include the twenty-four comics released under the metafictional imprint Amalgam Comics in 1996, depicting a shared universe populated by hybridizations of the two companies' characters.
Marvel has since referred to this as part of its setting's greater multiverse by labeling it Earth-692. Although DC and Marvel's shared universe approaches to comics have set them apart from competitors in the industry
DAW Books is an American science fiction and fantasy publisher, founded by Donald A. Wollheim following his departure from Ace Books in 1971; the company claims to be "the first publishing company devoted to science fiction and fantasy." The first DAW Book published was the 1972 short story collection Spell of the Witch World, by Andre Norton. In its early years under the leadership of Wollheim and his wife Elsie, DAW gained a reputation of publishing popular, though not always critically acclaimed, works of science fiction and fantasy. In the 1970s the company published numerous books by award-winning authors such as Marion Zimmer Bradley, Fritz Leiber, Edward Llewellyn, Jerry Pournelle, Roger Zelazny, many others. In 1982, C. J. Cherryh's Downbelow Station was the first DAW book to win the Hugo Award for best novel, gaining the publishing house increased respect within the industry; until June 1984, all DAW books were characterized by yellow spines, a prominent yellow cover box containing the company's logo as well as a chronological publication number.
When the design was changed, the chronological number was retained, but moved to the copyright page and renamed the DAW Collectors' Book Number. As of October 2010, the company had published more than 1,500 titles during its 38-year history. Although it has a distribution relationship with Penguin Group and is headquartered in Penguin USA's offices, DAW is editorially independent and held by its current publishers, Betsy Wollheim and Sheila E. Gilbert; the company's offices are in New York City. Official website Fan listing of DAW Books Internet Speculative Fiction Database listing of DAW Books
Downbelow Station is a science fiction novel by American writer C. J. Cherryh, published in 1981 by DAW Books, it won the Hugo Award in 1982, was shortlisted for a Locus Award that same year, was named by Locus magazine as one of the top 50 science fiction novels of all time in 1987. The book is set in Cherryh's Alliance–Union universe during the Company Wars period late 2352 and early 2353; the book details events centering on a space station in orbit around Pell's World in the Tau Ceti star system. The station serves as the transit point for ships moving between the Earth and Union sectors of the galaxy; the working title of the book was The Company War, but Cherryh's editor at DAW, Donald A. Wollheim, believed that the moniker lacked commercial appeal, so Downbelow Station was selected as the title for publication, it was the first novel edited by current DAW president, Elizabeth Wollheim, who worked alongside her father. Space is explored not by short-sighted governments, but by the Earth Company, a private corporation which becomes enormously wealthy and powerful as a result.
Nine star systems are found to lack planets suitable for colonization, so space stations are built in orbit instead, stepping-stones for further exploration. Pell's World is found to be not only habitable, but populated by the gentle, sentient Hisa. Pell Station is built; the planet is nicknamed "Downbelow" by the stationers, who start to call their home "Downbelow Station". When Earth's out-of-touch policies cause it to begin losing control of its more distant stations and worlds, it builds a fleet of fifty military carriers, the Earth Company Fleet, to enforce its will; this leads to the prolonged Company War with the breakaway Union, based at Cyteen, another habitable world. Caught in between are the stationers and the merchanters who crew the freighters that maintain interstellar trade. Set in the final days of the war, Downbelow Station opens with Earth Company Captain Signy Mallory and her warship, escorting a ragtag fleet fleeing from Russell's and Mariner Stations to Pell. Similar convoys arrive from other stations destroyed or lost to Union, leading to an enormous crisis.
The flood of unexpected refugees strains station resources. Angelo Konstantin, Stationmaster of Pell, his two sons and Emilio, struggle to cope with the situation. Fearing Union infiltrators and saboteurs, Pell dumps all the refugees in a Quarantine Zone, causing massive dislocations of Pell's own citizens. While conferring with Pell's administrators, Mallory encounters a delegation from the Earth Company, led by Segust Ayres, Second Secretary of Earth's Security Council. Offended by her brusque, arrogant manner, Ayres declines her offer of transportation to the front and charters a freighter instead. Unbeknownst to Mallory, Ayres' mission is to open peace negotiations with Union. Mallory drops off a Union prisoner of war, Josh Talley, whom she had rescued from a brutal interrogation by panicked security forces at Russell's. However, on the voyage to Pell, her sexual exploitation of him had been only marginally less abusive. Faced with indefinite confinement on Pell, Talley requests Adjustment, the wiping of much of his memory, in return for his freedom.
When questioned by Damon Konstantin, he requests Adjustment to escape the indefinite imprisonment, so Konstantin reluctantly gives his permission. Upon review of his file, Damon learns that Talley had undergone the treatment once before at Russell's. Still feeling guilty for agreeing, he and his wife Elene Quen befriend the post-Adjustment Talley, an act of kindness that will have monumental, unforeseen consequences. Jon Lukas, Angelo Konstantin's brother-in-law and only rival for power, is worried about the course of the war; the Fleet has received little or no support from an indifferent Earth and is losing a war of attrition. He secretly contacts Union. Union responds by smuggling in a secret agent named Jessad. Meanwhile, the last ten surviving Company Fleet ships under the command of Conrad Mazian gather for the most critical operation of the war. All of Mazian's recent strategic maneuvers and raids have been leading up to this point. If they can take out Viking Station in one coordinated strike before their enemy's growing numerical superiority can overwhelm them, there would be a wide, barren region between Earth and Union space, one which would make further conflict vastly more costly for Union.
Seb Azov, the Union military commander, has no choice but to gather his forces at Viking to await Mazian's anticipated attack. However, he has an ace up his sleeve, he has pressured Ayres into recording a message ordering Mazian to break off while peace is being negotiated. When Mazian strikes, Ayres' broadcast order does indeed force him to abort and the Fleet retreats to Pell in confusion. Mazian meets with his captains and gives them the choice of accepting a peace treaty that concedes victory to Union as per Ayres' broadcast or rebelling against Earth and continuing to fight, his preference, they all remain loyal to their leader. One of Mazian's first acts is to place Pell under martial law; the Fleet is now forced to defend its only reliable base and supply source. Union forces destroy two ships out on patrol. While Union suffers casualties as well, it can replace its losses, unlike Mazian. Counting one carrier lost earlier in the debacle at Viking, he has just seven ships left. Under cover of the panic on the station caused by the battle in space, Lukas makes his move and supplanting his hated rival, Angelo Konstantin.
To escape rioting refugees, Elene Quen is forced to board Finity's End, one of the most respected merchanter ships. The freighters f
The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction
The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction is a U. S. fantasy and science fiction magazine first published in 1949 by Fantasy House, a subsidiary of Lawrence Spivak's Mercury Press. Editors Anthony Boucher and J. Francis McComas had approached Spivak in the mid-1940s about creating a fantasy companion to Spivak's existing mystery title, Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine; the first issue was titled The Magazine of Fantasy, but the decision was made to include science fiction as well as fantasy, the title was changed correspondingly with the second issue. F&SF was quite different in presentation from the existing science fiction magazines of the day, most of which were in pulp format: it had no interior illustrations, no letter column, text in a single column format, which in the opinion of science fiction historian Mike Ashley "set F&SF apart, giving it the air and authority of a superior magazine". F&SF became one of the leading magazines in the science fiction and fantasy field, with a reputation for publishing literary material and including more diverse stories than its competitors.
Well-known stories that appeared in its early years include Richard Matheson's Born of Man and Woman, Ward Moore's Bring the Jubilee, a novel of an alternative history in which the South has won the American Civil War. McComas left for health reasons in 1954, but Boucher continued as sole editor until 1958, winning the Hugo Award for Best Magazine that year, a feat his successor, Robert Mills, repeated in the next two years. Mills was responsible for publishing Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keyes, Rogue Moon by Algis Budrys, Starship Troopers by Robert Heinlein, the first of Brian Aldiss's Hothouse stories; the first few issues featured cover art by George Salter, Mercury Press's art director, but other artists soon began to appear, including Chesley Bonestell, Kelly Freas, Ed Emshwiller. In 1962, Mills was succeeded as editor by Avram Davidson; when Davidson left at the end of 1964, Joseph Ferman, who had bought the magazine from Spivak in 1954, took over as editor, though his son Edward soon began doing the editorial work under his father's supervision.
At the start of 1966 Edward Ferman was listed as editor, four years he acquired the magazine from his father and moved the editorial offices to his house in Connecticut. Ferman remained editor for over 25 years, published many well-received stories, including Fritz Leiber's Ill Met in Lankhmar, Robert Silverberg's Born with the Dead, Stephen King's The Dark Tower series. In 1991 he turned the editorship over to Kristine Kathryn Rusch, who began including more horror and dark fantasy than had appeared under Ferman. In the mid-1990s circulation began to decline. Gordon Van Gelder replaced Rusch in 1997, bought the magazine from Ferman in 2001, but circulation continued to fall, by 2011 it was below 15,000. Charles Coleman Finlay took over from Van Gelder as editor in 2015; the first magazine dedicated to fantasy, Weird Tales, appeared in 1923. By the end of the 1930s, the genre was flourishing in the United States, nearly twenty new sf and fantasy titles appearing between 1938 and 1941; these were all pulp magazines, which meant that despite the occasional high-quality story, most of the magazines presented badly written fiction and were regarded as trash by many readers.
In 1941, Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine appeared, edited by Fred Dannay and focusing on detective fiction. The magazine was published in digest format, rather than pulp, printed a mixture of classic stories and fresh material. Dannay attempted to avoid the sensationalist fiction appearing in the pulps, soon made the magazine a success. In the early 1940s Anthony Boucher, a successful writer of fantasy and sf and of mystery stories, got to know Dannay through his work on the Ellery Queen radio show. Boucher knew J. Francis McComas, an editor who shared his interest in fantasy and sf. By 1944 McComas and Boucher became interested in the idea of a fantasy companion to Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, spoke to Dannay about it. Dannay was interested in the idea, but paper was scarce because of World War II; the following year Boucher and McComas suggested that the new magazine could use the Ellery Queen name, but Dannay knew little about fantasy and suggested instead that they approach Lawrence Spivak, the owner of Mercury Press, which published Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine.
In January 1946, Boucher and McComas went to New York and met with Spivak, who let them know in the year that he wanted to go ahead. At Spivak's request they began acquiring material for the new magazine, including a new story by Raymond Chandler, reprint rights to stories by H. P. Lovecraft, John Dickson Carr, Robert Bloch. Spivak planned the first issue for early 1947, but delayed the launch because of poor newsstand sales of digest magazines, he suggested that it should be priced at 35 cents an issue, higher than the original plan, to provide a financial buffer against poor sales. In May 1949 Spivak suggested a new title, The Magazine of Fantasy, in August a press release announced that the magazine would appear in October. On October 6, 1949, Boucher and McComas held a luncheon at the Waldorf-Astoria in New York City to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the death of Edgar Allan Poe and to launch "a new fantasy anthology periodical". Invitees included Carr, Basil Rathbone, Boris Karloff.
The first issue, published by Fantasy House, a subsidiary of American Mercury, sold 57,000 co