Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
Dublin City University
Dublin City University is a university based on the Northside of Dublin, Ireland. Created as the National Institute for Higher Education, Dublin in 1975, it enrolled its first students in 1980, was elevated to university status in September 1989 by statute. In September 2016, DCU completed the process of incorporating three other Dublin-based educational institutions: the Church of Ireland College of Education, Mater Dei Institute of Education and St Patrick's College; as of 2017, the university has over 50,000 alumni. In addition the university has around 1,200 online distance education students studying through DCU Connected. There were 624 academic staff in 2016. Notable members of the academic staff include former Taoiseach John Bruton and "thinking" Guru Edward De Bono. Bruton accepted a position as Adjunct Faculty Member in the School of Law and Government in early 2004 and De Bono accepted an adjunct Professorship in the university in mid-2005; the founding president of the institution was Dr Danny O'Hare, who retired in 1999 after 22 years' service.
After a period of administration by an acting president, Professor Albert Pratt, Professor Ferdinand von Prondzynski was appointed and continued as president for a full ten-year term, which ended in July 2010. He was succeeded by Professor Brian MacCraith; the University has been designated as a "Changemaker Campus" by Ashoka U for its work in social innovation in higher education. The institution was created in 1975, on an ad hoc basis, on 18 June that year Liam Mulcahy was made acting director of the institution, a day the first governing body met. Danny O'Hare became director in 1977, presided over the institution for the next 22 years, it was intended at the early stage that the institution become the unified structure under which the colleges of what became Dublin Institute of Technology would unite, but by 1978 it became apparent that this would not be the case and instead an independent institution developed with a distinct identity and mission. In 1979, the institution was located on an 344,000 m2 site 5 km from the city centre, just north of Dublin City Council's Albert College Park.
The Henry Grattan building was the first new building, completed in 1981, along with the adjoining restaurant, many buildings have been added since, to form a modern university campus. In 1986 the International Study Group on Technological Education was set up to examine the future of the National Institute for Higher Education at Dublin and Limerick, in its report stated that it should be elevated to university status, with naming:...the NIHE Dublin having the title Dublin City University or the University of Leinster. The title "Dublin City University" was chosen and this was confirmed by the Dublin City University Act of 1989; the early focus of the institution was, in particular, on science and technology, although it has had, has, a large business school. It has developed a presence in the performing arts and in the humanities. DCU is famous for its programme of work placement or INTRA, the first such programme in Ireland. DCU has been providing adults all over Ireland with flexible access to higher education for over thirty five years.
In 1982 the National Distance Education Centre was located at DCU and for many years offered programmes in the traditional ‘distance education’ mode of delivery. It changed to Oscail – DCU Online Education in 2004 to reflect the reality that its programmes were designed with large elements of online support. In 2013, DCU launched the National Institute for Digital Learning with the Open Education Unit as part of the new institute; this Unit manages an increasing number of online courses and degree programmes offered to Irish residents and students around the world through DCU Connected. There was a plan in 2002 to base the headquarters of the Irish Academy for the Performing Arts in DCU, but this was scrapped; as of 2015 there are 55,000 graduates of Dublin City University. Electronic Engineering and Computer Applications were among the first degree courses offered by the college, in 1980; the Computer Applications course in DCU was for long more in demand than any other computer degree in Ireland, having up to three times more first preferences through the Central Applications Office system than the next most sought after computer course in Ireland, Computer Science in Trinity College, Dublin.
With 300 places per year, it had the largest student intake of any computer science degree in Ireland. The university has a strong research record, is sometimes described as a research-led university, has been recorded as bringing in more research income per members of faculty - or indeed as a percentage of total income - than any other university in Ireland, its research team working on sensors at the National Centre for Sensor Research is considered one of the best in the world. The university has five campuses: The main campus described as being in Glasnevin but adjacent to Whitehall and Ballymun too Sports campus Innovation campus St Patrick’s campus in Drumcondra All Hallows campus The total area of the main campus is 202,000 m2 and is bordered by Collins Avenue, Albert College Park, Ballymun Road, Hillside Farm and St. Aidan's School. A further 4
A student publication is a media outlet such as a newspaper, television show, or radio station produced by students at an educational institution. These publications cover local and school related news, but they may report on national or international news as well. Most student publications are either part of a curricular class or run as an extracurricular activity. Student publications serve as both a platform for community discussion and a place for those interested in journalism to develop their skills; these publications report news, publish opinions of students and faculty, may run advertisements catered to the student body. Besides these purposes, student publications serve as a watchdog to uncover problems at the school; the majority of student publications are funded through their educational institution. Some funds may be generated through sales and advertisements, but the majority comes from the school itself; because of this, educational institutions have specific way in which they can influence the publications through funding.
Due to the rise in adoption of Internet accessible devices such as computers and smartphones, many high schools and colleges have begun offering online editions of their publications in addition to printed copies. Due to publishing content online student publications are now able to reach a much wider audience than before. With many student publications moving to online, content is more accessible to the student body and production of the content is easier and cheaper; as printed student publications become more and more scarce and student publications move online to best fit the news needs of today's students, student newspapers will run into several issues. One of these issues is the increase in demand for new content. While an update once a day or once a week was once acceptable for a student publication, real time information resources will soon be demanded by students who grew up with constant updates of news coverage; this shift in content demand will require more time by the student newspaper staff.
One of these issues is what is called the "daily me." Coined by Cass Sunstein in his book Republic.com, the "daily me" is the current trend of online readers looking for personalized information providers. In this way the reader deals with only the subjects. In this way readers are not inconvenienced by material they have no interest in and can personalize an information product themselves, providing added value to both themselves and the provider. However, some believe this trend may not be the best for society, now faced with a public that chooses how well to be informed. On a campus paper, this trend will manifest itself in the increased number of "hits" to the common "sports" and "opinion" sections of the paper, while hard news sections go un-noticed; this new type of print culture could result in drastic formatting and content changes for student newspapers. Gair rhydd, the student paper at Cardiff University, courted controversy when, on February 4, 2006, it reproduced the cartoons printed in Jyllands-Posten, depicting Muhammad.
The issue was withdrawn from publication within a day of being released, the editor and two other student journalists were suspended, a public apology was published in the next issue. In the same month, two editors of the Daily Illini, the independent student newspaper of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, were suspended after deciding to publish six of the twelve cartoons. However, student publications took a lead role in reprinting the Muhammad cartoons accompanying them with explanatory editorials. No fewer than 16 student newspapers and magazines in the United States, a handful in other countries, ran one or more of the caricatures. University student newspapers in the Australia are independent of university administration yet are connected with or run by the student representative organisation operating at the campus. Editors tend to be elected by the student body on a separate ticket to other student representatives and are paid an honorarium, although some student organisations have been known to employ unelected staff to coordinate the production of the newspaper.
Australian student newspapers have courted controversy since their inception. One of the more notorious of these controversies involved the publication of an article which incited readers to shoplift; the July edition of the magazine was banned by the Office of Film and Literature Classication following a campaign by conservative talkback radio hosts and other media to have the material banned. The four editors of the July 1995 edition of La Trobe University student magazine Rabelais were subsequently charged with publishing and depositing an objectionable publication. An objectional publication was defined as one that incites criminal activity; the editors lodged an appeal. The appeal was defeated by the full bench of the Federal Court, who refused the editors application to appeal to the High Court of Australia; the charges were dropped in March 1999. Many student newspapers in Canada are independent from student unions; such autonomous papers are funded by student fees won by referendums, as well as advertising, are run by their staffs, with no faculty input.
About 55 of Canada's student newspapers belong to a co-operative and newswire s
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha