Dallas the City of Dallas, is a city in the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. It is the eighteenth most-populous city in North America as of 2015. Located in North Texas, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U. S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. The city's combined statistical area is the seventh-largest in the U. S. as of 2017, with 7,846,293 residents. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton and oil in North and East Texas.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. A "beta" global city, the economy of Dallas has been considered diverse with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, transportation. Dallas is home to 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits; the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines, ExxonMobil and J. C. Penney. Over 41 colleges and universities are in its metropolitan area, the most of any metropolitan area in Texas; the city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States as of 2016.
WalletHub named Dallas the fifth most-diverse city in the U. S. in 2018. Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. France claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory; the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas, he established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841.
The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire; the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century, it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, the Midwest. The Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth; the rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population, drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, the Mexican Revolution. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas; the upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states.
The gunman identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m. killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were injured; this marked the deadliest day for U. S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he
Single-family detached home
A stand-alone house is a free-standing residential building. Sometimes referred to as a single-family home, as opposed to a multi-family residential dwelling; the definition of this type of house may vary between statistical agencies. The definition, however includes two elements: a single-family means that the building is a structure maintained and used as a single dwelling unit. Though a dwelling unit shares one or more walls with another dwelling unit, it is a single family residence if it has direct access to a street or thoroughfare and does not share heating facilities, hot water equipment, nor any other essential facility or service with any other dwelling unit. In some jurisdictions, allowances are made for basement suites or mother-in-law suites without changing the description from "single family", it does exclude, any short-term accommodation, large-scale rental accommodation, or condominiums. Most single-family homes are built on lots larger than the structure itself, adding an area surrounding the house, called a yard in North American English or a garden in British English.
Garages can be found on most lots. Houses with an attached front entry garage, closer to the street than any other part of the house is derisively called a snout house. Terms corresponding to single-family detached home in common use are single-family home, single-detached dwelling, detached house, separate house. In the United Kingdom, the term single-family home is unknown, except through Internet exposure to U. S. media. Whereas in the U. S. housing is divided into "single-family homes", "multi-family dwellings", "condo/townhouse", etc. the primary division of residential property in British terminology is between "houses" and "flats". In pre-industrial societies, most people lived in multi-family dwellings for most of their lives. A child lived with their parents from birth until marriage, generally moved in with the parents of the man or the woman, so that the grandparents could help raise the young children and so the middle generation could care for their aging parents; this type of arrangement saved some of the effort and materials used for construction and, in colder climates, heating.
If people had to move to a new place or were wealthy enough, they could build or buy a home for their own family, but this was not the norm. The idea of a nuclear family living separately from their relatives as the norm is a recent development related to rising living standards in North America and Europe during the early modern and modern eras. In the New World, where land was plentiful, settlement patterns were quite different from the close-knit villages of Europe, meaning many more people lived in large farms separated from their neighbors; this has produced a cultural preference in settler societies for space. A countervailing trend has been industrialization and urbanization, which has seen more and more people around the world move into multi-story apartment blocks. In the New World, this type of densification was halted and reversed following the Second World War when increased automobile ownership and cheaper building and heating costs produced suburbanization instead. Single-family homes are now common in rural and suburban and some urban areas across the New World and Europe, as well as wealthier enclaves within the Third World.
They are most common in high-income regions. For example, in Canada, according to the 2006 census, 55.3% of the population lived single-detached houses but this varied by region. In the ville of Montreal, Canada's second-most populous municipality, only 7.5% of the population lived in single-detached homes, while in the city of Calgary, the third most populous, 57.8% did. Note that this includes the "city limits" populations only, not the wider region; the term "single-family detached" describes who lives in it. It does not indicate shape, or location; because they are not surrounded by other buildings, the potential size of a single-family house is limited only by the budget of the builder and local law. They can range from a tiny country cottage or cabin or a small suburban prefabricated home to a large mansion, aristocratic estate or stately home. Sizes in real estate advertising are given in area, or by the number of bedrooms or bathrooms/toilets; the choice in materials used or the shape chosen will depend on what is common to the vernacular architecture of that region, or the lasting trends in professionally designed tract housing.
A traditional log and plaster hut, a timber frame and drywall North American starter home, or a European-style concrete-and-slate house are all varieties of single-family detached housing. Single-detached homes have both disadvantages; the entire space around the building is private to the owner and family, in most cases, one can add onto the existing house if more room is needed. They typically have no property management fees, such as the ones associated with condominia and townhomes; these are considered advantages. Since single detached homes are built in places where land is more plentiful, there is a distinct cost advantage per square foot (although this varies based
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Denton is a city in and the county seat of Denton County, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 113,383, making it the 27th-most populous city in Texas, the 200th-most populous city in the United States, the 12th-most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. A Texas land grant led to the formation of Denton County in 1846, the city was incorporated in 1866. Both were named after pioneer and Texas militia captain John B. Denton; the arrival of a railroad line in the city in 1881 spurred population, the establishment of the University of North Texas in 1890 and Texas Woman's University in 1901 distinguished the city from neighboring regions. After the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport finished in 1974, the city had more rapid growth. Located on the far north end of the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex in North Texas on Interstate 35, Denton is known for its active music life; the city experiences hot, humid summers and few extreme weather events.
Its diverse citizenry is represented by a nonpartisan city council, numerous county and state departments have offices in the city. With over 45,000 students enrolled at the two universities located within its city limits, Denton is characterized as a college town; as a result of the universities' growth, educational services play a large role in the city's economy. Residents are served by the Denton County Transportation Authority, which provides commuter rail and bus service to the area; the formation of Denton is tied with that of Denton County. White settlement of the area began in the middle of the 1800s when William S. Peters of Kentucky obtained a land grant from the Texas Congress and named it Peters Colony. After initial settlement in the southeast part of the county in 1843, the Texas Legislature voted to form Denton County in 1846. Both the county and the town were named for John B. Denton, a preacher and lawyer, killed in 1841 during a skirmish with Kichai people in what is now Tarrant County.
Pickneyville and Alton were selected as the county seat before Denton was named for that position in 1857. That year, a commission named the first streets. Denton incorporated in 1866. B. Sawyer; as the city expanded beyond its original boundaries, it became an agricultural trade center for the mill and cottage industries. The arrival of the Texas and Pacific Railway in 1881 gave Denton its first rail connection and brought an influx of people to the area. North Texas Normal College, now the University of North Texas, was established in 1890, the Girls' Industrial College, now Texas Woman's University, was founded in 1903; as the universities increased in size, their impact on Denton's economy and culture increased. Denton grew from a population of 26,844 in 1960 to 48,063 in 1980, its connection to the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex via I-35E and I-35W played a major role in the growth, the opening of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport in 1974 led to an increase in population. In the 1980s, heavy manufacturing companies like Victor Equipment Company and Peterbilt joined older manufacturing firms such as Moore Business Forms and Morrison Milling Company in Denton.
The population jumped from 66,270 in 1990 to 80,537 in 2000. In May 2006, Houston-based real estate company United Equities purchased the 100-block of Fry Street and announced that several of the historic buildings would be demolished to accommodate a new mixed-use commercial center; the proposal drew opposition from some residents, who sought to preserve the area as a historic and cultural icon for the city. The Denton City Council approved a new proposal for the area from Dinerstein Cos in 2010. Denton is located on the northern edge of the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area; these three cities form the area known as the "Golden Triangle of North Texas." According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 89.316 square miles, of which 87.952 square miles is land and 1.364 square miles is covered by water. The city lies in the northeast edge of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin, characterized by flat terrain. Elevation ranges from 500 to 900 feet. Part of the city is located atop the Barnett Shale, a geological formation believed to contain large quantities of natural gas.
Lewisville Lake, a man-made reservoir, is located 15 miles south of the city. With its hot, humid summers and cool winters, Denton's climate is characterized as humid subtropical and is within USDA hardiness zone 8a; the city's all-time high temperature is 113 °F, recorded in 1954. Dry winds affect the area in the summer and can bring temperatures of over 100 °F, although the average summer temperature highs range from 91 to 96 °F between June and August; the all-time recorded low is −3 °F, the coolest month is January, with daily low temperatures averaging 33 °F. Denton lies on the southern end of what is referred to as "Tornado Alley"; the city receives about 37.7 inches of rain per year. Flash floods and severe thunderstorms are frequent occurrences during spring. Average snowfall in Denton is similar to the Dallas–Fort Worth average of 2.4 inches per year. Denton is home to several annual artistic and cultural events that cater to residents and tou
The Colony, Texas
The Colony is a city in Denton County, United States, a suburb of Dallas. The population was 36,328 at the 2010 census; the Colony is home to the Five Star Athletic Complex, completed in 2003. The Colony was named the Sports Illustrated 50th Anniversary Sports Town of The United States in that same year; the city is home to Pizza Inn's corporate headquarters, as well as an Edward Don distribution center and a variety of small and medium-sized businesses. The Grandscape development, anchored by Nebraska Furniture Mart, is driving a new development boom in the city. Located on the southeast side of the city, across Sam Rayburn Tollway from the larger part of the city, is Austin Ranch, a mixed-use development consisting of retail businesses and condominiums; the Colony derives its name from the original Peters Colony. The Peters Colony headquarters was located within the current boundaries of The Colony in the historical community of Stewartsville and the site of the Hedgcoxe War; the Colony is the site of Bridges Settlement, Stewarts Creek, Rector and Camey known as Camey Spur.
The Colony did not exist before 1973, when home developers Fox and Jacobs purchased land located around State Highway 121 and Farm to Market Road 423. The name "The Colony" was chosen by Fox and Jacobs because they wanted its new development to share a sense of kinship with Texas' early history and "to create a living monument to the spirit and courage of the Peters Colonists... those men and women who braved considerable hardships to begin new lives, in new homes, on new land." They planned the development to be a new "dream city" consisting of single-family homes grouped as a "colony" and based on the city of Dallas' infrastructure specifications. In 1973, Fox and Jacobs negotiated an agreement with the city of Frisco to begin construction in its extraterritorial jurisdiction. In 1974, street construction began with many streets being named after early settlers and members of the construction crews; the first model homes were completed in August 1974 and the first families moved into their homes in October that year.
The homes were served for water services by The Colony Municipal Utility District formed in 1974, electricity via Texas Power and Light, cable television via Lakeside CATV and telephone service via Southwestern Bell. In 1977, the homeowners associations' petition to disannex the development from the city of Frisco's extraterritorial jurisdiction was approved; the Colony voted to become an incorporated city in January 1977 and became a Home Rule City in 1979. Residents of The Colony participated in two polls to select a name for the new city. Both polls chose the name "The Colony" and the name was ratified by the City Council in May 1977. In 1987, The Colony voted to merge with the small lakeside community of Eastvale; the Colony is a Home Rule municipality with a council-manager form of government. It has a six-member council, with two members elected at large, as well as a city Mayor; the Colony is located at 33°5′27″N 96°53′5″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.1 square miles, of which 14.0 square miles of it is land and 2.1 square miles, or 12.93%, is water.
The city is bordered on the west by Lewisville Lake and the city of Lewisville, on the north and east by Frisco, on the south by the cities of Carrollton and Plano. 23 miles of shoreline on Lewisville Lake are contained within the city's boundaries, thus providing the basis for the city's nickname "City by the Lake." The Colony is part of the humid subtropical region. Main lanes: Sam Rayburn Tollway Service roads: State Highway 121 Farm to Market Road 423 The Colony is located inside both the Lewisville Independent School District and Little Elm Independent School District; the Lewisville ISD has built six elementary schools, two middle schools and one high school inside the city limits. The elementary schools are Peters Colony Elementary, Camey Elementary, B. B. Owen Elementary, Stewart's Creek Elementary, Ethridge Elementary, Morningside Elementary; the two middle schools are Lakeview Middle School. The Little Elm ISD has built a K-8 STEM Academy in The Tribute subdivision. Owing to its original history as part of Frisco, The Colony is located inside the community college district, Collin College, unlike all other places in Denton County.
However, since residents of The Colony do not pay taxes to said district they must pay out-of-county tuition rates to attend the college. In May 2009, Griffin Middle School student and The Colony resident Eric Yang won the National Geographic Bee, beating out 54 other state competition champions to win a scholarship and travel package valued at more than $25,000; the Colony High School is located just north of Texas State Highway 121 on Blair Oaks Drive. The Lady Cougars soccer team won the 2007 Class AAAA soccer championship, the school's first in any sport; the Colony is home to the TopCats Drill Team as well as a renowned TCHS 350 piece Marching Band that participated in the 1997 Tournament of Roses Parade. The Colony Marching Band has additionally been a finalist in the Texas State UIL Marching Contest in 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 2000; the Colony High School Wind Symphony was named the TMEA Class 5A Honor Band in 1997 and performed at the Midwest International Band Clinic in Chicago in 1994 and 1997, the American Bandmasters Association Convention in 2000, at Carnegie Hall in 2001.
The Colony Band has placed over 100 wind and percussion students in All-State Band and Orchestra since 1986. In 2017 The Colony Lady Cougar Softball t
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Texas State Highway 121
State Highway 121 is a state highway angling from southwest to northeast through north central Texas. It runs from downtown Fort Worth, Texas at the junction of Interstate 35W to Bonham, just north of a junction with U. S. Highway 82. Between Fort Worth and Euless, SH 121 is known as Airport Freeway. East of Coppell, the highway acts as the frontage road of the Sam Rayburn Tollway, a toll road that runs northeast to McKinney. From McKinney to Melissa, the state highway is concurrent with US 75 and the North Central Expressway. Northeast of Melissa, SH 121 is a smaller roadway referred to in some places as the Sam Rayburn Highway. Sections between downtown Fort Worth and Grapevine are freeway, including a small segment near Hurst that coincides with Interstate 820. At Bedford, Texas it has the Irving freeway that leads toward Dallas. At Grapevine it has interchanges with SH 114 and Interstate 635 before becoming a limited-access tollway that passes between Lewisville and Frisco, it is heavily traveled south and west of McKinney and has become an urban highway due to the rapid growth of the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex.
Service roads extending southwest to northeast along the corridor from Lewisville to McKinney are free of charge. The highway's northeastern section between Melissa and Bonham carries less traffic and until was a two-lane rural highway. However, in recent years with an increase in traffic, the 19 mile section between the Collin-Fannin County line and its junction with SH 56 in Bonham has been upgraded to a "Super Two" highway system; this allows for alternating passing lanes. Beginning in 2016, the segment between Melissa and the Collin-Fannin County line is being upgraded to a four-lane divided highway system. In addition, a two mile stretch between SH 56 and US 82 within Bonham city limits, was upgraded to a four-lane highway system with a continuous left-hand turn lane. Long term planning calls for upgrading the 19 mile stretch, from the Collin-Fannin County line to SH 56 in Bonham, into a four-lane divided highway system, it meets Interstate 35E at Lewisville, SH 289 near Frisco, US 75 and US 380 in McKinney, US 69 at Trenton, SH 78 just north of Bonham.
Construction began in 2009 on the extension of 121 south from Fort Worth to Cleburne, as a toll road called Southwest Parkway in Tarrant County and Chisholm Trail Parkway in Johnson County. This section will be operated by the NTTA and the entire project, from IH 30 to U. S. 67 is expected to open to traffic in the fourth quarter of 2013. In March, 2009, work was completed on the eventual southbound lanes on a short stretch of 121 northeast of DFW Airport, which shares southbound and northbound traffic; this work upgraded two signalized at-grade intersections to a freeway, with overpasses at both intersections, improving traffic in that area. The northbound freeway lanes are under construction, which include new, separate exits and entrances for Freeport Parkway and Grapevine Mills Boulevard/Sandy Lake Road. From McKinney to Coppell, State Highway 121 acts as a frontage road to Sam Rayburn Tollway, contrary to the popular misconception that the Sam Rayburn Tollway was the new SH 121. In early 2007, the Spanish firm Cintra agreed to a $2.8 billion, 50-year deal where they would lease the highway from TxDOT, finish building and maintain it, collect the tolls.
However, critics of the deal questioned both its length—the contract allowed Cintra to collect tolls for 50 years—and the fact that the North Texas Tollway Authority was prevented from bidding on the contract. In addition, general opposition to the toll plan organized, pointing out that the segment through Denton County had been paid for by taxpayer money. To answer some of these complaints, Texas legislators pressed the Texas Department of Transportation to allow the NTTA to bid; the Authority announced their proposed bid in early May 2007, which would provide $3.3 billion in road funding, but is based on traffic counts that differ from those used by Cintra. On June 28, 2007, the Texas Transportation Commission announced it would pursue the proposal from the North Texas Tollway Authority. SH 121 was numbered on March 17, 1927 as a direct routing between Fort Worth and SH 40 near the Dallas-Denton County line. On April 24, 1928, it extended to McKinney. By 1933, the route had been completed from Ft.
Worth northeast through Grapevine to its intersection with SH 40/U. S. Route 77 in far southern Denton County. On July 15, 1935, the east end was truncated to the Denton-Dallas county line. On January 6, 1939, the section from the Dallas-Denton County line to SH 40/US 77 was restored. A road was designated on February 21, 1938, from SH 114 to SH 121; this was renumbered as Loop 10 on September 26, 1939. On November 24, 1941, SH 121 was extended from old US 77 to new US 77. On December 16, 1943, the section of SH 121 from US 77 to McKinney was restored, the ambitious plan to extend SH 121 northeast beyond McKinney to Bonham was approved by TXDOT, a part of which absorbed Farm to Market Road 82 between Bonham and Trenton; the section from Bonham to Randolph was designated as SH 263 until March 21, 1939. But it wasn't until 1954 that the next section of this highway was completed between U. S. 77 at Lewisville and U. S. Route 75 near McKinney; the final section between McKinney and Trenton was not completed until No