James Kennedy, was an Irish songwriter, predominantly a lyricist, putting words to existing music such as "Teddy Bears' Picnic" and "My Prayer", or co-writing with the composers Michael Carr, Wilhelm Grosz and Nat Simon, among others. In a career spanning more than fifty years, he wrote some 2000 songs, of which over 200 became worldwide hits and about 50 are all-time popular music classics. Kennedy was born near the main town in County Tyrone, Ireland, his father, Joseph Hamilton Kennedy, was a policeman in the Royal Irish Constabulary. While growing up in the village of Coagh, Kennedy wrote several poems, he was inspired by local surroundings—the view of the Ballinderry River, the local Springhill House and the plentiful chestnut trees on his family's property, as evidenced in his poem Chestnut Trees. Kennedy moved to Portstewart, a seaside resort in County Londonderry. Kennedy graduated from Trinity College, before teaching in England, he was accepted into the Colonial Service, as a civil servant, in 1927.
While awaiting a Colonial Service posting to the colony of Nigeria, Kennedy embarked on a career in songwriting. His first success came in 1930 with "The Barmaid's Song", sung by Gracie Fields. Fellow lyricist Harry Castling, introduced him to Bert Feldman, a music publisher based in London's "Tin Pan Alley", for whom Kennedy started to work. In the early 1930s he wrote a number of successful songs, including "Oh, Donna Clara", "My Song Goes Round the World", "The Teddy Bears' Picnic", in which Kennedy provided new lyrics to John Walter Bratton's tune from 1907. In 1934, Feldman turned down Kennedy's song "Isle of Capri", but it became a major hit for a new publisher, Peter Maurice. Kennedy wrote several more successful songs for Maurice, including "Red Sails in the Sunset", inspired by beautiful summer evenings in Portstewart, Northern Ireland. Kennedy and Carr collaborated on several West End shows in the 1930s, including London Rhapsody. "My Prayer", with original music by Georges Boulanger, had English lyrics penned by Kennedy in 1939.
It was written by Boulanger with the title "Avant de Mourir" in 1926. During the early stages of the Second World War, while serving in the British Army's Royal Artillery, where he rose to the rank of Captain, he wrote the wartime hit, "We're Going to Hang out the Washing on the Siegfried Line", his hits included "Cokey Cokey", the English lyrics to "Lili Marlene". After the end of the war, his songs included "Apple Blossom Wedding", "Istanbul", "Love Is Like a Violin". In the 1960s Kennedy wrote the song "The Banks of the Erne'", for recording by his friend from the war years, Theo Hyde known as Ray Warren. Kennedy was a patron of the Castlebar International Song Contest from 1973 until his death in 1984 and his association with the event added great prestige to the contest. Kennedy won two Ivor Novello Awards for his contribution to music and received an honorary degree from the New University of Ulster, he was awarded the OBE in 1983. In 1997 he was posthumously inducted into the Songwriter's Hall of Fame.
Kennedy died in Cheltenham on 6 April 1984, aged 81, was interred in Taunton, Somerset. He was survived by a daughter. "Blaze Away", added lyrics to the Abe Holzmann marching song in 1931 "Barmaids Song" "Red Sails in the Sunset" "South of the Border" "We're Going to Hang out the Washing on the Siegfried Line" "The Isle of Capri" "Istanbul" "My Prayer" "Teddy Bears' Picnic" "Love is Like a Violin" "Cokey Cokey" "Roll Along Covered Wagon" "Harbour Lights" Jimmy Kennedy obituary, The New York Times, 7 April 1984 J. J. Kennedy, The Man Who Wrote The Teddy Bears' Picnic, AuthorHouse, 2011
Rhythm and blues
Rhythm and blues abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s. The term was used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, drums, one or more saxophones, sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy, as well as triumphs and failures in terms of relationships and aspirations; the term "rhythm and blues" has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s, it was applied to blues records. Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll, the term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, as well as gospel and soul music.
In the 1960s, several British rock bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Who and the Animals were referred to and promoted as being R&B bands. Their mix of rock and roll and R&B is now known as "British rhythm and blues". By the 1970s, the term "rhythm and blues" changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed, becoming known as "contemporary R&B", it combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, hip hop, electronic music. Popular R&B vocalists at the end of the 20th century included Prince, R. Kelly, Stevie Wonder, Chaka Khan, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey. In the 21st century, R&B has remained a popular genre becoming more pop orientated and alternatively influenced with successful artists including Usher, Bruno Mars, Chris Brown, Justin Timberlake, The Weeknd, Frank Ocean and Khalid. Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term "rhythm and blues" as a musical term in the United States in 1948, the term was used in Billboard as early as 1943.
It replaced the term "race music", which came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world. The term "rhythm and blues" was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June 1949 until August 1969, when its "Hot Rhythm & Blues Singles" chart was renamed as "Best Selling Soul Singles". Before the "Rhythm and Blues" name was instated, various record companies had begun replacing the term "race music" with "sepia series". Writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as "a catchall term referring to any music, made by and for black Americans", he has used the term "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues. However, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of R&B's stronger gospel influences. Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that "rhythm and blues" was an umbrella term invented for industry convenience. According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts.
Well into the 21st century, the term R&B continues in use to categorize music made by black musicians, as distinct from styles of music made by other musicians. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass and saxophone. Arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow and hypnotic textures while calling attention to no individual sound. While singers are engaged with the lyrics intensely so, they remain cool, in control; the bands dressed in suits, uniforms, a practice associated with the modern popular music that rhythm and blues performers aspired to dominate. Lyrics seemed fatalistic, the music followed predictable patterns of chords and structure; the migration of African Americans to the urban industrial centers of Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles and elsewhere in the 1920s and 1930s created a new market for jazz and related genres of music.
These genres of music were performed by full-time musicians, either working alone or in small groups. The precursors of rhythm and blues came from jazz and blues, which overlapped in the late-1920s and 1930s through the work of musicians such as the Harlem Hamfats, with their 1936 hit "Oh Red", as well as Lonnie Johnson, Leroy Carr, Cab Calloway, Count Basie, T-Bone Walker. There was increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophone. In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing black music under the name "Blues and Rhythm". In that year, Louis Jordan dominated the top five listings of the R&B charts with three songs, two of the top five songs were based on the boogie-woogie rhythms that had come to prominence during the 1940s. Jordan's band, the Tympany Five, consisted of him on saxophone and vocals, along with musicians on trumpet, tenor saxophone, piano and drums. Lawrence Cohn described the music as "grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues". Robert Palmer described it as "urbane, jazz-based music with a heavy, insistent beat".
Jordan's music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, Wynonie Harris, is now referred to as jump blues. Paul Gayten, Roy Brown, others had had hits in the style now referred to as rhythm and blu
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Elvis for Everyone!
Elvis for Everyone! is the eighth studio album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley, issued by RCA Victor in mono and stereo, LPM/LSP 3450, in August 1965. Recording sessions took place over a ten-year span at Sun Studio in Memphis, RCA Studio B in Nashville and Radio Recorders in Hollywood, California, it peaked at number 10 on the Top Pop Albums chart. Sessions in late May 1963 failed to coalesce into his fifth studio album of the 1960s, by 1965 Presley's musical output had been focused on his movie career and soundtrack output, he had not released a proper studio album since Pot Luck in June 1962, although seven non-movie singles had been issued since. RCA Victor invented the concept of an "Anniversary Album" to celebrate Presley's tenth year with the label, which became Elvis For Everyone; the album's cover depicting Presley standing next to the RCA Victor trademark Nipper the dog, sitting atop a cash register. Since May 1963, Presley had only made one non-movie session in January 1964 that yielded a mere three tracks, two of, issued as sides for singles.
Bereft of new material, RCA Victor assembled this album from unused tracks going all the way back to the Sun Records years, from sessions for both soundtracks and regular commercial releases. Owing to its assembly from scraps and rejects, although it made the top ten on the LP chart, it was the first Presley album to sell fewer than 300,000 copies during the decade. Of the tracks on Elvis for Everyone! only "Summer Kisses, Winter Tears," recorded for but not used in the film Flaming Star, had been issued, on the extended play single Elvis by Request: Flaming Star and 3 Other Great Songs. Several tracks had not been issued on record before. "In My Way" had appeared in the 1961 film Wild in the Country, "Sound Advice" in the 1962 film Follow That Dream, the traditional Neapolitan ballad "Santa Lucia" in the 1964 outing Viva Las Vegas. The remaining eight tracks had been unissued in any form; the Sun ballad "Tomorrow Night" had overdubs added for release on this album. RCA had intended to include the unreleased Sun Records track "Tennessee Saturday Night," but withdrew it from the album and replaced it with "Tomorrow Night".
Neither has reference to a Presley Sun recording with this title been mentioned in any other source, nor has a Presley Sun recording with this title been discovered, although a song entitled "Tennessee Saturday Night" was slated for Loving You but not recorded. In its format as a compilation of unissued leftovers from various sessions, given its rather short running time, this album anticipated the Presley budget releases with a similar concept that would appear during the late 1960s and early 1970s on the low priced RCA Camden label. RCA opted not to include it as part of its reissue program, appending its songs as bonus tracks to other albums as appropriate, with the overdubbed version of "Tomorrow Night" being replaced by the original Sun Records master version in general circulation. In 2014 Elvis for Everyone was reissued on the Follow That Dream label in a special 2-disc edition that contained the original album tracks along with numerous alternate takes
Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, dating back to the early 1950s in the United States the South. As a genre it blends the sound of Western musical styles such as country with that of rhythm and blues, leading to what is considered "classic" rock and roll; some have described it as a blend of bluegrass with rock and roll. The term "rockabilly" itself is a portmanteau of "rock" and "hillbilly", the latter a reference to the country music that contributed to the style. Other important influences on rockabilly include western swing, boogie-woogie, jump blues, electric blues. Defining features of the rockabilly sound included strong rhythms, vocal twangs, common use of the tape echo. Popularized by artists such as Wanda Jackson, Johnny Cash, Bill Haley, Buddy Holly, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Bob Luman, Jerry Lee Lewis, the influence and success of the style waned in the late 1950s. An interest in the genre endures in the 21st century within a subculture. Rockabilly has left a legacy, spawning a variety of sub-styles and influencing other genres such as punk rock.
There was a close relationship between blues and country music from the earliest country recordings in the 1920s. The first nationwide country hit was "Wreck of the Old 97", backed with "Lonesome Road Blues", which became quite popular. Jimmie Rodgers, the "first true country star", was known as the "Blue Yodeler", most of his songs used blues-based chord progressions, although with different instrumentation and sound from the recordings of his black contemporaries like Blind Lemon Jefferson and Bessie Smith. During the 1930s and 1940s, two new sounds emerged. Bob Wills and his Texas Playboys were the leading proponents of Western Swing, which combined country singing and steel guitar with big band jazz influences and horn sections. Recordings of Wills's from the mid 1940s to the early 1950s include "two beat jazz" rhythms, "jazz choruses", guitar work that preceded early rockabilly recordings. Wills is quoted as saying "Rock and Roll? Why, that's the same kind of music we've been playin' since 1928!...
But it's just basic rhythm and has gone by a lot of different names in my time. It's the same, whether you just follow a drum beat like in Africa or surround it with a lot of instruments; the rhythm's what's important."After blues artists like Meade Lux Lewis and Pete Johnson launched a nationwide boogie craze starting in 1938, country artists like Moon Mullican, the Delmore Brothers, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Speedy West, Jimmy Bryant, the Maddox Brothers and Rose began recording what was known as "Hillbilly Boogie", which consisted of "hillbilly" vocals and instrumentation with a boogie bass line. The Maddox Brothers and Rose were at "the leading edge of rockabilly with the slapped bass that Fred Maddox had developed". Maddox said, "You've got to have somethin' they can tap their foot, or dance to, or to make'em feel it." After World War II the band shifted into higher gear leaning more toward a whimsical honky-tonk feel, with a heavy, manic bottom end - the slap bass of Fred Maddox. "They played hillbilly music but it sounded real hot.
They played real loud for that time, too..." The Maddoxes were known for their lively "antics and stuff." "We always put on a show... I mean it just wasn't us up there pickin' and singing. There was something going on all the time." "... the demonstrative Maddoxes, helped release white bodies from traditional motions of decorum... more and more younger white artists began to behave on stage like the lively Maddoxes." Others believe that they were not only at the leading edge, but were one of the first Rockabilly groups, if not the first. Along with country and boogie influences, jump blues artists such as Wynonie Harris and Roy Brown, electric blues acts such as Howlin' Wolf, Junior Parker, Arthur Crudup, influenced the development of rockabilly; the Memphis blues musician Junior Parker and his electric blues band, Little Junior's Blue Flames, featuring Pat Hare on the guitar, were a major influence on the rockabilly style with their songs "Love My Baby" and "Mystery Train" in 1953. Zeb Turner's February 1953 recording of "Jersey Rock" with its mix of musical styles, lyrics about music and dancing, guitar solo, is another example of the mixing of musical genres in the first half of the 1950s.
Bill Monroe is known as the Father of Bluegrass, a specific style of country music. Many of his songs were in blues form, while others took the form of folk ballads, parlor songs, or waltzes. Bluegrass was a staple of country music in the early 1950s, is mentioned as an influence in the development of rockabilly; the Honky Tonk sound, which "tended to focus on working-class life, with tragic themes of lost love, loneliness and self-pity" included songs of energetic, uptempo Hillbilly Boogie. Some of the better known musicians who recorded and performed these songs are: the Delmore Brothers, the Maddox Brothers and Rose, Merle Travis, Hank Williams, Hank Snow, Tennessee Ernie Ford. Curtis Gordon's 1953 "Rompin' and Stompin'", an uptempo hillbilly-boogie included the lyrics, "Way down south where I was born / They rocked all night'til early morn' / They start rockin' / They start rockin' an rollin'." Sharecroppers' sons Carl Perkins and his brothers Jay Perkins and Clayton Perkins, along with drummer W. S. Holland, had been playing their music ninety miles from Memphis.
The Perkins Brothers Band, featuri
Elvis: A Legendary Performer Volume 2
Elvis: A Legendary Performer Volume 2 is a compilation album featuring recordings by American singer and musician Elvis Presley. As with the first volume of the series, issued in 1974, the collection was a mixture of released and never-before-released recordings; the album was certified Gold on October 25, 1977 and Platinum and 2× Platinum on July 15, 1999 by the RIAA. In this volume of the Legendary Performer series, RCA released for the first time "Harbor Lights", a ballad Presley recorded during his first session for Sun Records in July 1954; this marked the first time since 1965 that RCA had released any unissued recordings from the Sun Records archives. Other unreleased material on the album included an alternate take of his 1956 hit "I Want You, I Need You, I Love You", several performances from the 1968 NBC TV special that had not been issued, the song "A Cane and a High Starched Collar" from the soundtrack of the 1960 film Flaming Star, his 1960 recording of "Such a Night". A pair of unreleased interview recordings were included on this album.
The Legendary Performer series would continue with Elvis: A Legendary Performer Volume 3, released in 1978. Elvis: A Legendary Performer Volume 2 at Discogs