Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce was an American short story writer, journalist and Civil War veteran. Bierce's book The Devil's Dictionary was named as one of "The 100 Greatest Masterpieces of American Literature" by the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration, his story "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" has been described as "one of the most famous and anthologized stories in American literature". A prolific and versatile writer, Bierce was regarded as one of the most influential journalists in the United States, as a pioneering writer of realist fiction. For his horror writing, Michael Dirda ranked him alongside H. P. Lovecraft, his war stories influenced Stephen Crane, Ernest Hemingway, others, he was considered an influential and feared literary critic. In recent decades Bierce has gained wider respect for his poetry. In December 1913, Bierce traveled to Chihuahua, Mexico, to gain first-hand experience of the Mexican Revolution, he disappeared, was rumored to be traveling with rebel troops.
He was never seen again. Bierce was born in a log cabin at Horse Cave Creek in Meigs County, Ohio, on June 24, 1842, to Marcus Aurelius Bierce and Laura Sherwood Bierce, he was of English ancestry: all of his forebears came to North America between 1620 and 1640 as part of the Great Puritan Migration. He wrote critically of both "Puritan values" and people who "made a fuss" about genealogy, he was the tenth of thirteen children, all of whom were given names by their father beginning with the letter "A": in order of birth, the Bierce siblings were Abigail, Ann, Aurelius, Almeda, Albert, Arthur and Aurelia. His mother was a descendant of William Bradford, his parents were a literary couple who instilled in him a deep love for books and writing. Bierce grew up in Kosciusko County, attending high school at the county seat, Warsaw, he left home at 15 to become a printer's devil at a small abolitionist Ohio newspaper, the Northern Indianan. At the outset of the American Civil War, Bierce enlisted in the Union Army's 9th Indiana Infantry.
He participated in the operations in Western Virginia, was present at the Battle of Philippi, received newspaper attention for his daring rescue, under fire, of a gravely wounded comrade at the Battle of Rich Mountain. Bierce fought at the Battle of Shiloh, a terrifying experience that became a source for several short stories and the memoir "What I Saw of Shiloh". In April 1863 he was commissioned a first lieutenant, served on the staff of General William Babcock Hazen as a topographical engineer, making maps of battlefields; as a staff officer, Bierce became known to leading generals such as George H. Thomas and Oliver O. Howard, both of whom supported his application for admission to West Point in May 1864. General Hazen believed Bierce would graduate from the military academy "with distinction" and William T. Sherman endorsed the application for admission though stating he had no personal acquaintance with Bierce. In June 1864, Bierce sustained a serious head wound at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, spent the rest of the summer on furlough, returning to active duty in September.
He was discharged from the army in January 1865. His military career resumed, however, in mid-1866, when he joined General Hazen as part of an expedition to inspect military outposts across the Great Plains; the expedition traveled by horseback and wagon from Omaha, arriving toward year's end in San Francisco, California. Bierce married Mary Ellen "Mollie" Day on December 25, 1871, they had three children: Leigh and daughter Helen. Both of Bierce's sons died. Day committed suicide after a romantic rejection, Leigh died of pneumonia related to alcoholism. Bierce separated from his wife in 1888, after discovering compromising letters to her from an admirer, they divorced in 1904. Mollie Day Bierce died the following year. Bierce was an avowed agnostic, he suffered from lifelong asthma, as well as complications from his war wounds. In San Francisco, Bierce was awarded the rank of brevet major before resigning from the Army, he remained in San Francisco for many years becoming famous as a contributor or editor of a number of local newspapers and periodicals, including The San Francisco News Letter, The Argonaut, the Overland Monthly, The Californian and The Wasp.
A selection of his crime reporting from The San Francisco News Letter was included in The Library of America anthology True Crime. Bierce wrote in England from 1872 to 1875, contributing to Fun magazine, his first book, The Fiend's Delight, a compilation of his articles, was published in London in 1873 by John Camden Hotten under the pseudonym "Dod Grile". Returning to the United States, he again took up residence in San Francisco. From 1879 to 1880, he traveled to Rockerville and Deadwood in the Dakota Territory, to try his hand as local manager for a New York mining company; when the company failed he resumed his career in journalism. From January 1, 1881 until September 11, 1885 he was editor of The Wasp magazine, in which he began a column titled "Prattle", he became one of the first regular columnists and editorialists on William Randolph Hearst's newspaper, The San Francisco Examiner becoming one of the most prominent and influential writers and journalists of the West Coast. He remained associated with Hearst Ne
The Devil's Dictionary
The Devil's Dictionary is a satirical dictionary written by American Civil War soldier and writer Ambrose Bierce consisting of common words followed by humorous and satirical definitions. The lexicon was written over three decades as a series of installments for newspapers. Bierce's witty definitions were imitated and plagiarized for years before he gathered them into books, first as The Cynic's Word Book in 1906 and in a more complete version as The Devil's Dictionary in 1911. Initial reception of the book versions was mixed. In the decades following, the stature of The Devil's Dictionary grew, it has been quoted translated, imitated, earning a global reputation. In the 1970s, The Devil's Dictionary was named as one of "The 100 Greatest Masterpieces of American Literature" by the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration, it has been called "howlingly funny", Wall Street Journal columnist Jason Zweig wrote that The Devil's Dictionary is "probably the most brilliant work of satire written in America.
And maybe one of the greatest in all of world literature." Ambrose Bierce was not the first writer to use amusing definitions as a format for satire. Four writers are known to have written witty definitions of words before him. Bierce's earliest known predecessor was the Persian poet and satirist Nizam al-Din Ubaydullah Zakani, who wrote his satirical Ta'rifat in the thirteenth century. Prior to Bierce, the best-known writer of amusing definitions was Samuel Johnson, his A Dictionary of the English Language was published 15 April 1755. Johnson's Dictionary defined 42,733 words all seriously. A small handful have witty definitions and became quoted, but they were infrequent exceptions to Johnson's learned and serious explanations of word meanings. Noah Webster earned fame for his 1806 A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language and his 1828 An American Dictionary of the English Language. Most people assume that Webster's text is unrelieved by humor, Webster made witty comments in a tiny number of definitions.
Gustave Flaubert wrote notes for the Dictionary of Received Ideas between 1850 and 1855 but never completed it. Decades after his death, researchers combed through Flaubert's papers and published the Dictionary under his name in 1913, "But the alphabetful of definitions we have here is compiled from a mass of notes and variants that were never sorted, much less proportioned and polished by the author." Bierce took decades to write his lexicon of satirical definitions. He warmed up by including definitions infrequently in satirical essays, most in his weekly columns "The Town Crier" or "Prattle", his earliest known definition was published in 1867. His first try at a multiple-definition essay was titled "Webster Revised", it included definitions of four terms and was published in early 1869. Bierce wrote definitions in his personal letters. For example, in one letter he defined "missionaries" as those "who, in their zeal to lay about them, do not scruple to seize any weapon that they can lay their hands on.
Bierce did not make his first start at writing a satirical glossary until six years later. He called it "The Demon's Dictionary", it appeared in the San Francisco News Letter and California Advertiser of 11 December 1875, his glossary provided 48 short witty definitions, from "A" through "accoucheur". But "The Demon's Dictionary" appeared only once, Bierce wrote no more satirical lexicons for another six years. So, Bierce's short glossary spawned imitators. One of the most substantial was written by Harry Ellington Brook, the editor of a humor magazine called The Illustrated San Francisco Wasp. Brook's continuing column of serialized satirical definitions was called "Wasp's Improved Webster in Ten-Cent Doses"; the column started with the 7 August 1880 issue and appeared weekly in 28 issues, working its way step-by-step alphabetically to define 758 words, ending with "shoddy" in the 26 February 1881 issue. In the next issue of The Wasp Brook's column appeared no more, because The Wasp hired Bierce and he stopped it, replacing "Wasp's Improved Webster" with his own column of satirical definitions.
Bierce named his column “The Devil's Dictionary.” It first appeared in the March 1881 issue. Bierce wrote 79 “The Devil's Dictionary” columns, working his way alphabetically to the word “lickspittle” in the 14 Aug. 1886 issue. After Bierce left The Wasp, he was hired by William Randolph Hearst to write for his newspaper The San Francisco Examiner in 1887. Bierce's first "Prattle" column appeared in the Examiner on March 5 of that year, the next installment of his satirical lexicon appeared in the 4 September 1887 issue on page 4, under the title "The Cynic's Dictionary". Bierce wrote one more “The Cynic's Dictionary” column, no more appeared for sixteen years. In the meantime, Bierce's idea of a "comic dictionary" was imitated by others, his witty definitions were plagiarized without crediting him. One imitator copied the name of Bierce's column. In September 1903, Bierce wrote letters to his friend Herman George Scheffauer mentioning he was thinking about a book of his satirical definitions "regularly arranged as in a real dictionary."Bierce restarted his “The Cynic's Dictionary” columns w
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The MIT Press traces its origins back to 1926 when MIT published under its own name a lecture series entitled Problems of Atomic Dynamics given by the visiting German physicist and Nobel Prize winner, Max Born. Six years MIT's publishing operations were first formally instituted by the creation of an imprint called Technology Press in 1932; this imprint was founded by James R. Killian, Jr. at the time editor of MIT's alumni magazine and to become MIT president. Technology Press published eight titles independently in 1937 entered into an arrangement with John Wiley & Sons in which Wiley took over marketing and editorial responsibilities. In 1962 the association with Wiley came to an end; the press acquired its modern name after this separation, has since functioned as an independent publishing house. A European marketing office was opened in 1969, a Journals division was added in 1972.
In the late 1970s, responding to changing economic conditions, the publisher narrowed the focus of their catalog to a few key areas architecture, computer science and artificial intelligence and cognitive science. In January 2010 the MIT Press published its 9000th title, in 2012 the Press celebrated its 50th anniversary, including publishing a commemorative booklet on paper and online; the press co-founded the distributor TriLiteral LLC with Yale University Press and Harvard University Press. TriLiteral was acquired by LSC Communications in 2018. MIT Press publishes academic titles in the fields of Art and Architecture; the MIT Press is a distributor for such publishers as Zone Books and Semiotext. In 2000, the MIT Press created CogNet, an online resource for the study of the brain and the cognitive sciences; the MIT Press co-owns the distributor TriLiteral LLC with Harvard University Press and Yale University Press. In 1981 the MIT Press published its first book under the Bradford Books imprint, Brainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology by Daniel C.
Dennett. In 2018, the Press and the MIT Media Lab launched the Knowledge Futures Group to develop and deploy open access publishing technology and platforms; the MIT Press operates the MIT Press Bookstore showcasing both its front and backlist titles, along with a large selection of complementary works from other academic and trade publishers. The retail storefront was located next to a subway entrance to Kendall/MIT station in the heart of Kendall Square, but has been temporarily moved to 301 Massachusetts Avenue in Cambridge, Massachusetts, a short distance north of the MIT Museum near Central Square. Once extensive construction around its former location is completed, the Bookstore is planned to be returned to a site adjacent to the subway entrance; the Bookstore offers customized selections from the MIT Press at many conferences and symposia in the Boston area, sponsors occasional lectures and book signings at MIT. The Bookstore is known for its periodic "Warehouse Sales" offering deep discounts on surplus and returned books and journals from its own catalog, as well as remaindered books from other publishers.
The Press uses a colophon or logo designed by its longtime design director, Muriel Cooper, in 1962. The design is based on a highly-abstracted version of the lower-case letters "mitp", with the ascender of the "t" at the fifth stripe and the descender of the "p" at the sixth stripe the only differentiation, it served as an important reference point for the 2015 redesign of the MIT Media Lab logo by Pentagram. The Arts and Humanities Economics International Affairs and Political Science Science and Technology The Image of the City by Kevin Lynch', 1960 Experiencing Architecture by Steen Eiler Rasmussen', 1962 Beyond The Melting Pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews and Irish of New York City by Nathan Glazer and Daniel P. Moynihan', 1963 The Character of Physical Law by Richard Feynman', 1967 Bauhaus: Weimar, Berlin, Chicago by Hans M. Wingler', 1969 The Subjection Of Women, by John Stuart Mill', 1970 Theory of Colours by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe', 1970 Learning From Las Vegas by Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown and Steven Izenour', 1972 The Theory of Industrial Organization by Jean Tirole', 1988 Made in America: Regaining the Productive Edge by Michael L. Dertouzos, Robert M. Solow and Richard K.
Lester', 1989 Introduction to Algorithms by Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson and Ronald L. Rivest', 1990 Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man by Marshall McLuhan', 1994 The Society of the Spectacle, by Guy Debord', 1994 Financial Modeling by Simon Benninga', 1997 Out of the Crisis, by W. Edwards Deming', 2000 The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists' Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics by William R. Easterly', 2001 The Language of New Media by Lev Manovich', 2001 The Laws of Simplicity by John Maeda', 2006 101 Things I Learned in Architecture School by Matthew Frederick', 2007 Deep Learning by Ian Goodfellow, Yoshua Bengio and Aaron Courville', 2016 Dimensionism: Modern Art in the Age of Einstein, 2018 Official Website MIT Press Journals Homepage The MIT PressLog