William Rush and His Model
William Rush and His Model is the collective name given to several paintings by Thomas Eakins, one set from 1876–77 and the other from 1908. These works depict the American wood sculptor William Rush in 1808, carving his statue Water Nymph and Bittern for a fountain at Philadelphia's first waterworks; the water nymph is an allegorical figure representing the Schuylkill River, which provided the city's drinking water, on her shoulder is a bittern, a native waterbird related to the heron. Hence, these Eakins works are known as William Rush Carving His Allegorical Figure of the Schuylkill River. Philadelphia's first waterworks was located at Centre Square, now the site of Philadelphia City Hall. Steam engines drew drinking water from the Schuylkill River and pumped it up to tanks in the engine house tower, from which it was distributed by gravity through underground mains to the city. Rush, a carver of ship figureheads, was commissioned in 1808 to carve an allegorical statue to be the centerpiece of an ornamental fountain.
His pine statue was painted white to imitate marble, its water jet gushed from the mouth of the bittern held atop the nymph's shoulder. Art historian Elizabeth Milroy notes that the nymph's pose recalls the Venus de' Medici, a copy of, owned by a Philadelphia painter. Local legend tells; when the Centre Square waterworks was demolished in 1829, the statue was relocated to a fountain at the nearby Fairmount Waterworks. Following more than 60 years of exposure to water and the elements and Bittern was stripped of its white paint in 1872, a bronze copy was cast; the copy became the centerpiece of a new fountain at Fairmount, the rotting original was placed in storage. Eakins's interest in William Rush originated from a desire to restore Rush's name to prominence in the history of American art. Eakins taught at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Eakins was a strong believer in teaching human anatomy, insisted that his students study from nude models. Since it is unlikely that Rush had employed a nude model for his sculpture of a draped water nymph, the painting may be viewed as Eakins's demonstration of the importance of studying anatomy from nudes.
Eakins was able to study both versions of the statue, his notes document the deteriorated condition of the wooden original. Only its head survives, in the collection of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts; the 1872 bronze copy is in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. As part of his process of creating the painting, Eakins carved wax studies of the nymph, her head, Rush's head, the nude model, the other Rush sculptures depicted. Five of the six wax studies survive, in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. At Yale University Art Gallery is what appears to be an abandoned version of the painting, presumed to pre-date the finished version at PMA; this is sometimes called a study, but it is the same size as the finished version, contains the same figures, was never displayed during Eakins's lifetime. At the Farnsworth Art Museum in Rockland, Maine is an oil study for another composition; the model stands on a higher pedestal, the chaperone has been placed between the model and Rush.
Judging from a photograph in a 1938 auction catalogue, G-110 seems to be cut down from a larger study. The finished version of William Rush and His Model has the model rotated, the chaperone to the model's right, facing Rush. In the foreground, between Rush and the model, stands a chair conspicuously displaying the model's clothes. Rush’s life-sized figure of George Washington, his Allegorical Figure of The Waterworks —a reclining female figure manipulating a waterwheel—are visible in the background. Although the painting is inaccurate—Rush carved Water Nymph and Bittern in 1808, the other statues years later—Eakins's intent seems to have been to present a survey of the sculptor’s whole career; the painting was first exhibited in January 1878 at the Boston Art Club, that year at the Society of American Artists in New York. It sparked controversy with one New York reviewer writing, "What ruins the picture is much less the want of beauty in the model... than the presence in the foreground of the clothes of that young woman, cast carelessly over a chair.
This gives the shock which makes one think about the nudity—and at once the picture becomes improper”. For unspecified reasons—possibly related to the statue's approaching centennial—Eakins returned to this subject in 1908, his first 1908 version is similar to the PMA version, however and his statue have been moved to the far right, the chaperone is to the model's left, facing the viewer, the pile of the model’s clothes has been eliminated. This is the least successful composition, with little visual connection between the model; the second 1908 version shows a frontal view of the nude model descending the platform. She is neither sentimentalized. Rush is now out of the shadows and holding the model's hand as if helping a grand lady descend from a carriage; the chaperone and background sculptures are omitted from this version. The figure of Rush may be a self-portrait by Eakins. Ellis, George R. Honolulu Academy of Arts, Selected Works, Honolulu Academy of Arts, 1990, 227. Ellis, George R. and Marcia Morse, A Hawaii Treasury, Masterpieces from the Honolulu Academy of Arts, Asahi Shimbun, 2000, 110 & 211-2.
Johnson, Lincoln F. The Beginning of Modernism, Honolulu Academy of Arts Journal, Vol. 3, 1978, 17
Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet was a French composer of the Romantic era best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty. The two most staged are Manon and Werther, he composed oratorios, orchestral works, incidental music, piano pieces and other music. While still a schoolboy, Massenet was admitted to France's principal music college, the Paris Conservatoire. There he studied under Ambroise Thomas, whom he admired. After winning the country's top musical prize, the Prix de Rome, in 1863, he composed prolifically in many genres, but became best known for his operas. Between 1867 and his death forty-five years he wrote more than forty stage works in a wide variety of styles, from opéra-comique to grand-scale depictions of classical myths, romantic comedies, lyric dramas, as well as oratorios and ballets. Massenet had a good sense of what would succeed with the Parisian public. Despite some miscalculations, he produced a series of successes that made him the leading composer of opera in France in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Like many prominent French composers of the period, Massenet became a professor at the Conservatoire. He taught composition there from 1878 until 1896, when he resigned after the death of the director, Ambroise Thomas. Among his students were Gustave Charpentier, Ernest Chausson, Reynaldo Hahn and Gabriel Pierné. By the time of his death, Massenet was regarded by many critics as old-fashioned and unadventurous although his two best-known operas remained popular in France and abroad. After a few decades of neglect, his works began to be favourably reassessed during the mid-20th century, many of them have since been staged and recorded. Although critics do not rank him among the handful of outstanding operatic geniuses such as Mozart and Wagner, his operas are now accepted as well-crafted and intelligent products of the Belle Époque. Massenet was born at Montaud an outlying hamlet and now a part of the city of Saint-Étienne, in the Loire, he was the youngest of the four children of Alexis Massenet and his second wife Eléonore-Adelaïde née Royer de Marancour.
Massenet senior was a prosperous ironmonger. By early 1848 the family had moved to Paris. Massenet was educated at the Lycée Saint-Louis and, from either 1851 or 1853, the Paris Conservatoire. According to his colourful but unreliable memoirs, Massenet auditioned in October 1851, when he was nine, before a judging panel comprising Daniel Auber, Fromental Halévy, Ambroise Thomas and Michele Carafa, was admitted at once, his biographer Demar Irvine dates the audition and admission as January 1853. Both sources agree that Massenet continued his general education at the lycée in tandem with his musical studies. At the Conservatoire Massenet studied solfège with Augustin Savard and the piano with François Laurent, he pursued his studies, with modest distinction, until the beginning of 1855, when family concerns disrupted his education. Alexis Massenet's health was poor, on medical advice he moved from Paris to Chambéry in the south of France. Again, Massenet's own memoirs and the researches of his biographers are at variance: the composer recalled his exile in Chambéry as lasting for two years.
On his return he resumed his studies. The family's finances were no longer comfortable, to support himself Massenet took private piano students and played as a percussionist in theatre orchestras, his work in the orchestra pit gave him a good working knowledge of the operas of Gounod and other composers and contemporary. Traditionally, many students at the Conservatoire went on to substantial careers as church organists, he gained some work as a piano accompanist, in the course of which he met Wagner who, along with Berlioz, was one of his two musical heroes. In 1861 Massenet's music was published for the first time, the Grande Fantasie de Concert sur le Pardon de Ploërmel de Meyerbeer, a virtuoso piano work in nine sections. Having graduated to the composition class under Ambroise Thomas, Massenet was entered for the Conservatoire's top musical honour, the Prix de Rome, previous winners of which included Berlioz, Thomas and Bizet; the first two of these were on the judging panel for the 1863 competition.
All the competitors had to set the same text by a cantata about David Rizzio. He recalled: Ambroise Thomas, my beloved master, came towards me and said, "Embrace Berlioz, you owe him a great deal for your prize." "The prize," I cried, bewildered, my face shining with joy. "I have the prize!!!" I was moved and I embraced Berlioz my master, Monsieur Auber. Monsieur Auber comforted me. Did I need comforting? He said to Berlioz pointing to me, "He'll go far, the young rascal, when he's had less experience!" The prize brought a well-subsidised three-year period of study, two-thirds of, spent at the French Academy in Rome, based at the Villa Medici. At that time the academy was dominated by painters rather than musicians.
An angel is a supernatural being found in various religions and mythologies. In Abrahamic religions, angels are depicted as benevolent celestial beings who act as intermediaries between God or Heaven and humanity. Other roles of angels include protecting and guiding human beings, carrying out God's tasks. Within Abrahamic religions, angels are organized into hierarchies, although such rankings may vary between sects in each religion; such angels are given specific titles, such as Gabriel or Michael. The term "angel" has been expanded to various notions of spirits or figures found in other religious traditions; the theological study of angels is known as "angelology." Angels who were expelled from Heaven are referred to as fallen angels. In fine art, angels are depicted as having the shape of human beings of extraordinary beauty but no gender, they are identified with symbols of bird wings and light. The word angel arrives in modern English from the Old French angele. Both of these derive from Late Latin angelus, which in turn was borrowed from Late Greek ἄγγελος aggelos transliterated by non-Greek speakers in its phonetic form ángelos.
Additionally, per Dutch linguist R. S. P. Beekes, ángelos itself may be "an Oriental loan, like ἄγγαρος." The word's earliest form is Mycenaean a-ke-ro, attested in Linear B syllabic script. The rendering of "ángelos" is the Septuagint's default translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mal’ākh, denoting "messenger" without connoting its nature. In the associations to follow in the Latin Vulgate, this meaning becomes bifurcated: when mal’ākh or ángelos is supposed to denote a human messenger, words like nuntius or legatus are applied. If the word refers to some supernatural being, the word angelus appears; such differentiation has been taken over by vernacular translations of the Bible, early Christian and Jewish exegetes and modern scholars. The Torah uses the terms מלאך אלהים, מלאך יהוה, בני אלהים and הקודשים to refer to beings traditionally interpreted as angels. Texts use other terms, such as העליונים; the term מלאך is used in other books of the Tanakh. Depending on the context, the Hebrew word may refer to a human messenger or to a supernatural messenger.
A human messenger might be a prophet or priest, such as Malachi, "my messenger". Examples of a supernatural messenger are the "Malak YHWH,", either a messenger from God, an aspect of God, or God himself as the messenger Scholar Michael D. Coogan notes that it is only in the late books that the terms "come to mean the benevolent semi-divine beings familiar from mythology and art." Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name, mentioning Gabriel in Daniel 9:21 and Michael in Daniel 10:13. These angels are part of Daniel's apocalyptic visions and are an important part of all apocalyptic literature. In Daniel 7, Daniel receives a dream-vision from God; as Daniel watches, the Ancient of Days takes his seat on the throne of heaven and sits in judgement in the midst of the heavenly court an like a son of man approaches the Ancient One in the clouds of heaven and is given everlasting kingship. Coogan explains the development of this concept of angels: "In the postexilic period, with the development of explicit monotheism, these divine beings—the'sons of God' who were members of the Divine Council—were in effect demoted to what are now known as'angels', understood as beings created by God, but immortal and thus superior to humans."
This conception of angels is best understood in contrast to demons and is thought to be "influenced by the ancient Persian religious tradition of Zoroastrianism, which viewed the world as a battleground between forces of good and forces of evil, between light and darkness." One of these is a figure depicted in the Book of Job. Philo of Alexandria identifies the angel with the Logos inasmuch as the angel is the immaterial voice of God; the angel is conceived as God's instrument. Four classes of ministering angels minister and utter praise before the Holy One, blessed be He: the first camp Michael on His right, the second camp Gabriel on His left, the third camp Uriel before Him, the fourth camp Raphael behind Him, he is sitting on a throne high and exalted In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels took on particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Although these archangels were believed to rank among the heavenly host, no systematic hierarchy developed. Metatron is considered one of the highest of the angels in Merkabah and Kabbalist mysticism and serves as a scribe.
Michael, who serves as a warrior and advocate for Israel, is looked upon fondly. Gabriel is mentioned in the Book of Daniel and in the Talmud, as well as in many Merkabah mystical texts. There is no evidence in Judaism for the worship of angels, but there is evidence for the invocation and sometimes conjuration of angels. According to Kabbalah
Portrait of Maud Cook
Portrait of Maud Cook is an 1895 painting by the American artist Thomas Eakins, Goodrich catalogue #279. It is in the collection of the Yale University Art Gallery. Given the artist's lack of interest in fashion or conventional beauty, the portrait has been noted as "a rare example of Eakins's studying the physical beauty of a young woman," and "one of Eakins's loveliest paintings."Maud was the sister of Weda Cook, who posed for Eakins' The Concert Singer in 1892. She is pinned between her breasts, her head is tilted in the direction of the light source. The light creates deep shadows that define the structure of her face, yet is subtle enough to suggest a youthful skin tone. In a letter written to Lloyd Goodrich in 1930, Cook recalled: "As I was just a young girl my hair is down low in the neck and tied with a ribbon.... Mr. Eakins never gave a name but said to himself it was like a'big rose bud'." Several art historians have remarked on the implications of Eakins' description the Victorian association of the rose with virginity, the bud with sexual potential.
Cook was in her twenties when she did not marry until eleven years later. The painting has been described as an example of Eakins' typical unflattering vision. Although described as "resembling a classical sculpture more than a pretty, contemporary woman", Cook's representation is viewed as sensual, representing an intensely private moment, underscored by the attention paid to her features and the disarray of her hairline; the suggestion of repressed sexuality has been seen as both disturbing. Before giving the painting to Cook, Eakins inscribed "To his friend/Maude Cook/Thomas Eakins/1895" on the back and carved its frame; the painting was acquired by Stephen Carlton Clark, who bequeathed it to Yale University Art Gallery, where it has been held since 1961. Goodrich, Lloyd: Thomas Eakins, Vol. II. Harvard University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-674-88490-6 Homer, William Innes. Thomas Eakins: His Life and Art. Abbeville, 1992. ISBN 1-55859-281-4 Sewell, Darrel. Thomas Eakins: Artist of Philadelphia. Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1982.
ISBN 0-87633-047-2 Sewell, Darrel. Thomas Eakins. Yale University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-87633-143-6 Wilmerding, John, et al. Thomas Eakins. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993. ISBN 1-56098-313-2
An Oil sketch or oil study is an artwork made in oil paint in preparation for a larger, finished work. These were created as preparatory studies or modelli so as to gain approval for the design of a larger commissioned painting, they were used as designs for specialists in other media, such as printmaking or tapestry, to follow. They were produced as independent works with no thought of being expanded into a full-size painting; the usual medium for modelli was the drawing, but an oil sketch if done in a limited range of colours, could better suggest the tone of the projected work. It is possible to more convey the flow and energy of a composition in paint. For a painter with exceptional technique, the production of an oil sketch may be as rapid as that of a drawing, many practitioners had superb brush skills. In its rapidity of execution the oil sketch may be used not only to express movement and transient effects of light and color, its gestural nature may represent a mimetic parallel to the action of the subject.
One of the earliest artists to produce oil sketches was Polidoro da Caravaggio, a fine draftsman and pupil of Raphael, but not one who had passed through the traditional Florentine training, with its emphasis on drawing. His are all related to works done on a larger scale, are themselves large and on panel, with examples in the National Gallery and Courtauld Institute of Art being 75 and 65 cm tall respectively. Sometimes a number of sketches for the same composition have survived. In the early 17th century the oil sketch became used, as it was suited to conveying the drama of Baroque art. Rubens made great use of them, as working studies, as modelli for clients, his own assistants and tapestry-makers, their degree of finish varies accordingly. Rubens' working practices influenced others, such as Anthony van Dyck, who did not use oil sketches for the portraits that were the bulk of his output, but did for his print series the Iconographie, for other works such as a projected series of tapestries and some religious paintings.
The Magistrate of Brussels, recognised in England in 2013, may be a Van Dyck portrait oil sketch. The first to produce oil sketches as independent works was Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, an amazingly fecund generator of compositions on a small range of subjects, he grew up and trained in Genoa, had contact with both Rubens and Van Dyck during their stays there. He produced a large number of small works on paper, in a mixture of mediums - drawings or gouaches finished in oil, oils with pen details - in fact, most possible permutations. Detail is restricted to a few key points, with much of the subject conveyed in impressionistic fashion. By this time a collectors' market for studies in drawing was well developed, there was appreciation of their energy and freedom. Castiglione's sketches to some extent seem to trade off this appreciation, look more unfinished and offhand than they are - a concept with a great future. A systematic producer of small modelli sketches on canvas with a high degree of finish was the 18th century Venetian Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, whose superb technique is shown at its best in reducing a huge altarpiece to a lively but precise rendering at this small scale.
At the same time Jean Fragonard was producing a series of virtuosic Figures de fantaisie, half-length portraits of imaginary subjects, purporting to have been painted in an hour. By the 19th century oil sketches referred to as "oil studies" if from this period, had become common, both as preparatory works, for their own sake; the popularity of the oil sketch engendered the need to formulate distinctions. The esquisse, or oil sketch, tended to be inspirational or imaginative originating in literature or art. In academic painting the oil sketch took the form of the croquis, a small and gestural compositional study, the ébauche, a dynamic laying-in of paint on the full-scale canvas, a temporary stage of the painting leading to greater elaboration. John Constable made extensive use of sketches for his landscapes, both of intimate scale in a sketchbook on paper, in full-scale sketches for his largest "six-footers", which he used to refine his compositions. Delacroix, Géricault and Degas are other artists who used them.
For some oil sketches Degas painted in essence, a technique by which the oil had been all but removed from the pigment, so that the artist was drawing with pure paint. Seurat made many careful small oil sketches for his larger works. However, with the advent of Impressionism, Modernism, the practice of preparatory drawing and painting tended to decline; the abandonment by many artists of a high level of detail and finish in favor of a more painterly and spontaneous approach, reduced the distinction between a detailed sketch and a finished painting. Sketches by Rubens or Tiepolo, for example, are at least as finished as many 20th century oil paintings. Many artists those working in more traditional styles, still use oil sketches today. Francis Bacon is an example of an artist who called many of his most important, largest, finished works "studies": examples are his Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion Tate Britain, or his Study from Pope Innocent X, auctioned in 2007 for $52.7 million.
Oil painting 3 page article with examples from the Courtauld Institute of Art A contemporary example with comments by the artist from Tate Britain A Rubens sketch from Vienna - the subsequent painting
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
The Fairman Rogers Four-in-Hand
The Fairman Rogers Four-in-Hand is an 1879-80 painting by Thomas Eakins. It shows Fairman Rogers driving a coaching party in his four-in-hand carriage through Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, it is thought to be the first painting to examine through systematic photographic analysis, how horses move. The Fairman Rogers Four-in-Hand is in the permanent collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Eakins taught at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where Rogers was a Board member and chairman of the Committee on Instruction. Rogers recruited Eakins back to the Academy in 1878 and commissioned the painting from his new instructor. Independently wealthy, Rogers was a civil engineer and retired professor at the University of Pennsylvania, he was an avid coaching enthusiast, founder of the Philadelphia Coaching Club and author of the still-definitive guide to the sport: A Manual of Coaching. In the painting, Eakins combined Rogers's love of science with his love of coaching. Both Rogers and Eakins admired and followed Eadweard Muybridge's ground-breaking work in photographing the movement of horses in motion.
In 1877, Muybridge published an instantaneous photograph of the racehorse "Occident", showing for the first time just when all four hooves of a galloping horse left the ground. It was taken for granted that the horse has a period of suspension in the gallop, but, as illustrated here, they thought it was in the extended phase of the stride. Muybridge demonstrated; the following year he conducted an experiment that became one of the seminal events in the history of motion pictures: Sallie Gardner at a Gallop. On June 19, 1878, at a racetrack in Palo Alto, Muybridge positioned a row of 24 cameras set close together at regular intervals, each with a trip wire crossing the track; when the racehorse "Sallie Gardner" galloped past the cameras she tripped the wires, resulting in a short but regular sequence of instantaneous photographs shot close to 1/25 of a second apart. Eakins studied Muybridge's published photographs and taught the new discoveries to his students at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
According to Eakins biographer Gordon Hendricks, seven years before Sallie Gardner was published, Rogers had attempted to photograph his own horses in motion using a camera with a shutter that opened and closed. In 1879, Muybridge invited Rogers to witness his further experiments in California — a 7-day train ride from Philadelphia — but Rogers chose to spend the summer in Newport, Rhode Island. Under Rogers's sponsorship, Muybridge moved to Philadelphia and continue his experiments at the University of Pennsylvania. Eakins visited Rogers in Newport that Summer of 1879, did visit in September, where he may have painted the sketch of Rogers driving his coach through a rocky landscape, it is believed that while in Newport that Eakins created wax models of Rogers's horses, their poses based on another set of Muybridge photographs — the "Abe Edgington" Series, showing a trotter pulling a sulky. Eakins painted individual studies of Rogers's horses both in Newport and Philadelphia. A year earlier, he dissected a horse with his Academy students, may have relied on those anatomical notes.
In the sketch, the animal's hooves are more tentative than in the finished painting. Eakins painted a replica of the sketch. Eakins set the finished painting in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, at a location just north of Memorial Hall, he populated the work with more figures and inverted the coach's direction so as to set it at a sharper angle which better showed the horses' hooves. The sketch shows one passenger and a groom; the painting shows Mr. and Mrs. Rogers, four passengers on a bench behind them and two grooms at the rear of the coach. Eakins made studies of each of the people, he worked through the winter of 1879 through to the following spring. Theodor Siegl conjectures that the landscaped background may have been the last element to be painted in as late as May 1880. Once resolved to show the horses' hooves frozen in motion, Eakins was confronted with the problem of the coach's wheels. In the sketch, he blurred the spokes of the wheels, the traditional way for artists to indicate motion, but this conflicted with his intention to show an instantaneous view of the hooves.
He seems to have gone back and forth about this — artist Joseph Pennell reported that Eakins at first "drew every spoke in the wheels, the whole affair looked as if it had been instantaneously petrified." In the end, Eakins made the same compromise of logic as in the sketch: freezing the horses' hooves, but blurring the spokes of the coach's wheels. In 1899, Eakins painted a black and white replica to be photographed as an illustration for Rogers's A Manual of Coaching. Rogers paid Eakins $500 for the painting, exhibited it at the Philadelphia Society of Artists in November 1880; the reviews were respectful, but unfavorable, noting the inconsistency between the hooves and spokes, using this point as a springboard to lecture about the superiority of Art over Science. Eakins was trying something new and while some understood and appreciated the attempt, when first exhibited the painting was not regarded as successful. According to Hilton Kramer, "... The Fairman Rogers For-In-Hand is a surpassingly dull painting...
The painting lacks. Representational accuracy, "scientific" or otherwise, was a necessary co-efficient of this moral imperative in art, but it was not itself a sufficient basis for it." Goodr