The Conquest of Granada

The Conquest of Granada is a Restoration era stage play, a two-part tragedy written by John Dryden, first acted in 1670 and 1671 and published in 1672. It is notable both as a defining example of the "heroic drama" pioneered by Dryden, as the subject of satire; the plot deals with the Spanish conquest of Granada in 1492 and the fall of Muhammad XII of Granada, the last Islamic ruler on the Iberian Peninsula. The original 1670 production by the King's Company featured Edward Kynaston as "Mahomet Boabdelin, last King of Granada," Charles Hart as Almanzor, Nell Gwyn as Alimahide, Rebecca Marshall as Lyndaraxa, Elizabeth Boutell as Bezayda, Michael Mohun as Abdemelech, William Cartwright as Abenamar, William Wintershall as Selin; the Prologue to Part 1 was spoken in the theatre by Nell Gwyn. The play was revived in the early 1690s. Dryden wrote the play in closed couplets of iambic pentameter, he proposed, in the Preface to the printed play, a new type of drama that celebrated heroic figures and actions in a meter and rhyme that emphasized the dignity of the action.

Dryden's innovation is a notable turn in poetic diction in England, as he was attempting to find an English meter and vocabulary that could correspond to the ancient Latin heroic verse structure. The closed iambic couplet is, referred to as the "heroic couplet"; as for subject matter, the hero of a heroic drama must demonstrate, Dryden said, the Classical virtues of strength and decisiveness. Inasmuch as the British Restoration stage was under attack for the licentiousness of its comedies and the example set by its lewd actresses, Dryden was attempting to turn the tide to admirable subjects; the play concerns the Battle of Granada, fought between the Moors and the Spanish, which led to the historic fall of Granada. The Spanish are kept in the background, the action concerns two factions of Moors, the Abencerrages and the Zegrys; the hero is Almanzor. He falls in love with Almahide, engaged to Boabdelin, king of the Moors, she loves him, but she will not betray her vows to Boabdelin, Boabdelin is torn between his jealousy and need for Almanzor.

Almanzor and Almahide remain separated until the death of Boabdelin in the last act, when impediments are removed and the forbearing lovers can be united. There are two other crossed love plots in the play as well. Abdalla, brother of king Boabdelin, Abdelmelich, the head of the Abencerrage faction, vie in love for the hand of Lyndaraxa, the sister of the leader of the Zegrys. Ozmyn, a young Abencerrage man, loves Benzayda, a Zegry, it turns out during the play that Almanzor is the lost son of the Duke of Arcos, a Spaniard, but he fights for the Moors out of duty. The fame of the play, the exceptional tangle of the plot, the bombast of the speeches Almanzor makes, invited satire of The Conquest of Granada by other playwrights. One example is The Rehearsal, written by George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. Henry Fielding, in Tragedy of Tragedies, or the Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great takes aim at the silliness of some of The Conquest of Granada. For example, the lofty aims expressed in the "Preface" to Fielding's play seem mismatched to the material.

"No one, not Alexander Pope, is better than Dryden at driving narrative through rhyme, but the aural effect is like that of being pelted with a succession of pellets. When, as in The Conquest of Granada, the pelting continues for ten acts, the impact is deafening." Poetic diction Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage The Rehearsal Restoration comedy for a discussion of the charges of scandal that spurred renewed seriousness Almahide Cambridge Companion Discussion

Territorial lord

A territorial lord was a ruler in the period beginning with the Early Middle Ages who, stemming from his status as being immediate, held a form of authority over a territory known as Landeshoheit. This authority gave him nearly all the attributes of sovereignty; such a lord had authority or dominion in a state or territory, but this fell short of sovereignty since as a ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, he remained subject to imperial law and supreme authority, including imperial tribunals and imperial war contributions. The territorial lord was a member of the high aristocracy or clergy, the title bearer or office holder of an existing or constituent state through the custom of primogeniture or feudal law. In the Holy Roman Empire, the lords of the individual member states, the imperial states or Reichsstände, were the territorial lords of the regions ruled by them. During the High Middle Ages, the system was further expanded as the lords began reclaiming territories and this was done by granting vassals jurisdiction over the acquired lands.

It is suggested that this development has led to the freedom of the peasants, since there were instances where they were granted freedom and, in practice, ownership of the land. The territorial lord had the rights of coinage and jurisdiction over his domain. A prerequisite for being a territorial lord was the combination of property and estate ownership, as well as sovereignty, in one person as a unified legal concept; the lords' economic domination in the Western European territories, can be demonstrated in the way ownership of the mill was vested in their hand. This ensured the dependence of the peasantry, since they were forced to grind their grains in their lord's mill. An account cited that a uniquely good phenomenon that resulted from the emergence of the territorial lords was the way they manifested claim to dominion, responsible for the thriving forests in Europe today. Based on available forest history, these forests became a foundation of political power, were thus not only subsumed within a territory but protected rather than cleared.

This was significant because it protected the great forests from the increasing appetite for wood of the emergent mining industry in Germany

(309239) 2007 RW10

2007 RW10, provisionally known as 2007 RW10, is a temporary quasi-satellite of Neptune. Observed from Neptune, it would appear to go around it during one Neptunian year but it orbits the Sun, not Neptune. 2007 RW10 was discovered by the Palomar Distant Solar System Survey on September 9, 2007, with precovery images from 1988. At the time of discovery, this minor body was believed to be a Neptune trojan, but it is no longer listed as such; the Jet Propulsion Laboratory classifies 2007 RW10 as trans-Neptunian object but the Minor Planet Center includes the object among centaurs. It moves in an orbit with an inclination of 36.2°, a semi-major axis of 30.18 AU, an eccentricity of 0.3020. Herschel-PACS observations indicate that it has a diameter of 247 km. 2007 RW10 is following a quasi-satellite loop around Neptune. It has been a quasi-satellite of Neptune for about 12,500 years and it will remain in that dynamical state for another 12,500 years. Prior to the quasi-satellite dynamical state, 2007 RW10 was an L5 trojan and it will go back to that state soon after leaving its current quasi-satellite orbit.

Its orbital inclination is the largest among known Neptune co-orbitals. It is possibly the largest known object trapped in the 1:1 mean-motion resonance with any major planet. 2007 RW10 is a dynamically hot object, unlikely to be a primordial Neptune co-orbital. It originated well beyond Neptune and was temporarily captured in the 1:1 commensurability with Neptune. 2005 TN74, suspected of being a Neptune trojan at the time of discovery MPEC 2007-X06, Minor Planet Electronic Circular 2007 RW10 Precovery Images 2007 RW10 at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters