Kenneth Mackenzie Clark, Baron Clark was a British art historian, museum director, broadcaster. After running two important art galleries in the 1930s and 1940s, he came to wider public notice on television, presenting a succession of programmes on the arts during the 1950s and 1960s, culminating in the Civilisation series in 1969; the son of rich parents, Clark was introduced to the fine arts at an early age. Among his early influences were the writings of John Ruskin, which instilled in him the belief that everyone should have access to great art. After coming under the influence of the connoisseur and dealer Bernard Berenson, Clark was appointed director of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford when he was twenty-seven, three years he was put in charge of Britain's National Gallery, his twelve years there saw the gallery transformed to make it accessible and inviting to a wider public. During the Second World War, when the collection was moved from London for safe keeping, Clark made the building available for a series of daily concerts which proved a celebrated morale booster during the Blitz.
After the war, three years as Slade Professor of Fine Art at Oxford, Clark surprised many by accepting the chairmanship of the UK's first commercial television network. Once the service had been launched he agreed to write and present programmes about the arts; these established him as a household name in Britain, he was asked to create the first colour series about the arts, first broadcast in 1969 in Britain and in many countries soon afterwards. Among many honours, Clark was knighted at the unusually young age of thirty-five, three decades was made a life peer shortly before the first transmission of Civilisation. Three decades after his death, Clark was celebrated in an exhibition at Tate Britain in London, prompting a reappraisal of his career by a new generation of critics and historians. Opinions varied about his aesthetic judgment in attributing paintings to old masters, but his skill as a writer and his enthusiasm for popularising the arts were recognised. Both the BBC and the Tate described him in retrospect as one of the most influential figures in British art of the twentieth century.
Clark was born at 32 Grosvenor Square, the only child of Kenneth Mackenzie Clark and his wife, daughter of James McArthur of Manchester. The Clarks were a Scottish family. Clark's great-great-grandfather invented the cotton spool, the Clark Thread Company of Paisley had grown into a substantial business. Kenneth Clark senior worked as a director of the firm and retired in his mid-twenties as a member of the "idle rich", as Clark junior put it: although "many people were richer, there can have been few who were idler"; the Clarks maintained country homes at Sudbourne Hall, at Ardnamurchan and wintered on the French Riviera. Kenneth senior was a gambler, an eccentric and a heavy drinker. Clark had little in common with his father. Alice Clark was shy and distant. An only child not close to his parents, the young Clark had a boyhood, solitary, but he was happy, he recalled that he used to take long walks, talking to himself, a habit he believed stood him in good stead as a broadcaster: "Television is a form of soliloquy".
On a modest scale Clark senior collected pictures, the young Kenneth was allowed to rearrange the collection. He developed a competent talent for drawing, for which he won several prizes as a schoolboy; when he was seven he was taken to an exhibition of Japanese art in London, a formative influence on his artistic tastes. Clark was educated at Wixenford School and, from 1917 to 1922, Winchester College; the latter was known for its intellectual rigour and – to Clark's dismay – enthusiasm for sports, but it encouraged its pupils to develop interests in the arts. The headmaster, Montague Rendall, was a devotee of Italian painting and sculpture, inspired Clark, among many others, to appreciate the works of Giotto, Botticelli and their compatriots; the school library contained the collected writings of John Ruskin, which Clark read avidly, which influenced him for the rest of his life, not only in their artistic judgments but in their progressive political and social beliefs. From Winchester, Clark won a scholarship to Trinity College, where he studied modern history.
He graduated in 1925 with a second-class honours degree. In the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Sir David Piper comments that Clark had been expected to gain a first-class degree, but had not applied himself single-mindedly to his historical studies: "his interests had turned conclusively to the study of art". While at Oxford, Clark was impressed by the lectures of Roger Fry, the influential art critic who staged the first Post-Impressionism exhibitions in Britain. Under Fry's influence he developed an understanding of modern French painting the work of Cézanne. Clark attracted the attention of Charles F. Bell, Keeper of the Fine Art Department of the Ashmolean Museum. Bell became a mentor to him and suggested that for his B Litt thesis Clark should write about the Gothic revival in architecture. At that time it was a unfashionable subject. Although Clark's main area of study was the Renaissance, his admiration for Ruskin, the most prominent defender of the neo-Gothic style, drew him to the topic.
He did not complete the thesis
Andries de Graeff
Free Imperial Knight Andries de Graeff was a powerful member of the Amsterdam branch of the De Graeff - family during the Dutch Golden Age. He became a mayor of Amsterdam and a powerful Amsterdam regent after the death of his older brother Cornelis de Graeff. Like him and their father Jacob Dircksz de Graeff he opposed the house of Orange. In the mid-17th century he controlled the politics. Andries de Graeff followed in his father's and brother's footsteps and, between 1657 and 1672, was appointed mayor some seven times. De Graeff was a member of a family of regents who belonged to the republican political movement referred to as the ‘state oriented’, as opposed to the Royalists. Andries was called the last regent and mayor from the dynastie of the "Graven", powerful and able enough to ruled the city of Amsterdam. De Graeff was a Free Imperial Knight of the Holy Roman Empire, an Ambachtsheer from Urk en Emmeloord, during the late 1650s chiefcouncillor of the Admiralty of Amsterdam, chieflandholder of the Watergraafsmeer and dijkgraaf van Nieuwer-Amstel.
Together with his broether Cornelis De Graeff became an illustrious Art collector. Andries de Graeff was born in Amsterdam, the third son of Jacob Dircksz de Graeff and Aaltje Boelens Loen, his older sister Agneta who married Jan Bicker, was the mother of Johan de Witts wife Wendela Bicker. After he has been finished his study in Poitiers he was married to his niece Elisabeth Bicker van Swieten, daughter of the Amsterdam Mayor Cornelis Bicker van Swieten. Both his brother Cornelis and Andries were critical of the Orange family’s influence. Together with the Republican political leader Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt, the De Graeff brothers strived for the abolition of stadtholdership, they desired the full sovereignty of the individual regions in a form in which the Republic of the United Seven Netherlands was not ruled by a single person. Instead of a sovereign the political and military power was lodged with the States General and with the regents of the cities in Holland. During the two decades the De Graeff family had a leading role in the Amsterdam administration, the city was at the peak of its political power.
This period was referred to by Republicans as the ‘Ware Vrijheid’. It was the First Stadtholderless Period which lasted from 1650 to 1672. During these twenty years, the regents from Holland and in particular those of Amsterdam, controlled the republic; the city liked to compare itself to the famous Republic of Rome. Without a stadtholder, things seemed to be going well for the Republic and its regents both politically and economically. Andries de Graeff was from 1646 a member of the vroedschap and from 1657-71 mayor seven times in the difficult times of the First Stadtholderless Period. Between 1650 and 1657 he was advisor of finances and finance minister of Holland at Den Haag. Like his brother Cornelis, their cousin Andries Bicker and Joan Huydecoper van Maarsseveen De Graeff became one of the main figures behind the building of a new city hall on the Dam, inaugurated in 1655. In 1650 he started his career as advisor in the ministerium of finances in Den Haag. After he became a minister he went back to Amsterdam, took place as a sort of chairing mayor of this city.
After the death of his brother Cornelis, De Graeff became the strong leader of the republicans. He held this position until the rampjaar, he became an advisor of the Admiralty of Amsterdam and in 1661 he was made an advisor of the States of Holland and West Friesland. In 1660 the Dutch Gift was organized by the regents Andries and his brother Cornelis; the sculptures for the gift were selected by the pre-eminent sculptor in the Netherlands, Artus Quellinus, Gerrit van Uylenburgh, the son of Rembrandt's dealer Hendrick van Uylenburgh, advised the States-General on the purchase. The Dutch Gift was a collection of 28 Italian Renaissance paintings and 12 classical sculptures, along with a yacht, the Mary, furniture, presented to King Charles II of England by the States-General of the Netherlands in 1660. Most of the paintings and all the Roman sculptures were from the Reynst collection, the most important seventeenth-century Dutch collection of paintings of the Italian sixteenth century, formed in Venice by Jan Reynst and extended by his brother, Gerrit Reynst.
The collection was given to Charles II to mark his return to power in the English Restoration, before which Charles had spent many years in exile in the Dutch Republic during the rule of the English Commonwealth. It was intended to strengthen diplomatic relations between England and the Republic, but only a few years after the gift the two nations would be at war again in the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–67. In 1667 De Graeff was one of the "sponsors" of the Perpetual Edict, a resolution of the States of Holland in which they abolished the office of Stadtholder in the province of Holland. At the same time a majority of provinces in the States-General of the Netherlands agreed to declare the office of stadtholder incompatible with the office of Captain general of the Dutch Republic; the Republic was in a dangerous position and war with France and England seemed imminent. The call for the return of a strong military leader from the Orange family was gaining momentum among commoners. A number of Amsterdam regents had started to realise that they needed to seek rapprochement with the Orangists.
This put increasing pressure on Grand Pensionary Johan de Witts position. In 1670, the Amsterdamse Vroedschap l
Otto van Veen
Otto van Veen known by his Latinized name Otto Venius or Octavius Vaenius, was a painter and humanist active in Antwerp and Brussels in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century. He is known for running a large studio in Antwerp, producing several emblem books, for being, from 1594 or 1595 until 1598, Peter Paul Rubens's teacher, his role as a classically educated humanist artist, reflected in the Latin name by which he is known, Octavius Vaenius, was influential on the young Rubens, who would take on that role himself. Van Veen was born around 1556 in Leiden, where his father, Cornelis Jansz. van Veen, had been Burgomaster. He was a pupil of Isaac Claesz van Swanenburg until October 1572, when the Catholic family moved to Antwerp, to Liège, he studied for a time under Dominicus Lampsonius and Jean Ramey, before traveling to Rome around 1574 or 1575. He stayed there for about five years studying with Federico Zuccari. Carel van Mander relates that van Veen worked at the courts of Rudolf II in Prague and William V of Bavaria in Munich, before returning to the Low Countries.
In Brussels, he was court painter to the governor of the Southern Netherlands, Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma until 1592, active in Antwerp. After becoming a master in the Guild of St. Luke in 1593, van Veen took numerous commissions for church decorations, including altarpieces for the Antwerp cathedral and a chapel in the city hall, he organized his studio and workshop, which included Rubens. Van Veen's connection to Brussels remained and when Archduke Ernest of Austria became governor in 1594, he may have aided the archduke in acquiring important Netherlandish paintings by the likes of Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder; the artist served as dean in two prominent organizations in the city, the Guild of St. Luke in 1602, the Romanists in 1606. In the seventeenth century, van Veen worked for the Archdukes Albert and Isabella, but never as their court painter. Paintings include a series of twelve paintings depicting the battles of the Romans and the Batavians, based on engravings he had published of the subject, for the Dutch States General.
He had two brothers. His daughter Gertruid was a painter, he was the uncle of three pastellists, Pieter's children, Apollonia and Jacobus, he died in Brussels. Arnold Houbraken considered Van Veen to be the most impressive artist and scholar of his day and put his portrait on the title print of his three volume book De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen. Van Veen was active in producing Emblem books, including Quinti Horatii Flacci emblemata, Amorum emblemata, Amoris divini emblemata. In all these works, van Veen's skills as an artist and learned humanist are on display; the Amorum emblemata, for example, pictures 124 putti, or little cupids, enacting the mottoes and quotations from lyricists and ancient writers on the powers of Love. About van Veen's emblems Tina Montone has written, "In the course of the seventeenth century the Amorum emblemata was to become one of the most influential books of its time, functioning not only as a model for other Dutch and foreign emblem books, but as a source of inspiration for many artists in other fields."
Some of these emblems are as relevant today. A few examples of these mottoes read: "A Wished Warre: The woundes that lovers give are willingly receaved..." He depicts two Cupids exchanging arrows. Another example familiar to us today as the story of The Tortoise and the Hare, is titled "Perseverance winneth: The hare and the tortes layd a wager of their speed..." shows us a cupid and tortoise outpacing the hare and exemplifying the idea that the love, steady and constant will win the race. Emblem Project Utrecht – 3 editions of emblem books by Otto van Veen Amorum Emblemata on Internet Archive. Vita D. Thomae Aquinatis a manuscript by Kristin Lohse: Rubens. Phaidon Press, 1998. ISBN 0-7148-3412-2. Bertini, Giuseppe: "Otto van Veen, Cosimo Masi and the Art Market in Antwerp at the End of the Sixteenth Century." Burlington Magazine vol. 140, no. 1139. Pp. 119–120. Montone, Tina, "'Dolci ire, dolci sdegni, e dolci paci': The Role of the Italian Collaborator in the Making of Otto Vaenius's Amorum Emblemata," in Alison Adams and Marleen van der Weij, Emblems of the Low Countries: A Book Historical Perspective.
Glasgow Emblem Studies, vol. 8. Glasgow: University of Glasgow, 2003. P.47. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, Otto van Veen's Batavians defeating the Roman Van de Velde, Carl: "Veen, Otto van" Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press. Entry at the Netherlands Institute for Art History Veen, Otto van. Amorum Emblemata... Emblemes of Love, with verses in Latin and Italian. Antwerp: Venalia apud Auctorem, 1608. Media related to Otto van Veen at Wikimedia Commons Othonis Vaenii emblemata
Chiaroscuro, in art, is the use of strong contrasts between light and dark bold contrasts affecting a whole composition. It is a technical term used by artists and art historians for the use of contrasts of light to achieve a sense of volume in modelling three-dimensional objects and figures. Similar effects in cinema and photography are called chiaroscuro. Further specialized uses of the term include chiaroscuro woodcut for coloured woodcuts printed with different blocks, each using a different coloured ink; the underlying principle is that solidity of form is best achieved by the light falling against it. Artists known for developing the technique include Leonardo da Vinci and Rembrandt, it is a mainstay of black and white and low-key photography. It is one of the modes of painting colour in Renaissance art. Artists well-known for their use of chiaroscuro include Rembrandt, Caravaggio and Goya; the term chiaroscuro originated during the Renaissance as drawing on coloured paper, where the artist worked from the paper's base tone toward light using white gouache, toward dark using ink, bodycolour or watercolour.
These in turn drew on traditions in illuminated manuscripts going back to late Roman Imperial manuscripts on purple-dyed vellum. Such works are called "chiaroscuro drawings", but may only be described in modern museum terminology by such formulae as "pen on prepared paper, heightened with white bodycolour". Chiaroscuro woodcuts began as imitations of this technique; when discussing Italian art, the term sometimes is used to mean painted images in monochrome or two colours, more known in English by the French equivalent, grisaille. The term broadened in meaning early on to cover all strong contrasts in illumination between light and dark areas in art, now the primary meaning; the more technical use of the term chiaroscuro is the effect of light modelling in painting, drawing, or printmaking, where three-dimensional volume is suggested by the value gradation of colour and the analytical division of light and shadow shapes—often called "shading". The invention of these effects in the West, "skiagraphia" or "shadow-painting" to the Ancient Greeks, traditionally was ascribed to the famous Athenian painter of the fifth century BC, Apollodoros.
Although few Ancient Greek paintings survive, their understanding of the effect of light modelling still may be seen in the late-fourth-century BC mosaics of Pella, Macedonia, in particular the Stag Hunt Mosaic, in the House of the Abduction of Helen, inscribed gnosis epoesen, or'knowledge did it'. The technique survived in rather crude standardized form in Byzantine art and was refined again in the Middle Ages to become standard by the early fifteenth-century in painting and manuscript illumination in Italy and Flanders, spread to all Western art. According to the theory of the art historian Marcia B. Hall, which has gained considerable acceptance, chiaroscuro is one of four modes of painting colours available to Italian High Renaissance painters, along with cangiante and unione; the Raphael painting illustrated, with light coming from the left, demonstrates both delicate modelling chiaroscuro to give volume to the body of the model, strong chiaroscuro in the more common sense, in the contrast between the well-lit model and the dark background of foliage.
To further complicate matters, the compositional chiaroscuro of the contrast between model and background would not be described using this term, as the two elements are completely separated. The term is used to describe compositions where at least some principal elements of the main composition show the transition between light and dark, as in the Baglioni and Geertgen tot Sint Jans paintings illustrated above and below. Chiaroscuro modelling is now taken for granted, but it has had some opponents, her Majesty... chose her place to sit for that purpose in the open alley of a goodly garden, where no tree was near, nor any shadow at all..."In drawings and prints, modelling chiaroscuro is achieved by the use of hatching, or shading by parallel lines. Washes, stipple or dotting effects, "surface tone" in printmaking are other techniques. Chiaroscuro woodcuts are old master prints in woodcut using two or more blocks printed in different colours, they were first produced to achieve similar effects to chiaroscuro drawings.
After some early experiments in book-printing, the true chiaroscuro woodcut conceived for two blocks was first invented by Lucas Cranach the Elder in Germany in 1508 or 1509, though he backdated some of his first prints and added tone blocks to some prints first produced for monochrome printing, swiftly followed by Hans Burgkmair the Elder. Despite Vasari's claim for Italian precedence in Ugo da Carpi, it is clear that his, the first Italian examples, date to around 1516 But other sources suggest, the first chiaroscuro woodcut to be the Triumph of Julius Caesar, created by Andrea Mantegna, an Italian painter, between 1470 and 1500. Another view states that: "Lucas Cranach backdated two of his works in an attempt to grab the glory" and that the technique was invented "in all probability" by Burgkmair "who was commissioned by the emperor Maximilian to find a c
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, safflower oil; the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use several different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired; the paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium. The oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Although oil paint was first used for Buddhist paintings by painters in western Afghanistan sometime between the fifth and tenth centuries, it did not gain popularity until the 15th century, its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages. Oil paint became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became known.
The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in Northern Europe, by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had completely replaced the use of tempera paints in the majority of Europe. In recent years, water miscible. Water-soluble paints are either engineered or an emulsifier has been added that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, allows, when sufficiently diluted fast drying times when compared with traditional oils. Traditional oil painting techniques begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint. Oil paint is mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is'fat over lean', meaning that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the final painting will peel; this rule does not ensure permanence.
There are many other media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax and varnishes. These additional media can aid the painter in adjusting the translucency of the paint, the sheen of the paint, the density or'body' of the paint, the ability of the paint to hold or conceal the brushstroke; these aspects of the paint are related to the expressive capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the painting surface using paintbrushes, but there are other methods, including using palette knives and rags. Oil paint remains wet longer than many other types of artists' materials, enabling the artist to change the color, texture or form of the figure. At times, the painter might remove an entire layer of paint and begin anew; this can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, but after a while the hardened layer must be scraped. Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, is dry to the touch within a span of two weeks, it is dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year.
Although the history of tempera and related media in Europe indicates that oil painting was discovered there independently, there is evidence that oil painting was used earlier in Afghanistan. Outdoor surfaces and surfaces like shields—both those used in tournaments and those hung as decorations—were more durable when painted in oil-based media than when painted in the traditional tempera paints. Most Renaissance sources, in particular Vasari, credited northern European painters of the 15th century, Jan van Eyck in particular, with the "invention" of painting with oil media on wood panel supports. However, Theophilus gives instructions for oil-based painting in his treatise, On Various Arts, written in 1125. At this period, it was used for painting sculptures and wood fittings especially for outdoor use. However, early Netherlandish painting with artists like Van Eyck and Robert Campin in the 15th century were the first to make oil the usual painting medium, explore the use of layers and glazes, followed by the rest of Northern Europe, only Italy.
Early works were still panel paintings on wood, but around the end of the 15th century canvas became more popular as the support, as it was cheaper, easier to transport, allowed larger works, did not require complicated preliminary layers of gesso. Venice, where sail-canvas was available, was a leader in the move to canvas. Small cabinet paintings were made on metal copper plates; these supports were more expensive but firm, allowing intricately fine detail. Printing plates from printmaking were reused for this purpose; the popularity of oil spread through Italy from the North, starting in Venice in the late 15th century. By 1540, the previous method for painting on panel had become all but extinct, although Italians continued to use chalk-based fresco for wall paintings, less successful and durable in damper northern climates; the linseed oil itself comes from a common fiber crop. Linen, a "support" for oil painting comes from the flax plant. Safflower oil or the walnut or poppyseed oil are sometimes used in formulating lighter colors li
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was a Dutch draughtsman and printmaker. An innovative and prolific master in three media, he is considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art and the most important in Dutch art history. Unlike most Dutch masters of the 17th century, Rembrandt's works depict a wide range of style and subject matter, from portraits and self-portraits to landscapes, genre scenes and historical scenes and mythological themes as well as animal studies, his contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age, when Dutch art, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was prolific and innovative, gave rise to important new genres. Like many artists of the Dutch Golden Age, such as Jan Vermeer of Delft, Rembrandt was an avid art collector and dealer. Rembrandt never went abroad, but he was influenced by the work of the Italian masters and Netherlandish artists who had studied in Italy, like Pieter Lastman, the Utrecht Caravaggists, Flemish Baroque Peter Paul Rubens.
Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. Rembrandt's portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible are regarded as his greatest creative triumphs, his self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity. Rembrandt's foremost contribution in the history of printmaking was his transformation of the etching process from a new reproductive technique into a true art form, along with Jacques Callot, his reputation as the greatest etcher in the history of the medium was established in his lifetime and never questioned since. Few of his paintings left the Dutch Republic whilst he lived, but his prints were circulated throughout Europe, his wider reputation was based on them alone.
In his works he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience. Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization"; the French sculptor Auguste Rodin said, "Compare me with Rembrandt! What sacrilege! With Rembrandt, the colossus of Art! We should prostrate ourselves before Rembrandt and never compare anyone with him!" Vincent van Gogh wrote, "Rembrandt goes so deep into the mysterious that he says things for which there are no words in any language. It is with justice that they call Rembrandt—magician—that's no easy occupation." Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on 15 July 1606 in Leiden, in the Dutch Republic, now the Netherlands. He was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuijtbrouck, his family was quite well-to-do. Religion is a central theme in Rembrandt's paintings and the religiously fraught period in which he lived makes his faith a matter of interest.
His mother was Roman Catholic, his father belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church. While his work reveals deep Christian faith, there is no evidence that Rembrandt formally belonged to any church, although he had five of his children christened in Dutch Reformed churches in Amsterdam: four in the Oude Kerk and one, Titus, in the Zuiderkerk; as a boy he attended Latin school. At the age of 14, he was enrolled at the University of Leiden, although according to a contemporary he had a greater inclination towards painting. After a brief but important apprenticeship of six months with the painter Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam, Rembrandt stayed a few months with Jacob Pynas and started his own workshop, though Simon van Leeuwen claimed that Joris van Schooten taught Rembrandt in Leiden. Unlike many of his contemporaries who traveled to Italy as part of their artistic training, Rembrandt never left the Dutch Republic during his lifetime, he opened a studio in Leiden in 1625, which he shared with friend and colleague Jan Lievens.
In 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou in 1628. In 1629, Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens, who procured for Rembrandt important commissions from the court of The Hague; as a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646. At the end of 1631 Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam rapidly expanding as the new business capital of the Netherlands, began to practice as a professional portraitist for the first time, with great success, he stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburgh, in 1634, married Hendrick's cousin, Saskia van Uylenburgh. Saskia came from a good family: her father had been a lawyer and the burgemeester of Leeuwarden; when Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan, she lived with an older sister in Het Bildt. Rembrandt and Saskia were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of Rembrandt's relatives. In the same
The Westerkerk is a Reformed church within Dutch Protestant church in central Amsterdam, Netherlands. It lies in the most western part of the Grachtengordel neighborhood, next to the Jordaan, between the Prinsengracht and Keizersgracht; the Westerkerk was built between 1620 and 1631 in Renaissance style according to designs by architect Hendrick de Keyser. He is buried in the church he designed earlier: the'Zuiderkerk'; the building of the Westerkerk was finished and completed by his son Pieter de Keyser and inaugurated on June 8, 1631. The church has a width of 29 meters; the high nave is flanked by the two lower aisles. The three-aisled basilica has a rectangular plan with two transepts of equal dimensions; as a result, the plan for this church was given the form of two Greek crosses connected with each other.. Several older churches in Amsterdam, such as Oude Kerk and Nieuwe Kerk, were built before the Reformation and were converted to Protestantism during the Reformation in 1578; the Westerkerk was one of the first purposely built Protestant churches.
The Noorderkerk and Zuiderkerk preceded the Westerkerk. Today the Westerkerk remains the largest church in the Netherlands, built for Protestants, is still in use by the PKN There was no organ when the Westerkerk was consecrated on Whit Sunday the 8th of June in 1631. According to Calvinism, playing instrumental music inside the church was still considered'profane' in those days, it took many years of consultation until an organ was allowed. At first there was still talk of moving the small organ used in the Nieuwe- or the'Oudekerk' but the pipes of this'Oudekerk' choir organ were moved to the'Zuiderkerk'. In 1681 the Westerkerk decided on commissioning organ builder Roelof Barentszn Duyschot for the construction of a new organ. Before it was finished he died and in 1686 the new organ was finished by his son Johannes Duyschot. In 1727 it was enlarged with an extra third keyboard by Christiaan Vater who learned his profession at Arp Schnitger. Many alterations were done on the organ in the course of time.
In the 19th century in 1895 a rebuild of the inside of the organ took place by Daniel Gerard Steenkuyl. Lucky enough many of the old pipes and the wind chests were re used. In 1939, the keyboard was equipped with electric tracker action and a swell work was added, it was not what this organ was intended to be in action. The organ was doubled in size, but was too big for its case. So between 1989 and 1992 the organ was reconstructed by Flentrop organ builders in Zaandam to its former mechanical action again more or less like Christiaan Vater made it in 1727. Today the'bovenwerk' is still complete with stops by Vater. An exception is the'baarpyp', made by Steenkuyl in 1896 and the'Dulciaan', made by Flentrop in 1992; the front pipes were made in 1842 by Hermanus Knipscheer. In the situation after 1992, less than half of the pipes are historic and re-used in the'hoofdwerk' and the'Rugwerk'; the keyboards and stop triggers beside it of this just mechanical baroque organ are located in the main case behind this'rugwerk'.
For this kind of baroque organs, it is characteristic that many of the stops the principals, are doubled in the trebles. This was set up to create more power in leading the congregation in their psalm singing. For complex organ works one or two stop assistants are necessary for triggering these stops. In the summer season from April till the end of October there is a weekly free lunchtime concert on Friday at 1pm. In August there is a free concert every day for a week'Geen dag zonder Bach' and the'Grachten' festival. A noncommittal money collection is held after the concert at the exit; the money is used for the costs of the maintenance of the organs. Music by Johann Sebastian Bach is performed weekly in the divine Sunday services. Bach was born in 1685, a year before the organ was finished but as far as we know, he never visited Amsterdam, his music sounds. See the site of Westerkerk for the Lunchtime concert schedule. Organist/choirmaster in the Westerkerk is Jos van der Kooy. Couplers and shutters: Shutters for all manuals and pedals.
Couplers: I/II, II/I, III/II, I/P, II/P, III/P Td = Treble is doubled The inside of the organ shutters of the'hoofdwerk' was painted by Gerard de Lairesse. On the left panel we see the dancing and playing King David in front of the Ark of the Covenant. On the right panel we see the Queen of Sheba presenting gifts to King Solomon. Both stories in the book of Kings in the old testament of the Bible. Gerard de Lairesse was born in Liège in French Belgium in 1640 and he moved to Amsterdam in 1664. In the second half of the 17th Century, he was one of the most popular painters in the Netherlands. At this moment, the shutters of the Duyschot organ can be seen on a retrospective of the work of Gerard de Lairesse at the National Museum Twente in Enschede; the outside paintings of these panels or shutters were lost in the 19th century when the church wanted to sell them. The grisailles on the'rugwerk' panels were painted by Gerard de Lairesse; the inside of the'rugwerk' shutters have paintings of old musical instruments.
The complete organ was cleaned and re-painted in 1992 in its original state of colour in 1686. The small organ on the east side of the church was built