The Plus 15 or +15 Skyway network in Calgary, Canada, is one of the world's most extensive pedestrian skywalk systems, with a total length of 18 kilometres and 62 bridges. The system is so named because the skywalks are 15 feet above street level; the system was conceived and designed by architect Harold Hanen, who worked for the Calgary Planning Department from 1966 to 1969. This development earned him the 1970 Vincent Massey Award for Merit in Urban Planning. Opening in 1970, the +15 network has expanded to include 59 enclosed bridges connecting dozens of downtown Calgary buildings; the central core of the system is a series of enclosed shopping centres, the city's flagship department stores. New developments were required to connect to the walkway system; when not physically able to connect to nearby buildings, developers contribute to the "Plus 15 Fund", managed by the city, used to finance other missing connections. The system has been identified with a decline in street life in the Downtown Commercial Core.
Street life is instead concentrated in neighbourhoods where there are no bridges. In 1998, the city began to re-evaluate the system. Part of the goal of these studies was reinvigorating decreased daytime street life on some downtown streets; the possibility of limiting expansion to encourage more pedestrian street traffic was raised. The system's bridges are integral to the buildings. City planning by-laws now confer tax credits to owners. Businesses and the general public make extensive use of the system's enhanced flow of human traffic; the Plus 15 is one of the central plot elements in the 2000 film Waydowntown, directed by Gary Burns. List of attractions and landmarks in Calgary Skyway Edmonton Pedway Underground City, Montreal PATH City of Calgary PDF Map +15 Map with iPhone app +15 Ninja - Directions, Meetups & Directory
Wi-Fi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. Wi‑Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance, which restricts the use of the term Wi-Fi Certified to products that complete after many years of testing the 802.11 committee interoperability certification testing. Devices that can use Wi-Fi technologies include, among others and laptops, video game consoles and tablets, smart TVs, digital audio players, digital cameras and drones. Wi-Fi compatible devices can connect to the Internet via a wireless access point; such an access point has a range of about 20 meters indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or as large as many square kilometres achieved by using multiple overlapping access points. Different versions of Wi-Fi exist, with radio bands and speeds. Wi-Fi most uses the 2.4 gigahertz UHF and 5 gigahertz SHF ISM radio bands. Each channel can be time-shared by multiple networks.
These wavelengths work best for line-of-sight. Many common materials absorb or reflect them, which further restricts range, but can tend to help minimise interference between different networks in crowded environments. At close range, some versions of Wi-Fi, running on suitable hardware, can achieve speeds of over 1 Gbit/s. Anyone within range with a wireless network interface controller can attempt to access a network. Wi-Fi Protected Access is a family of technologies created to protect information moving across Wi-Fi networks and includes solutions for personal and enterprise networks. Security features of WPA have included stronger protections and new security practices as the security landscape has changed over time. In 1971, ALOHAnet connected the Hawaiian Islands with a UHF wireless packet network. ALOHAnet and the ALOHA protocol were early forerunners to Ethernet, the IEEE 802.11 protocols, respectively. A 1985 ruling by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission released the ISM band for unlicensed use.
These frequency bands are the same ones used by equipment such as microwave ovens and are subject to interference. In 1991, NCR Corporation with AT&T Corporation invented the precursor to 802.11, intended for use in cashier systems, under the name WaveLAN. The Australian radio-astronomer Dr John O'Sullivan with his colleagues Terence Percival, Graham Daniels, Diet Ostry, John Deane developed a key patent used in Wi-Fi as a by-product of a Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation research project, "a failed experiment to detect exploding mini black holes the size of an atomic particle". Dr O'Sullivan and his colleagues are credited with inventing Wi-Fi. In 1992 and 1996, CSIRO obtained patents for a method used in Wi-Fi to "unsmear" the signal; the first version of the 802.11 protocol was released in 1997, provided up to 2 Mbit/s link speeds. This was updated in 1999 with 802.11b to permit 11 Mbit/s link speeds, this proved to be popular. In 1999, the Wi-Fi Alliance formed as a trade association to hold the Wi-Fi trademark under which most products are sold.
Wi-Fi uses a large number of patents held by many different organizations. In April 2009, 14 technology companies agreed to pay CSIRO $1 billion for infringements on CSIRO patents; this led to Australia labeling Wi-Fi as an Australian invention, though this has been the subject of some controversy. CSIRO won a further $220 million settlement for Wi-Fi patent-infringements in 2012 with global firms in the United States required to pay the CSIRO licensing rights estimated to be worth an additional $1 billion in royalties. In 2016, the wireless local area network Test Bed was chosen as Australia's contribution to the exhibition A History of the World in 100 Objects held in the National Museum of Australia; the name Wi-Fi, commercially used at least as early as August 1999, was coined by the brand-consulting firm Interbrand. The Wi-Fi Alliance had hired Interbrand to create a name, "a little catchier than'IEEE 802.11b Direct Sequence'." Phil Belanger, a founding member of the Wi-Fi Alliance who presided over the selection of the name "Wi-Fi", has stated that Interbrand invented Wi-Fi as a pun on the word hi-fi, a term for high-quality audio technology.
Interbrand created the Wi-Fi logo. The yin-yang Wi-Fi logo indicates the certification of a product for interoperability; the Wi-Fi Alliance used the advertising slogan "The Standard for Wireless Fidelity" for a short time after the brand name was created. While inspired by the term hi-fi, the name was never "Wireless Fidelity"; the Wi-Fi Alliance was called the "Wireless Fidelity Alliance Inc" in some publications. Non-Wi-Fi technologies intended for fixed points, such as Motorola Canopy, are described as fixed wireless. Alternative wireless technologies include mobile phone standards, such as 2G, 3G, 4G, LTE; the name is sometimes written as WiFi, Wifi, or wifi, but these are not approved by the Wi-Fi Alliance. IEEE is a separate, but related organization and their website has stated "WiFi is a short name for Wireless Fidelity". To connect to a Wi-Fi LAN, a computer has to be equipped with a wireless network interface controller; the combination of computer and interface controllers is called a station.
A service set is the set of all the devices associated with a particular Wi-Fi network. The service set can be local, extended or mesh; each service set has an associated identifier, the 32-byte Service Set Identifier, which identifies the partic
Baitun Nur Mosque
Baitun Nur is a mosque of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in the Castleridge community of Calgary, Alberta. It is known for being the largest mosque in Canada, it is estimated that there are about 3,000 members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Calgary, which would make it the largest mosque in North America. The cornerstone of the mosque was laid in 2005. Construction was completed in 2008 for an estimated self-funded cost of C$15 million, with C$8 million of that coming from local Ahmadi Calgarians. Baitun Nur had its grand opening to the public on July 5, 2008, with 5000 people in attendance, including dignitaries such as Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Opposition Leader Stéphane Dion, Calgary Mayor Dave Bronconnier; the Roman Catholic Bishop of Calgary, Fred Henry, attended as well. Mirza Masroor Ahmad, the supreme head of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, oversaw the opening. While members of various faiths were invited, according to Kaufman of the Edmonton Sun, the Sunni Muslim group Islamic Supreme Council of Canada, led by Syed Soharwardy, was not invited, due to its belief that Ahmadiyya Muslims are not "real" Muslims, did not consider Baitun Nur a "mosque."Praise for the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community came from attendees, including Harper, who said "Calgarians and Canadians will see the moderate, benevolent face of Islam in this mosque and the people who worship here."
According to Embassy magazine, regarding Harper's remarks, a governing party insider said "It's an important signal the prime minister is sending, not just to militant Islamists abroad, but to their sympathizers here at home, that he's prepared to ignore them and side with persecuted minorities within the faith." The mosque complex is 4,500 m2 in size. A 97 feet tall steel-capped minaret tower and large steel dome are the most noticeably externally visible features of the mosque. Around the exterior of the building are written 99 Arabic words, each an attribute of Allah's character as stated in the Qur'an. In addition to a place of worship in Calgary, the mosque complex includes classrooms, office space, a children's area, a kitchen and a community centre. In the prayer hall of the mosque hangs a 400-kilogram chandelier that cost $50,000. Baitun Nur is the seventh Ahmadiyya mosque by Naseer Ahmad. Manu Chugh Architects. List of mosques in Canada Official site of Baitunnur Mosque
The Glenbow Museum is an art and history museum in the city of Calgary, Canada. It was established by philanthropist Eric Lafferty Harvie; the Glenbow-Alberta Institute was formed in 1966, when Eric Harvie donated his vast historical collection to the people of Alberta. It was funded by $5 million each from Harvie and the Alberta government. Located in downtown Calgary across from the Calgary Tower, the Institute maintains the Glenbow, open to the public, which houses not only its museum collections, but a extensive art collection and archives. In 2007, a permanent exhibit entitled Mavericks opened on the third floor; as of 2013, the president and CEO is Donna Livingstone Vice President of Programs and Exhibitions and a member of the Board of Directors. Former presidents and CEOs include Jeff Spalding; the Glenbow archives are one of Canada's largest non-governmental repositories and a major research centre for historians, students and the media. They comprise an large collection of archival records of individuals, families and businesses from Western Canada and includes 3,500 metres of textual records, over a million photographs, 350 hours of film footage, 1,500 sound recordings.
The archives range from the 1870s to the 1990s, documenting the social and economic history of Western Canada Calgary and southern Alberta. Areas of specialty include First Nations, Métis genealogy, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and agriculture, the petroleum industry, labour and business. Unique collections in the archives include catalogs, records of land sales by the Canadian Pacific Railway, school yearbooks, extensive genealogical resources, an excellent collection of resources for the study of Métis genealogy; the Glenbow's art collection comprises 33,000 works dating from the 19th century to the present historical and contemporary work from or pertaining to the northwest of North America. The collection contains a selection of landscape painting, a Canadian prints collection including works from Walter J. Phillips and modernist printmaker Sybil Andrews, First Nations and Inuit Art, American illustration, wildlife Art. Works from other parts of the world provide a broader international frame of reference.
Selected works The Glenbow's library contains 100,000 books, newspapers and pamphlets with relevance to Western Canada, from the time buffalo roamed the plains, to the coming of the railroad and settlement of the West, to political and social events in Alberta today. The collection includes rare illustrated equestrian literature from the 15th century, school books from one-room school houses, numerous volumes and other material related to the museum's collections of military history, ethnology and art; the museum's collection includes artifacts from Western Canada, various other cultures around the world. In addition, the museum houses a collection of minerals; the museum's Community History collection includes a number of artifacts, exploring the lives of southern Albertans from 1880 to 1970. The collection includes important holdings of Albertan pottery, Western Canadian folk studies, northern explorations, pressed glass, textiles; the museum sorts its Community History collection in the following manner and Ceremonial Life, Daily Life, Ethnic Cultures and Play, Work and Industry.
The collection contains over 100,000 objects originating from many corners of the world, providing insight into the life in Western Canada from the late 19th century to the present day. Included in the Community History collection are artifacts from the Doukhobor and Hutterite communities of Western Canada, the Calgary Stampede; the museum holds several items from the search parties for Franklin's lost expedition. Several items from this collection are featured in the Mavericks: An Incorrigible History of Alberta exhibition; the permanent exhibit tells the history of Alberta through the stories of 48 individuals, or "mavericks". The Military and Mounted Police collection includes an extensive collection of artifacts relating to Canadian military history, with an emphasis on southern Alberta. In addition, the museum's collection includes a number of European and Japanese armour and firearms and other weapons from around the world; the Military and Mounted Police collection has been sorted into the following categories and Armour, Canada at War, Famous People and Battles and Mounted Police.
The Arms and Armour portion of the collection features a number of European and Japanese arms and armour. In particular, the museum's collection of Japanese armour and arms is the largest collection of its kind in Canada; the collection sorted under Canada at War focuses on the role of Canada, Alberta, during the North-West Rebellion, World War I, World War II, the Korean War. The Mounted Police section includes a number of artifacts relating to the development of the North-West Mounted Police, its successor, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police; the Glenbow's military collection is the most diverse in Western Canada, with 26,000 items. This includes 2,100 firearms, ranging from the 16th century to present day, in the Firearms section of the Military and Mounted Police collection. Most of the artifacts from the museum's Famous People and Battles section were artifacts acquired from the Royal United Services Institute. In June 2008, the Glenbow Museum and the University of Alberta acquired a number of artifacts from Sam Steele, an officer of the
Bow River pathway
The Bow River pathway is a pathway system developed along the banks of the Bow River in the city of Calgary. It contains a network of bicycle paths connecting parks on both sides of the river; the pathway is used for cycling, jogging, as well as rollerblading and skateboarding. The paths are connected with a system that extends along the Elbow River and other areas of the city; the network spans 48 kilometres from Bearspaw Dam to Fish Creek Provincial Park, connecting major parks and green areas in Calgary. Construction of the Bow River Pathways started in 1975 to mark the city's centenary; the project was funded by the City of Calgary, the Province of Alberta and the Devonian Group of Charitable Foundations. It was dedicated on June 25, 1977. Recreation areas connected by the pathway include: List of attractions and landmarks in Calgary City of Calgary. Pathways and Bikeways
The Calgary Zoo is located in Bridgeland, Alberta, just east of the city's downtown and adjacent to the Inglewood and East Village neighborhoods. It is accessible via Calgary's C-Train light rail system, by car via Memorial Drive, by bicycle and footpath via the Bow River pathway. A large portion of the zoo is located on St. George's Island in the Bow River; the zoo is operated by the Calgary Zoological Society, an independent not-for-profit organization, Alberta's oldest registered charity. The AZA, WAZA, CAZA accredited zoo was among the first in Canada to be accredited by all three associations, it is home to over 1,000 animals, excluding individual fish and insects, 272 different species. The 120-acre zoo is organized by into six distinct zones: Destination Africa, Canadian Wilds, Penguin Plunge, Dorothy Harvie Botanical Gardens and ENMAX Conservatory and Prehistoric Park; the zoo is open every day except for Christmas Day. As Canada's most visited zoo, Calgary Zoo was in 2015 recognized by TripAdvisor with its Travellers' Choice Award.
The zoo has received international recognition as one of the top zoos in the world for conservation research. In 2013, the Association of Zoos and Aquariums said "the Calgary Zoo sets itself apart as one of the top zoos in the world." In 2015 the zoo was named one of the top three most respected organizations in Alberta and one of Alberta's 10 most beloved brands. St. George's Island was Calgary's first park, used by the community for picnics and socializing; the first collection of animals appeared on the island in 1917. The Calgary Zoological Society was established in 1929. Several animals died during floods in June 1929. Destination Africa opened in 2003 to include two new facilities The TransAlta Rain Forest and the African Savannah; the zoo opened Penguin Plunge, an Arctic/Antarctic penguin addition in 2012. In April 2013, the Calgary Zoo announced a master plan for rebuilding the zoo over 20 years; the initial focus on the master plan was preparing for the arrival of two giant pandas in 2018 for a five-year stay.
The Calgary area suffered extensive flooding in June 2013 resulting in over $50 million in damage to the island section of the Calgary Zoo and parts of its Canadian Wild zone. In a 12-hour period, with flood waters rising, zoo staff managed to move 140 animals to higher ground. In the end, the only animals lost were a number of fish, two peacocks, a pot-bellied pig; the zoo was closed for most of July 2013. The zoo reopened in November 2013 with new animals and features unveiled in 2014, including mandrills and Komodo dragons. One third of the zoo's 130 species are cared for within Species Survival Plans, a global initiative to protect at-risk genetic diversity. Twenty-nine species at the zoo are in danger of extinction. Other species are considered "ambassadors" for endangered species; the Calgary Zoo uses a team of educators including animal keepers, interpreters and volunteers to increase awareness among visitors about the beauty of nature and threats to wildlife. Each year the zoo's formal programs connect directly with children.
The Calgary Zoo is home to a team of biologists who have earned international recognition as North America's leaders in the science of species recovery and reintroduction. The prestigious science journal Nature rates the Calgary Zoo as one of the top five zoos in the world for conservation research, alongside New York, San Diego and London. In June 2012, the head of the Calgary Zoo's Centre for Conservation Research, Dr. Axel Moehrenschlager, was awarded the Canadian Wildlife Federation's Roland Michener Conservation Award which recognizes individuals who have shown a commitment to "promote and further the conservation of Canada's natural resources". Dr. Moehrenschlager is chair of the Reintroduction Specialist Group within the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, the world's largest conservation network, he is the first North American to hold this position. The zoo focused on saving eight endangered Western Canada species: whooping crane, Vancouver Island marmot, swift fox, black-footed ferret, black-tailed prairie dog, burrowing owl, northern leopard frog and greater sage grouse.
It works on conservation projects around the world, including: Wechiau Community Hippo Sanctuary, Ghana Snow leopards in Central Asia, Gorillas in the Democratic Republic of CongoIn 2008, the zoo's Wechiau Community Hippo Sanctuary project, a collaboration involving 17 Ghana villages, was awarded the United Nations Equator Prize as one of the world's top 25 conservation initiatives. It has become a model for community-based conservation throughout Africa; the Calgary zoo has many different exhibits in its 92 acres of land. Opened in 2003, the Destination Africa project was among the zoo's most ambitious expansions; the complex of four buildings includes the African Savannah. The TransAlta Rainforest occupies 2,900 square metres and features a collection of African rainforest flora and fauna; the African Savannah building is home to hippos, red river hogs, a baobab tree. A 340,000-litre indoor pool for hippos offers view of the creatures underwater. In the warmer months, the doors lift to connect the building with the rest of the Savannah exhibit, home to mountain zebras, grey crowned cranes and ostriches.
Many other animals of the grasslands, including African lions reside in the Savannah exhibit. In the TransAlta Rainforest, there are primates such as gorillas and mandrills, a number of reptiles including Leop
Downtown Calgary is a region of central Calgary, Alberta, it contains the second largest concentration of head offices in Canada. The region is divided into several neighbourhoods, the Central Business District, Eau Claire, East Village, the West End. There are a number of districts within Downtown Calgary as well, most of them being within the Central Business District. Speaking, downtown Calgary is bordered by 14th Street W. on the west, the Bow River and Prince's Island Park on the north, the Elbow River on the east and the CPR mainline tracks on the south. The neighbourhoods of the Beltline and Mission to the immediate south are considered part of downtown, due to the high concentrations of businesses, high population densities, occurrence of retail and nightlife opportunities, but speaking they are not technically part of downtown; the population of Calgary's downtown has grown in recent years, growing by several thousand between 2011 and 2016. With the population of the five combined downtown neighbourhoods surpassing 18 000 as of 2016, Downtown Calgary now has a larger population than that of other Canadian cities of similar size, such as Ottawa and Edmonton.
While downtown Calgary continues to grow, the Beltline neighbourhood to the immediate south, with a population of 21,958 as of 2016, is taking up the majority of residential development in inner city Calgary. Calgary Transit's C-Train light rail system runs down 7th Avenue S. through the middle of downtown in a E-W direction, the ride is free on this section. While the newly proposed Green Line of the C-Train will run underground through downtown under 2nd Street, running in a N-S direction. Calgary's dense business area comprises the bulk of the downtown community, it is a core of skyscrapers. As of February 2017, eight of the ten tallest buildings in western Canada, a few of the tallest in the country, are in Calgary, it is arguably the densest downtown area of any city of its size in North America. Many of the buildings are connected via an 18 km long network of elevated bridges; the system, known as the "+15" is the largest of its kind in the world. The area surrounding the Stephen Avenue Walk is Downtown Calgary's primary retail area.
Stephen Avenue is a pedestrian mall lined with historic buildings containing stores, restaurants and drinking establishments. Adjacent to the outdoor portion of Stephen Avenue is an indoor complex of two shopping malls; the malls, The Core Shopping Centre and the Scotia Centre are bordered at either end by the historic Hudson's Bay Company store and Holt Renfrew's upscale department store. The street is home to a number of galleries, pubs, off-beat cinemas, nightclubs. Other attractions in the commercial core include the Devonian Gardens in The Core, the Calgary Tower, the Art Gallery of Calgary, The Glenbow Museum, Olympic Plaza, Arts Commons, the Telus Convention Centre; the commercial core is divided into a number of districts. They include the Entertainment District/Stephen Avenue, The Olympic Plaza and Cultural District, the Government District; the government district is an informal subdivision of the downtown core, is centered along Macleod Trail, between the commercial core and Downtown East Village.
It contains the City Hall, the Calgary Public Library, the Calgary Police headquarters, the Harry Hays building, Bow Valley College, the United States consulate and the Calgary Board of Education among other buildings. The cultural district is centered on the Burns Building and Olympic Plaza, contains educational and cultural venues such as Bow Valley College, Glenbow Museum and Arts Commons, including The Big Secret Theatre, Jack Singer Concert Hall, Max Bell Theatre, Martha Cohen Theatre, Engineered Air Theatre. A statue of The Famous Five stands between Olympic Plaza; the entertainment district is located along 8th Avenue South. It contains the pedestrian mall of Stephen Avenue, lined with restaurants and shops, enclosed shopping centres, as well as Calgary's only art house movie theater and recreation areas such as the Devonian Gardens. Landmark buildings found in this district include the Hyatt Regency Hotel, which incorporates several historic buildings into its facade, the Calgary Marriott and Fairmont Palliser Hotel.
Landmark skyscrapers in this district are Scotia Centre, Bankers Hall, Eighth Avenue Place. The "Udderly Art Legacy Pasture", a collection of decorated fiberglass cows built in 2000, is hosted in the Centennial Parkade, while other particular exponates are spread throughout the city; the East Village is an area to the east of the Downtown Commercial Core. This area was plagued by homelessness for a long time. However, the area has seen a great amount of redevelopment since the late 2000s. In 2007, the Calgary Municipal Land Corporation began construction on $357 million worth of infrastructure upgrades to the neighbourhood, bringing all streets above flood plain levels, upgrading sewers and storm drains, building plazas; the neighbourhood has since become a new hot-spot for the downtown area, playing host to the award-winning RiverWalk, several restaurants in the historic Simmons Mattress Factory building, several new condo towers, with several more under construction. The neighbourhood is host to the $191 million National Music Centre of Canada, will be host to the $245 million New Central Library of the Calgary Public Library system.