The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, United States. Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in 2001 to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or shut down; the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index". Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge."The name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the "WABAC machine", a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. In one of the animated cartoon's component segments, Peabody's Improbable History, the characters used the machine to witness, participate in, more than not, alter famous events in history.
The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages in 1996, with the goal of making the service public five years later. From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the clunky database; when the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it contained over 10 billion archived pages. Today, the data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes, it archives new versions of websites on occasion. Sites can be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data. Software has been developed to "crawl" the web and download all publicly accessible World Wide Web pages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews bulletin board system, downloadable software; the information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible.
To overcome inconsistencies in cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, create digital archives. Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive. For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl; the "Worldwide Web Crawls" have capture the global Web. The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website. Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl. A crawl can take months or years to complete depending on size. For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, completed on July 11, 2016. However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how a site is crawled varies widely.
As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month; the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that; the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, hosts a new data center in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month. A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011. In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, will continue to be updated regularly.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year." In 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs. In October 2013, the company announced the "Save a Page" feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL; this became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries. As of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, was growing at about 20 terabytes a week; as of July 2016, the Wayback Machine contained around 15 petabytes of data. As of September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained more than 25 petabytes of data. Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163 to 208. In March 2019 the rank was at 244.
Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard in determining if a website would be crawled or not. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback M
Mutual Film Corporation was an early American film conglomerate best remembered today as the producers of some of Charlie Chaplin's greatest comedies. Founded in 1912, it was absorbed by Film Booking Offices of America, which evolved into RKO Pictures. Mutual Film Corporation was formed in 1912 by a group of American businessmen including Harry E. Aitken; the releasing and distribution company had numerous subsidiary production units, including Keystone, famed producer of comedies. Mutual is celebrated for signing Charlie Chaplin in 1916. Although he felt that the mandated tight production schedule led to those same films to become formulaic; as a result of this concern, Chaplin went with First National Pictures to have a contract that allowed him to have more flexibility production schedules so he could focus on making better films. Mutual originated with the partnership behind Western Film Exchange, founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in July 1906 by Harry and Roy Aitken and John R. Freuler. In 1910, Freuler would form a partnership with Chicago film distributor Samuel S. Hutchinson, founding a production entity known as the American Film Manufacturing Company.
In early 1912 when, with the Shallenberger brothers, Crawford Livingston, others as investors including Charles J. Hite, the President & CEO of Thanhouser Film Corporation, joined Freuler and Harry E. Aitken in the formation of Mutual Film; as 1912 progressed, the company included auxiliary units such as Keystone Studios Comedies, the Majestic Studios, the New York Motion Picture Company. In 1915, the workers of Keystone Studios, Kay Bee Studios and Reliance-Majestic Studio left Mutual, along with the Aitken brothers, to form the Triangle Film Corporation. Now as complete owners of the former Reliance-Majestic Studio, by 1917 the conglomerate operated as the distributor for four subsidiary studios in California, three of which were in the Los Angeles area and the other in Santa Barbara, they were Vogue Films, Inc.. Lone Star Film Company and American Film Company. Vogue Films, Inc. operated a studio at Santa Monica Boulevard and Gower street in Los Angeles producing two-reel comedy films exclusively.
Among the other subsidiaries of the New York Motion Picture Company were: 101-Bison Company, Broncho Film Company, & Domino Film Company. In 1915, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio that motion pictures were a form of business, not an art form, therefore not covered by the First Amendment. Shortly after this decision, cities began to pass ordinances banning the public exhibition of "immoral" films, concerning the major studios that state or federal regulations would soon follow; this ruling remained in effect until Joseph Burstyn, Inc v. Wilson in 1952 which declared that film was a legitimate artistic medium with free speech protections. In 1916, Charlie Chaplin became the highest paid entertainer in the world when he signed a contract with Mutual for a salary of $670,000 per year. Mutual built Chaplin his own studio and allowed him total freedom to make twelve two-reel films during this fruitful twelve-month period. Chaplin subsequently recognised this period of film-making as the most inventive and liberating of his career, although he had concerns that the films produced were formulaic during the length of his contract.
During 1916 and 1917, the Lone Star Film Company had Charlie Chaplin working at their studio at 1025 Lillian Way, in Hollywood. Charlie Chaplin moved on to found United Artists in 1919 with Mary Pickford, D. W. Griffith, Douglas Fairbanks. In 1918, Mutual Film Corporation ceased production. Like many other companies established at this time, Mutual was absorbed by larger corporations, in this case Film Booking Offices of America and RKO Radio Pictures. With the exception of the Chaplin films, most of the Mutual shorts and feature dramas are lost to time and decomposition. Robert S. Birchard, "Silent-Era Filmmaking in Santa Barbara" Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2007 ISBN 0-7385-4730-1 Mutual Film Corporation on IMDb Mutual Film Corporation at the AFI Catalog of Feature Films
Gentlemen of Nerve
Gentlemen of Nerve is a 1914 American comedy silent film directed by Charles Chaplin, starring Chaplin and Mabel Normand, produced by Mack Sennett for Keystone Studios. Mabel and her beau are joined by Charlie and his friend; as Charlie's friend is attempting to enter the raceway through a hole, the friend gets stuck and a policeman shows up. A reviewer from Bioscope wrote, "Charles Chaplin, as the broke gentleman, anxious to make love to all the pretty girls assembled to watch some daring motor-races, manages to obtain an abundance of humor out of every situation, it is just the type of film that audiences have grown to appreciate with great gusto." Motion Picture News commented, " Charlie and Mabel attend an auto race. Results? As laughable as were pictured." Charles Chaplin - Mr. Wow-Woe Mabel Normand - Mabel Chester Conklin - Mr. Walrus Mack Swain - Ambrose Phyllis Allen - Flirty woman Edgar Kennedy - Policeman Alice Davenport - Patron List of American films of 1914 Gentlemen of Nerve on YouTube Gentlemen of Nerve on IMDb Gentlemen of Nerve is available for free download at the Internet Archive Gentlemen of Nerve at the Progressive Silent Film List
English is a West Germanic language, first spoken in early medieval England and became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that took their name, as England. Both names derive from a peninsula in the Baltic Sea; the language is related to Frisian and Low Saxon, its vocabulary has been influenced by other Germanic languages Norse, to a greater extent by Latin and French. English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years; the earliest forms of English, a group of West Germanic dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are collectively called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London, the printing of the King James Bible and the start of the Great Vowel Shift. Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire, the United States, Modern English has been spreading around the world since the 17th century.
Through all types of printed and electronic media, spurred by the emergence of the United States as a global superpower, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science and law. English is the third most-spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish, it is the most learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in 60 sovereign states. There are more people. English is the most spoken language in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and New Zealand, it is spoken in some areas of the Caribbean and South Asia, it is a co-official language of the United Nations, the European Union and many other world and regional international organisations. It is the most spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70% of speakers of this Indo-European branch. English has a vast vocabulary, though counting. English speakers are called "Anglophones".
Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent marking pattern, with a rich inflectional morphology and free word order, to a analytic pattern with little inflection, a fixed SVO word order and a complex syntax. Modern English relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tenses and mood, as well as passive constructions and some negation. Despite noticeable variation among the accents and dialects of English used in different countries and regions—in terms of phonetics and phonology, sometimes vocabulary and spelling—English-speakers from around the world are able to communicate with one another with relative ease. English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. Old English originated from a Germanic tribal and linguistic continuum along the Frisian North Sea coast, whose languages evolved into the Anglic languages in the British Isles, into the Frisian languages and Low German/Low Saxon on the continent.
The Frisian languages, which together with the Anglic languages form the Anglo-Frisian languages, are the closest living relatives of English. Low German/Low Saxon is closely related, sometimes English, the Frisian languages, Low German are grouped together as the Ingvaeonic languages, though this grouping remains debated. Old English evolved into Middle English. Particular dialects of Old and Middle English developed into a number of other Anglic languages, including Scots and the extinct Fingallian and Forth and Bargy dialects of Ireland. Like Icelandic and Faroese, the development of English in the British Isles isolated it from the continental Germanic languages and influences, it has since evolved considerably. English is not mutually intelligible with any continental Germanic language, differing in vocabulary and phonology, although some of these, such as Dutch or Frisian, do show strong affinities with English with its earlier stages. Unlike Icelandic and Faroese, which were isolated, the development of English was influenced by a long series of invasions of the British Isles by other peoples and languages Old Norse and Norman French.
These left a profound mark of their own on the language, so that English shows some similarities in vocabulary and grammar with many languages outside its linguistic clades. But it is not mutually intelligible with any of those languages; some scholars have argued that English can be considered a mixed language or a creole—a theory called the Middle English creole hypothesis. Although the great influence of these languages on the vocabulary and grammar of Modern English is acknowledged, most specialists in language contact do not consider English to be a true mixed language. English is classified as a Germanic language because it shares innovations with other Germanic languages such as Dutch and Swedish; these shared innovations show that the languages have descended from a single common ancestor called Proto-Germanic. Some shared features of Germanic languages include the division of verbs into strong and weak classes, the use of modal verbs, the sound changes affecting Proto-Indo-European consonants, known as Gr
The Rounders (1914 film)
The Rounders is a 1914 comedy short starring Charles Chaplin and Roscoe Arbuckle. The film involves two drunks who get into trouble with their wives, was written and directed by Chaplin. A drunk reveller returns home to a scolding from his wife, his inebriated neighbor goes home to a cold reception from his wife. When the first couple hear the physical altercation across the hall, the reveller's wife sends him to investigate; the two men flee together and end up in a cafe, where they cause trouble. When their spouses track them down, they escape, this time to a leaky rowboat. Safely out of reach of their wives, they fall asleep, oblivious to the rising water into which they disappear. Moving Picture World wrote, "It is a rough picture for rough people, that people, whether rough or gentle, will have to laugh over while it is on the screen. Chas. Chapman and the Fat Boy appear in this as a couple of genial jags." Charles Chaplin as Reveller Roscoe Arbuckle as Charlie's Neighbor Phyllis Allen as Charlie's Wife Minta Durfee as Roscoe's Wife Al St. John as Bellhop/Waiter Jess Dandy as Diner Wallace MacDonald as Diner Charley Chase as Diner Billy Gilbert as Doorman in blackface Cecile Arnold as Hotel Guest Dixie Chene as Diner Edward F. Cline as Hotel Guest in Lobby Ted Edwards as Cop William Hauber as Waiter Edgar Kennedy in Bit Part Charlie Chaplin filmography Fatty Arbuckle filmography The Rounders on IMDb The Rounders is available for free download at the Internet Archive
His Musical Career
His Musical Career is a 1914 American comedy silent film made by Keystone Studios starring Charlie Chaplin. Charlie and his partner Mike work at a piano store, whose manager orders them to deliver a piano to Mr. Rich at 666 Prospect Street and repossess one from Mr. Poor at 999 Prospect Street. Hilarity ensues when they do the opposite after mixing up the addresses of their customers. A reviewer from Variety noted, " one of the best short comedies in a month. Funny piano-moving skit." Charlie Chaplin as Charlie the piano mover Mack Swain as Mike Charley Chase as Piano store manager Fritz Schade as Mr. Rich Cecile Arnold as Mrs. Rich Frank Hayes as Mr. Poor List of American films of 1914 His Musical Career on IMDb His Musical Career is available for free download at the Internet Archive His Musical Career on YouTube