A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
Jamey Johnson is an American country music artist. Signed to BNA Records in 2005, Johnson made his debut with his single "The Dollar", the title track to his 2006 album The Dollar. Johnson was dropped from BNA in 2006 and signed to Mercury Nashville Records in March 2008, releasing his second album, the gold-certified That Lonesome Song; this album produced two singles, the Top 10 hit "In Color" and "High Cost of Living". Johnson has since released two more albums, The Guitar Song in 2010 and Living for a Song: A Tribute to Hank Cochran in 2012. In 2014, he released. In addition to most of his own material, Johnson has co-written singles for Willie Nelson and Merle Haggard, Trace Adkins, George Strait, James Otto, Joe Nichols and Jessie James Decker. Johnson was born on July 14, 1975, in Enterprise and raised in Montgomery, Alabama. From an early age, he was influenced by country acts such as Alabama and Alan Jackson, the latter of whom was the first act that he saw in concert. After graduating from Jefferson Davis High School, Johnson attended Jacksonville State University, the same university from which Alabama lead singer Randy Owen graduated.
During his time at Jacksonville State University, he was a member of Sigma Nu in the Iota Lambda chapter and a member of the Marching Southerners. Johnson quit college after two years and served in the United States Marine Corps Reserve for eight years, he attained the rank of corporal. He would play original songs for his fellow Marines and has kept in contact with many of them, he wrote two songs on his initial self-released album. After leaving the Marines, he began playing country music in various bars throughout Montgomery. By 2000, Johnson had moved to Tennessee to pursue a career in country music, he self-released an album called They Call Me Country. One of his first connections was with Greg Perkins, a fiddler who had played for Tanya Tucker, Tammy Wynette, other artists. Perkins invited Johnson to sing as a duet partner with Gretchen Wilson on a demo tape. Songs for which Johnson sang demos include "Songs About Me" and "That's How They Do It in Dixie". Johnson had made connections with producer and songwriter Buddy Cannon, who helped him land a songwriting contract.
Among Johnson's first cuts as a songwriter was "Honky Tonk Badonkadonk", which Adkins released from his 2005 album Songs About Me. That song he co-wrote along with hit songwriter Dallas Davidson and fellow country singer-songwriter Randy Houser, who worked with Johnson again co-writing "My Cowboy" for country pop singer Jessie James for her self-titled debut album. By 2005, Johnson had been signed to a recording contract with BNA Records, his first single, entitled "The Dollar", was released that year, followed by his Buddy Cannon-produced debut album in March 2006. "The Dollar" went on to peak at No. 14 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs charts. The album's second single, "Rebelicious", failed to enter the charts and Johnson was dropped from BNA. After the loss of his record deal, Johnson divorced his wife and took on a reclusive lifestyle, residing in a friend's house while working on his songwriting, he wrote several songs for other artists. In 2006, George Strait reached No. 1 on the Country chart with "Give It Away", a song which Johnson co-wrote with Bill Anderson and Cannon.
This song became Strait's 51st No. 1 on the Billboard country charts, setting a new record for most No. 1s on that chart. In 2007, Trace Adkins charted with two more songs that Johnson co-wrote: "Ladies Love Country Boys" and "I Got My Game On", the former being Adkins' first No. 1 in 10 years. In 2007, Joe Nichols reached Top 20 with "Another Side of You", another song co-written by Johnson; this song was the first single on Nichols's album Real Things, which contained "She's All Lady", a song that Johnson recorded on The Dollar. Johnson was part of the Fox TV television series Nashville, cancelled after two episodes in September 2007. Johnson released an album in 2008, That Lonesome Song, only made available online; the album drew the attention of Mercury Nashville Records, who signed him to a record deal in 2008. His first single for the label, "In Color", was released in March 2008; this song, which Johnson co-wrote with Lee Thomas Miller and James Otto, entered Top 40 in June 2008, That Lonesome Song was released on CD in August of that year.
"In Color" peaked at No. 9 on the Country chart in January 2009 and was followed a month by "High Cost of Living", which managed to crack the Top 40, but only reaching No. 34. By April 2009, That Lonesome Song was certified Gold by the RIAA. A fifth single, "My Way to You", was issued in July 2009; the song was released to radio on July 13, 2009, debuted at No. 56 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Songs chart; the song peaked at No. 52 in September 2009. Johnson was nominated for the 2009 CMA Awards New Artist of the Year, has been nominated for the 2010 Academy of Country Music Top New Solo Vocalist. In 2010, Johnson released a follow up to That Lonesome Song; the album titled The Guitar Song was released on September 14, 2010. Upon its release, The Guitar Song was met with overwhelming praise and universal acclaim from music critics; the album debuted at number four on the U. S. Billboard 200 and number one on the U. S. Billboard Top Country Albums. Johnson released three singles from the album, including "Playing the Part", in su
Skiffle is a music genre with jazz, blues and American folk influences using a combination of manufactured and homemade or improvised instruments. Originating as a term in the United States in the first half of the 20th century, it became popular again in the UK in the 1950s, where it was associated with artists such as Lonnie Donegan, The Vipers Skiffle Group, Ken Colyer and Chas McDevitt. Skiffle played a major part in beginning the careers of eminent jazz, blues and rock musicians such as The Beatles and Rory Gallagher, it has been seen as a critical stepping stone to the second British folk revival, blues boom and British Invasion of the US popular music scene. The origins of skiffle are obscure but are thought to lie in African-American musical culture in the early 20th century. Skiffle is said to have developed from New Orleans jazz, but this claim has been disputed. Improvised jug bands playing blues and jazz were common across the American South in the early decades of the 20th century.
They used instruments such as the washboard, washtub bass, cigar-box fiddle, musical saw and comb-and-paper kazoos, as well as more conventional instruments, such as acoustic guitar and banjo. The origin of the English word skiffle is unknown. However, in the dialect of the west of England to make a skiffle meaning to make a mess of any business is attested from 1873. In early 20th century America the term skiffle was one of many slang phrases for a rent party, a social event with a small charge designed to pay rent on a house, it was first recorded in Chicago in the 1920s and may have been brought there as part of the African-American migration to northern industrial cities. The first use of the term on record was in 1925 in the name of Jimmy O'Bryant and his Chicago Skifflers. Most it was used to describe country blues music records, which included the compositions "Hometown Skiffle" and "Skiffle Blues" by Dan Burley & his Skiffle Boys, it was used by Ma Rainey to describe her repertoire to rural audiences.
The term skiffle disappeared from American music in the 1940s. Skiffle was a obscure genre, it might have been forgotten if not for its revival in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and the success of its main proponent, Lonnie Donegan. British skiffle grew out of the developing post-war British jazz scene, which saw a move away from swing music and towards authentic trad jazz. Among these bands were Bill Bailey Skiffle Group and Ken Colyer's Jazzmen, whose banjo player Donegan performed skiffle music during intervals, he would sing and play guitar with accompaniment of two other members on washboard and tea-chest bass. They played a variety of American folk and blues songs those derived from the recordings of Lead Belly, in a lively style that emulated American jug bands; these were listed on posters as "skiffle" breaks, a name suggested by Ken Colyer's brother Bill after recalling the Dan Burley Skiffle Group. Soon the breaks were as popular as the traditional jazz. After disagreements in 1954, Colyer left to form a new outfit with Chris Barber, the band became Chris Barber's Jazz Band.
The first British recordings of skiffle were carried out by Colyer's new band in 1954, but it was the release by Decca of two skiffle tracks by Barber's Jazz Band under the name of the "Lonnie Donegan Skiffle Group" that transformed the fortunes of skiffle in late 1955. Donegan's fast-tempo version of Lead Belly's "Rock Island Line" was a major hit in 1956, featuring a washboard, with "John Henry" on the B-side, it spent eight months in the Top 20, peaking at No. 6. It was the first debut record to go gold in Britain, selling over a million copies worldwide, it was the success of this single and the lack of a need for expensive instruments or high levels of musicianship that set off the British skiffle craze. A few bands enjoyed chart success in the skiffle craze, including the Chas McDevitt Skiffle Group, Johnny Duncan and the Bluegrass Boys, the Vipers, but the main impact of skiffle was as a grassroots amateur movement popular among working class males, who could cheaply buy, improvise, or build their own instruments and who have been seen as reacting against the drab austerity of post-war Britain.
The craze reached its height with the broadcasting of the BBC TV programme Six-Five Special from 1957. It was the first British youth music programme, using a skiffle song as its title music and showcasing many skiffle acts, it has been estimated. Sales of guitars grew and other musicians were able to perform on improvised bass and percussion in venues such as church halls and cafes and in the flourishing coffee bars of Soho, like the 2i's Coffee Bar, the Cat's Whisker and nightspots like Coconut Grove and Churchill's, without having to aspire to musical perfection or virtuosity. A large number of British musicians began their careers playing skiffle in this period, some became leading figures in their respective fields; these included leading Northern Irish musician Van Morrison and British blues pioneer Alexis Korner, as well as Ronnie Wood, Alex Harvey and Mick Jagger. Most notably, the Beatles developed from John Lennon's skiffle group the Quarrymen; the Bee Gees developed from Barry Gibb's skiffle group the Rattlesnakes.
After splitting from Barber, Donegan went on to make a series of popular records as "Lonnie Donegan's Skiffle Gr
Uncle Shelby's ABZ Book
Uncle Shelby's ABZ Book is a satirical alphabet book by Shel Silverstein. First published in 1961, it is sometimes described as "subversive"; the cover on some editions of the book read "A primer for adults only" while other editions read "A primer for tender young minds" instead. Much of the humor derives from a cynical drive to give the reader harmful advice. A portion of the book appeared in a different form in Playboy magazine. Silverstein urges the reader to keep termites as pets, play hopscotch with real Scotch whisky and give their father a haircut while he sleeps, he tells the reader that "Mommy loves the baby more than she loves you", he uses the letter "E", first, to discourage the reader from wanting to eat eggs, to encourage the reader to throw eggs up to the ceiling: E is for egg. See the egg; the egg is full of icky yellow stuff. Do you like to eat eggs? E is for Ernie. Ernie is the genie. Ernie loves eggs. Take a nice fresh egg and throw it as high as you can and yell "Catch, Ernie! Catch the egg!"
And Ernie will catch the egg. He misdefines a gigolo as a woodwind musical instrument similar to the oboe, assumes the reader can eat as many as 116 green apples in a single day and states that quarantine means, "Come on in, kids. Free ice cream." He tells kids that there is a real live pony inside the car and elves inside the TV set misspells "hippopotamus" and uses the letter "I" to inform readers that they can drink ink: I is for ink. Ink is wet. Ink is fun. What can you do with ink? What rhymes with ink? "DR_ _ _."Of course this is all offered in a humorous vein. Indeed, Silverstein is one of the American Library Association's most challenged authors. While some view the book's humor as directed towards adults, it was Silverstein's belief that children and elderly people should be treated no differently from anyone else
Famous is a 2000 American comedy-drama film written and directed by Cameron Crowe and starring Billy Crudup, Frances McDormand, Kate Hudson, Patrick Fugit. It tells the story of a teenage journalist writing for Rolling Stone in the early 1970s, his touring with the fictitious rock band Stillwater, his efforts to get his first cover story published; the film is semi-autobiographical, as Crowe. It is based on his experiences touring with rock bands Poco, the Allman Brothers Band, Led Zeppelin and Lynyrd Skynyrd. Crowe has discussed how during this period he lost his virginity, fell in love, met his musical heroes—these events represented in the film as happening to William Miller, the boyish main character. Although a box office bomb, the film received widespread acclaim from critics and received four Academy Awards nominations, including a win for Best Original Screenplay, it was awarded the 2001 Grammy Award for Best Compilation Soundtrack Album for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media.
Roger Ebert hailed it the best film of the year as well as the ninth-best film of the 2000s. It won two Golden Globe Awards, for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy and Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture. In a 2016 international poll conducted by BBC, Almost Famous was ranked the 79th greatest film since 2000. In 1969, child prodigy William Miller struggles to fit in, his life is further complicated after learning that his widowed college-professor mother Elaine has led him to believe he is thirteen years old. William is eleven, having started the first grade at five years old, skipping fifth grade. Strong-willed Elaine's strict ban on rock music and pop culture influences that she fears have a negative effect on her children drives William's eighteen-year-old sister Anita to leave home to become a flight attendant. In 1973, now fifteen, influenced by Anita's secret cache of rock albums, aspires to be a rock journalist, writing freelance articles for underground papers in San Diego.
Rock journalist Lester Bangs, impressed with William's writing, gives him a $35 assignment to review a Black Sabbath concert. William is barred from backstage until the opening band Stillwater arrives and William flatters his way in. Lead guitarist Russell Hammond takes a liking to him and his new acquaintance, veteran groupie Penny Lane, who has taken William under her wing. Rolling Stone editor Ben Fong-Torres, believing William is older, hires him sight unseen to write an article about Stillwater and sends William on the road with the band. William interviews the members, but Russell puts him off. Tensions between Russell and lead singer Jeff Bebe soon become evident. William, jokingly called "the enemy" because he is a journalist, begins losing his objectivity as he becomes integrated into their inner circle; the band's record company hires Dennis, a professional manager, to handle problems with venues and promoters. Penny has to leave before the band reaches New York, where Russell's girlfriend Leslie will join them.
Penny and her three protégé groupies are gambled away to another band in a poker game. Meanwhile, Dennis charters a small plane. Penny shows up uninvited at the New York restaurant where the band is celebrating being featured on the cover of Rolling Stone. Penny is asked to leave after Leslie notices her attempts to get Russell's attention. William chases her to her hotel. While flying to another gig the following day, the band's plane encounters severe weather. Believing the plane will crash, everyone confesses their secrets, while Jeff and Russell's long-simmering conflicts erupt. William defends Penny after Jeff confesses he loves her; the plane lands safely in Tupelo. William arrives at the Rolling Stone office in San Francisco but has difficulty finishing the article. Seeking help, he calls Lester Bangs, he says William's perceived friendships with them are not real and advises him to, "be honest...and unmerciful." Rolling Stone's editors rave over William's completed article, but when the magazine's fact checker calls the band, protecting Stillwater's image and claims 90% is false.
Rolling Stone kills the article. Anita offers to take him anywhere. Groupie Sapphire chastises Russell for betraying William. Russell calls Penny at her home and wants to meet with her, but she tricks him by giving him William's address, he finds himself face-to-face with William's mother, who scolds him for his behavior. Russell apologizes to William and gives him an interview. Russell has verified William's article to Rolling Stone. Penny fulfills her long-standing fantasy to go to Morocco. Stillwater again tours only by bus. Crowe used a composite of the bands he had known to create Stillwater, the emerging group that welcomes the young journalist into its sphere becomes wary of his intentions. Stillwater was the name of a real band signed to Macon, Georgia's Capricorn Records label, which required the film's producers to obtain permission to use the name Stillwater. In an interview, real Stillwater guitarist Bobby Golden said, "They could have done it without permission but they would have had a bunch of different lawsuits.
Our lawyer got in touch with them. They wanted us to do it for free and I said, "No we're not doing it for free." So we got a little bit of change out of it." Seventies rocker Peter Frampt
Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California in 1967 by Jann Wenner, still the magazine's publisher, the music critic Ralph J. Gleason, it was first known for political reporting by Hunter S. Thompson. In the 1990s, the magazine shifted focus to a younger readership interested in youth-oriented television shows, film actors, popular music. In recent years, it has resumed its traditional mix of content. Rolling Stone Press is the magazine's associated book publishing imprint. Straight Arrow Press was the magazine's associated book publishing imprint, Straight Arrow Publishing Co. Inc. was the publishing company that published Rolling Stone. Rolling Stone magazine was founded in San Francisco in 1967 by Ralph Gleason. To get it off the ground, Wenner borrowed $7,500 from his own family and from the parents of his soon-to-be wife, Jane Schindelheim; the first issue carried a cover date of November 9, 1967, was in newspaper format with a lead article on the Monterey Pop Festival.
The cover price was 25¢. In the first issue, Wenner explained that the title of the magazine referred to the 1950 blues song "Rollin' Stone", recorded by Muddy Waters, Bob Dylan's hit single "Like a Rolling Stone": You're wondering what we're trying to do. It's hard to say: sort of a sort of a newspaper; the name of it is Rolling Stone which comes from an old saying, "A rolling stone gathers no moss." Muddy Waters used the name for a song. The Rolling Stones took their name from Muddy's song. "Like a Rolling Stone" was the title of Bob Dylan's first rock and roll record. We have begun a new publication reflecting what we see are the changes in rock and roll and the changes related to rock and roll."—Jann Wenner, Rolling Stone, November 9, 1967, p. 2 Some authors have attributed the name to Dylan's hit single: "At Gleason's suggestion, Wenner named his magazine after a Bob Dylan song." Rolling Stone identified with and reported the hippie counterculture of the era. However, it distanced itself from the underground newspapers of the time, such as Berkeley Barb, embracing more traditional journalistic standards and avoiding the radical politics of the underground press.
In the first edition, Wenner wrote that Rolling Stone "is not just about the music, but about the things and attitudes that music embraces". In the 1970s, Rolling Stone began to make a mark with its political coverage, with the likes of gonzo journalist Hunter S. Thompson writing for the magazine's political section. Thompson first published his most famous work Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas within the pages of Rolling Stone, where he remained a contributing editor until his death in 2005. In the 1970s, the magazine helped launch the careers of many prominent authors, including Cameron Crowe, Lester Bangs, Joe Klein, Joe Eszterhas, Ben Fong-Torres, Patti Smith and P. J. O'Rourke, it was at this point that the magazine ran some of its most famous stories, including that of the Patty Hearst abduction odyssey. One interviewer, speaking for a large number of his peers, said that he bought his first copy of the magazine upon initial arrival on his college campus, describing it as a "rite of passage".
In 1977, the magazine moved its headquarters from San Francisco to New York City. Editor Jann Wenner said San Francisco had become "a cultural backwater". During the 1980s, the magazine began to shift towards being a general "entertainment" magazine. Music was still a dominant topic, but there was increasing coverage of celebrities in television and the pop culture of the day; the magazine initiated its annual "Hot Issue" during this time. Rolling Stone was known for its musical coverage and for Thompson's political reporting. In the 1990s, the magazine changed its format to appeal to a younger readership interested in youth-oriented television shows, film actors and popular music; this led to criticism. In recent years, the magazine has resumed its traditional mix of content, including in-depth political stories, it has expanded content to include coverage of financial and banking issues. As a result, the magazine has seen its circulation increase and its reporters invited as experts to network television programs of note.
The printed format has gone through several changes. The first publications, in 1967–72, were in folded tabloid newspaper format, with no staples, black ink text, a single color highlight that changed each edition. From 1973 onwards, editions were produced on a four-color press with a different newsprint paper size. In 1979, the bar code appeared. In 1980, it became a large format magazine; as of edition of October 30, 2008, Rolling Stone has had a smaller, standard-format magazine size. After years of declining readership, the magazine experienced a major resurgence of interest and relevance with the work of two young journalists in the late 2000s, Michael Hastings and Matt Taibbi. In 2005, Dana Leslie Fields, former publisher of Rolling Stone, who had worked at the magazine for 17 years, was an inaugural inductee into the Magazine Hall of Fame. In 2009, Taibbi unleashed an acclaimed series of scathing reports on the financial meltdown of the time, he famously described Goldman Sachs as "a great vampire squid".
Bigger headlines came at the end of June 2010. Rolling Stone caused a controversy in the White House by publishing in the July issue an article by journalist Michael Hastings entitled, "The Runaway General", quoting criticism by General Stanley A. McChrystal, commander of the International Security Assistance Force and U. S. Forces-Afghanistan commander, about Vice President Joe Biden and oth
BBC Radio is an operational business division and service of the British Broadcasting Corporation. The service provides national radio stations covering the majority of musical genres, as well as local radio stations covering local news and interests, it oversees online audio content. Of the national radio stations, BBC Radio 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Live are all available through analogue radio as well as on DAB Digital Radio and online including BBC iPlayer; the remaining stations, BBC Radio 1Xtra, 4 Extra, 5 Live Sports Extra and 6 Music, all broadcast on digital platforms only. All of the BBC's national radio stations broadcast from bases in London in or near to Broadcasting House in Marylebone. However, the BBC's network production units located in Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff and Manchester make radio programmes; the BBC's radio services began in 1922. The British Government licensed the BBC through its General Post Office, which had original control of the airwaves because they had been interpreted under law as an extension of the Post Office services.
Today radio broadcasting still makes up a large part of the corporation's output - the title of the BBC's listings magazine, Radio Times, reflects this. On 1 January 1927 the British Broadcasting Company was succeeded in monopoly control of the airwaves by the British Broadcasting Corporation, under the terms of a Royal Charter. John Reith, the founding managing director of the commercial company, became the first Director General, he expounded firm principles of centralised, all-encompassing radio broadcasting, stressing programming standards and moral tone. These he set out in his autobiography, Broadcast Over Britain, influencing modern ideas of public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain". Although no other broadcasting organisation was licensed in the UK until 1973, commercial competition soon opened up from overseas; the English language service of Radio Luxembourg began in 1933 as one of the earliest commercial radio stations broadcasting to Britain and Ireland.
With no possibility of commercial broadcasting available from inside the UK, a former British Royal Air Force captain and entrepreneur named Leonard F. Plugge set up his own International Broadcasting Company in 1931; the IBC began leasing time on transmitters in continental Europe and reselling it as sponsored English-language programming aimed at audiences in Britain and Ireland. Because Plugge demonstrated that State monopolies such as that of the BBC could be broken, other parties became attracted to the idea of creating a new commercial radio station for this purpose, it was modern commercial radio in the United Kingdom. The onset of World War II silenced all but one of the original IBC stations. To provide a different service from the domestic audience the Corporation started the BBC Empire Service on short wave in 1932 in English but it soon provided programmes in other languages. At the start of the Second World War it was renamed The Overseas Service but is now known as the BBC World Service.
Beginning in March 1964, Radio Caroline was the first in what became an eventual fleet of 10 offshore pirate radio stations that began to ring the British coastline along the South East coast. By 1966 millions were tuning into these commercial operations, the BBC was losing its radio listening audience; this was due to the fact that though they were aware of the problem, the BBC still only played a few hours of Pop music from record a week, as opposed to the pirates who broadcast chart music and new releases all day. The British government reacted by passing the Marine Offences Act, which all but wiped out all of the stations by midnight on 14 August 1967, by banning any British citizen from working for a pirate station. Only Radio Caroline survived, still continues today. One of the stations called Radio London was so successful that the BBC was told to copy it as best they could; this led to a complete overhaul by Frank Gillard the BBC's Director of Radio of the BBC output creating the four analogue channels that still form the basis of its broadcasting today.
The creator of BBC Radio One told the press. The BBC hired many out-of-work broadcasting staff. Kenny Everett was asked for input in how to run the new Pop station due to his popularity with both listeners and fellow presenters. Tony Blackburn who presented the first BBC Radio One morning show had presented the same morning show on Radio Caroline and on Big L, he attempted to duplicate the same sound for BBC Radio One. Among the other DJs hired was the late John Peel who had presented the overnight show on "Big L", called The Perfumed Garden. Though it only ran for a few months prior to Big L's closure, The Perfumed Garden got more fan mail than the rest of the pop DJ's on Radio London put together, so much that staff wondered what to do with it all; the reason it got so much mail was that it played different music, was the beginning of the "album rock" genre. On Everett's suggestion, Big L's PAMS jingles were commissioned to be resung in Dallas, Texas so that "Wonderful Radio London" became "Wonderful Radio One on BBC"