Jerry Lamon Falwell Sr. was an American Southern Baptist pastor and conservative activist. He was the founding pastor of a megachurch in Lynchburg, Virginia, he founded Lynchburg Christian Academy in 1967 and Liberty University in 1971 and co-founded the Moral Majority in 1979. On May 15, 2007, Jerry Falwell died of cardiac arrhythmia in his office at Liberty University at the age of 73, he was buried in the grounds of the university he founded. Falwell and his twin brother Gene were born in the Fairview Heights area of Lynchburg, the sons of Helen Virginia and Carey Hezekiah Falwell, his father was an entrepreneur and one-time bootlegger, agnostic. His grandfather was a staunch atheist. Jerry Falwell married the former Macel Pate on April 12, 1958; the couple had Jonathan and a daughter Jeannie. Falwell and his wife had a close relationship, she supported him throughout his career; the Falwells appeared together in public, they did not shy away from showing physical affection. Reflecting on his marriage, Falwell jokingly commented that "Macel and I have never considered divorce.
Murder maybe, but never divorce." Macel appreciated her husband's non-combative, affable nature, writing in her book that he "hated confrontation and didn't want strife in our home... he did everything in his power to make me happy." The Falwells were married nearly fifty years until his death. He graduated from Brookville High School in Lynchburg, from the then-unaccredited Baptist Bible College in Springfield, Missouri in 1956. Falwell was awarded three honorary doctoral degrees: Doctor of Divinity from Tennessee Temple Theological Seminary, Doctor of Letters from California Graduate School of Theology, Doctor of Laws from Central University in Seoul, South Korea. In 1956, aged 22, Falwell founded the Thomas Road Baptist Church. Located at 701 Thomas Road in Lynchburg, with 35 members, the church became a megachurch. In the same year, he began the Old Time Gospel Hour, a nationally syndicated radio and television ministry; when Falwell died, his son Jonathan became heir to his father's ministry, took over as the senior pastor of the church.
At this time, the weekly program's name was changed to Thomas Road Live. During the 1950s and 1960s, Falwell spoke and campaigned against the U. S. civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. and the racial desegregation of public school systems by the U. S. federal government. Liberty Christian Academy is a Christian school in Lynchburg, described in 1966 by the Lynchburg News as "a private school for white students." The Lynchburg Christian Academy opened in 1967 by Falwell as a segregation academy and as a ministry of Thomas Road Baptist Church. The Liberty Christian Academy is today recognized as an educational facility by the Commonwealth of Virginia through the Virginia State Board of Education, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the Association of Christian Schools International. In 1971, Jerry Falwell co-founded Liberty University with Elmer L. Towns. Liberty University offers over 350 accredited programs of study, with 13,000 residential students and 90,000 online. By 1974, the Internal Revenue Service moved to revoke the tax-exempt status of Bob Jones University, which forbade interracial dating.
The decisions infuriated Falwell. "In some states it's easier to open a massage parlor than to open a Christian school", Falwell complained. What brought Falwell and other white evangelicals into common cause with political conservatives was a ruling issued in 1978 by the IRS; this ruling stripped tax-exempt status from all-white private schools formed in the South in reaction to the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court ruling to desegregate public schools. Falwell had founded one of these schools in Lynchburg, though he and other white evangelicals insisted that their schools were Christian academies, not segregation academies. "In one fell swoop," writes political scientist Corey Robin, "the heirs of slaveholders became the descendants of persecuted Baptists, Jim Crow a heresy the First Amendment was meant to protect." In this controversy, the Religious Right found its power. It found common cause with political conservatives; the Heritage Foundation co-founder Paul Weyrich stated that Falwell launched the Moral Majority political action committee during 1979 to aid the Catholic public protest against legal abortion in the United States in response to U.
S. President Jimmy Carter's "intervention against Christian schools" by "trying to deny them tax-exempt status on the basis of so-called de facto segregation"; the Moral Majority became one of the largest political lobby groups for evangelical Christians in the United States during the 1980s. The Moral Majority was promoted as being "pro-life", "pro-traditional family", "pro-moral" and "pro-American" and was credited with delivering two thirds of the white, evangelical Christian vote to Ronald Reagan during the 1980 presidential election. According to Jimmy Carter, "that autumn a group headed by Jerry Falwell purchased $10 million in commercials on southern radio and TV to brand me as a traitor to the South and no longer a Christian." During his time as head of the Moral Majority, Falwell pushed for Republican candidates and for conservative politics. This led Billy Graham to criticize him for "sermonizing" about political issues that lacked a moral eleme
NBC Sports is the programming division of the American broadcast network NBC, owned by the NBCUniversal Television Group division of NBCUniversal, responsible for sports broadcasts on the network, its dedicated national sports cable channels. Operating as "a service of NBC News", it broadcasts a diverse array of sports events, including the Olympic Games, the NFL, NASCAR, the NHL, Notre Dame football, the PGA Tour, the IndyCar Series, the Premier League, the Triple Crown, among others. Other programming from outside producers – such as coverage of the Ironman Triathlon – is presented on the network through NBC Sports. With Comcast's acquisition of NBCUniversal, its own cable sports networks were aligned with NBC Sports into a part of the division known as the NBC Sports Group. In 2000, NBC declined to renew its broadcast agreement with Major League Baseball. In 2002, it was additionally outbid by ESPN and ABC for the NBA's new broadcast contract, ending the league's twelve-year run on NBC. During this era, NBC experimented with broadcasting emerging sports.
In 2001, the network partnered with the World Wrestling Federation to establish the XFL – a new football league which introduced modified rules and debuted to tremendous, but short-lived fanfare, only lasting one season. In 2003, NBC obtained a minority interest in the Arena Football League; the network televised weekly games on a regional basis, as well as the entire playoffs. The deal lasted four years, after which NBC parted ways. Beginning with the 1999 Pennzoil 400, NBC began its foray into NASCAR. NBC, along with Fox, FX and TNT, obtained the broadcast rights of the top two series – the Winston Cup and Busch Series – in a six-year deal, beginning in 2001. NBC televised the second half of the alternated coverage of the Daytona 500 with Fox. In December 2005, NBC announced that it would not renew its agreement with NASCAR. In 2001, NBC obtained the broadcast rights to horse racing's Triple Crown in a five-year deal. In 2004, NBC reached a broadcast agreement with the National Hockey League.
The revenue-sharing deal called for the two sides to split advertising revenue after the network recouped the expenses. Games were supposed to begin airing on the network during the 2004–05 season, however a league lockout that resulted in the cancellation of that season delayed the start of the contract until the second half of the 2005–06 season. NBC televised regular season games at first on Saturday afternoons before moving the telecast to Sundays and Sunday afternoon playoff games, up to five games of the Stanley Cup Final. Additionally in 2008, NBC broadcast the first Winter Classic, an outdoor NHL game played on New Year's Day at Ralph Wilson Stadium, a success in attendance and television ratings; the following year's Winter Classic would become the most-watched regular season game in 34 years. In addition to this regular season success, Game 7 of the 2009 Stanley Cup Final was watched by an average of 8 million viewers, the highest ratings for an NHL game in 36 years; the NFL returned to NBC in 2006 after an eight-year hiatus, broadcasting the league's new flagship Sunday Night Football game, along with select postseason games and Super Bowls XLIII, XLVI, XLIX, LII and LVI.
In January 2011, Comcast finalized its acquisition of a majority share in NBC Universal. As a result of the merger, the operations of Comcast's existing sports networks, such as Golf Channel and Versus, were merged into an entity known as the NBC Sports Group. NBC Sports' senior vice president Mike McCarley additionally became Golf Channel's new head. NBC Sports' golf production unit was merged with Golf Channel, along with NBC's on-air staff, with that unit rebranding under the banner "Golf Channel on NBC", while Versus was reformatted toward a more mainstream audience, renamed the NBC Sports Network and rebranded as NBCSN; the merger helped influence an extension of NBC Sports' contract with the NHL. On July 3, 2011, ESPN obtained the exclusive broadcast rights to Wimbledon in a 12-year deal, ending NBC's television relationship with The Championships after 42 years. On August 10, 2011, NBC Sports announced a new three-year broadcasting contract with Major League Soccer to produce games for the 2012 season on NBC and the NBC Sports Network.
This included the broadcast of two regular season games, two playoff games, two national team matches on NBC and 38 regular season games, three playoff games, two national team matches on NBC Sports Network. On October 28, 2012, NBC Sports announced a three-year, $250 million deal to televise Premier League soccer in English and Spanish beginning with the 2013–14 season, replacing ESPN and Fox Soccer as the league's U. S. broadcasters. On October 15, 2012, NBC Sports announced that it had acquired broadcast rights to the Formula One World Championship in a four-year deal with the series; the majority of its coverage would air on NBCSN, while NBC would air the Monaco Grand Prix, Canadian Grand Prix and the final two races of the season, which include the United States Grand Prix. All races will be streamed online and through the NBC Sports Live Extra mobile app. On October 4, 2017, it was announced that NBC Sports lost the broadcast rights to ESPN beginning with the 2018–
ESPN on ABC
ESPN on ABC is the brand used for sports event and documentary programming televised on the American Broadcasting Company in the United States. The broadcast network retains its own sports division. ABC broadcasts use ESPN's production and announcing staff, incorporate elements such as ESPN-branded on-screen graphics, SportsCenter in-game updates, the BottomLine ticker; the ABC logo is used for identification purposes as a digital on-screen graphic during sports broadcasts on the network, in promotions to disambiguate events airing the broadcast network from those shown on the ESPN cable channel. The broadcast network's sports event coverage carried the ABC Sports brand prior to September 2, 2006; when ABC acquired a controlling interest in ESPN in 1984, it operated the cable network separately from its network sports division. The integration of ABC Sports with ESPN began after The Walt Disney Company bought ABC in 1996; the branding change to ESPN on ABC was made to better orient ESPN viewers with event telecasts on ABC and provide consistent branding for all sports broadcasts on Disney-owned channels.
Despite its name, ABC's sports coverage is supplemental to ESPN and not a simulcast of programs aired by the network, although ESPN and ESPN2 will carry ABC's regional broadcasts that otherwise would not air in certain markets. Like its longtime competitors CBS Sports and NBC Sports, ABC Sports was part of the news division of the ABC network, after 1961, was spun off into its own independent division; when Roone Arledge came to ABC Sports as a producer of NCAA football games in 1960, the network was in financial shambles. The International Olympic Committee wanted a bank to guarantee ABC's contract to broadcast the 1960 Olympics. At the time, Edgar Scherick served as the de facto head of ABC Sports. Scherick had joined the fledgling ABC television network when he persuaded it to purchase Sports Programs, Inc. in exchange for the network acquiring shares in the company. Scherick had formed the company after he left CBS, when the network would not make him the head of its sports programming unit.
Before ABC Sports became a formal division of the network, Scherick and ABC programming chief Tom Moore pulled off many programming deals involving the most popular American sporting events. While Scherick was not interested in "For Men Only," he recognized the talent. Arledge realized; the lack of a formal organization would offer him the opportunity to claim real power when the network matured. With this, he signed on with Scherick as an assistant producer, with Arledge ascending to a role as executive producer of its sports telecasts. Several months before ABC began broadcasting NCAA college football games, Arledge sent Scherick a remarkable memo, filled with youthful exuberance, television production concepts which sports broadcasts have adhered to since. Network broadcasts of sporting events had consisted of simple set-ups and focused on the game itself. In his memo, Arledge not only offered another way to broadcast the game to the sports fan, but recognized that television had to take fans to the game.
In addition, he had the forethought to realize that the broadcasts needed to attract, hold the attention of female viewers, as well as males. On September 17, 1960, the then-29-year-old Arledge put his vision into reality with ABC's first NCAA college football broadcast from Birmingham, between the Alabama Crimson Tide and the Georgia Bulldogs which Alabama won, 21–6. Despite the production values he brought to NCAA college football, Scherick wanted low-budget sports programming that could attract and retain an audience, he hit upon the idea of broadcasting field events sponsored by the Amateur Athletic Union. While Americans were not fans of track and field events, Scherick figured that Americans understood games. In January 1961, Scherick called Arledge into his office, asked him to attend the annual AAU board of governors meeting. While he was shaking hands, Scherick said, "if the mood seemed right, might he cut a deal to broadcast AAU events on ABC?" It seemed like a tall assignment, however as Scherick said years "Roone was a gentile and I was not."
Arledge came back with a deal for ABC to broadcast all AAU events for $50,000 per year. Next and Arledge divided up their NCAA college football sponsor list, they telephoned their sponsors and said in so many words, "Advertise on our new sports show coming up in April, or forget about buying commercials on NCAA college football this fall." The two persuaded enough sponsors to advertise on the broadcasts, though it took them to the last day of a deadline imposed by ABC's programming operations to do it. Wide World of Sports – an anthology series featuring a different sporting event each broadcast, which premiered on the network on April 29, 1961 – suited Scherick's plans exactly. By exploiting the speed of jet transportation and flexibility of videotape, Scherick was able to undercut NBC and CBS's advantages in broadcasting live sporting events. In that era, with communications nowhere near as universal as they are in the present day, ABC was able to safely record events on
CBS Sports Network
CBS Sports Network is an American pay television network, owned by the CBS Corporation. When it launched in 2002 as the National College Sports Network, it operated as a multi-platform media brand which included its primary website, collegesports.com, a network of websites operated for the athletic departments of 215 colleges and universities. After CSTV was acquired by CBS in 2008, the network was re-branded as the CBS College Sports Network; the network maintained its college sports focus, but in February 2011, the service was re-branded as CBS Sports Network to re-position it as a mainstream sports service. The network continues to have a particular focus on college sports, along with coverage of smaller leagues and events, simulcasts of sports radio shows both the CBS Sports Radio network and Entercom's WFAN, studio and analysis programming; the network's roots began in 1999 when Chris Bevilacqua approached the co-founders of the Classic Sports Network, Brian Bedol and Stephen D. Greenberg – at that time, running Fusient Media Ventures, a New York-based sports and media company – with the idea for a cable network featuring college sports 24 hours a day.
Under the leadership of Bedol as CEO, the network was named the National College Sports Network in June 2002, was subsequently renamed College Sports Television and launched on February 23, 2003. From their headquarters and studio operations at Chelsea Piers in New York City, CSTV was the first independent cable channel to be distributed nationwide, having been carried on satellite provider DirecTV at launch. In November 2005, College Sports Television was purchased by CBS Corporation for $325 million. On January 3, 2008, it was announced that CSTV would be integrated into CBS Sports, with the sports division's executive vice president and executive producer, Tony Petitti, taking over day-to-day operational management of CSTV, which would be overseen by CBS News and Sports president Sean McManus. CSTV co-founder Brian Bedol would become a senior advisor to CBS Corporation president and CEO Leslie Moonves. In the fall of 2006, CSTV launched more than 100 broadband channels dedicated to college sports, which feature more than 10,000 live events.
The subscription/pay-per-view service, called CBS College Sports XXL, its portfolio of broadband channels in its All-Access suite, include coverage of Notre Dame, Southern California, Ohio State and North Carolina. On February 12, 2008, CBS Corporation announced that, as part of the ongoing integration of CSTV into CBS Sports, that the network would be renamed the CBS College Sports Network on March 16, coinciding with the start of CBS's coverage of the NCAA's basketball tournament. Studio shows moved from the original Chelsea Piers headquarters to the CBS Broadcast Center on West 57th Street in 2012; as part of the relaunch, the network added College Sports Tonight. That program was canceled in 2010, however other studio shows still originate from the Chelsea Piers location. On February 15, 2011, CBS announced that the network would be relaunched as CBS Sports Network on April 4, repositioning it as a mainstream sports network in the same vein as ESPN. CBS Sports Network HD is a 1080i high definition simulcast feed of CBS Sports Network that launched in August 2008.
Prior to the launch of the feed, the two NCAA basketball tournament games that aired in March 2008, which were presented in HD on CBS, were converted to a standard definition feed. CBS Sports Network uses the AFD #10 broadcast flag to present programming on its standard definition feed in letterboxed widescreen for viewers watching on cable television through 4:3 television sets. CBS Sports Network televises original programming, talk shows and documentaries as well as extensive women's sports coverage, its regular season and championship event coverage draws from every major collegiate athletic conference and division, in addition to nine NCAA championships. CBS Sports Network televises 35 men's and women's college sports including football, baseball, hockey, soccer and volleyball from every major conference; the network holds multi-media and marketing rights for the Mountain West Conference, the Atlantic 10 Conference, Conference USA, the Patriot League, Army football and Navy football. In April 2006, the network organized the first Collegiate Nationals, a festival of championships dedicated to crowning champions in a wide variety of collegiate action sports such as snowboarding and beach volleyball.
More than 1,000 competitors converged on Reno-Tahoe to compete, the largest number for an event of its kind. For its second installment in 2007, the Collegiate Nationals added sports and other events such as national film and music competitions, as well as a second venue – San Diego; the third year, 2008, brought further changes, as the winter sports events were moved to the Keystone Resort near Boulder and competitive eating was added. In the fall of 2006, CSTV and Comcast launched the MountainWest Sports Network, a network focusing on the Mountain West Conference; the relation with the network gave CSTV exclusive online and broadcasting rights to Notre Dame's game at Air Force on November 11, 2006 – which caused controversy since CSTV did not have carriage as distributed as other networks that have aired Notre Dame games. The Irish did not revisit a Moun
Fox Sports (United States)
Fox Sports is the programming division of the Fox Broadcasting Company, owned by Fox Corporation, responsible for sports broadcasts on the network, its dedicated regional and national sports cable channels. The flagship entity of Fox Sports Media Group division, it was formed in 1994 with Fox's acquisition of broadcast rights to National Football League games. In subsequent years, it has televised the National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, NASCAR, Bowl Championship Series, Major League Soccer, the USGA Championships and NHRA. On December 14, 2017, The Walt Disney Company announced plans to acquire 21st Century Fox for $52.4 billion. Under the terms of the proposed acquisition, the Fox broadcast network, Fox News Channel, the non-regional Fox Sports assets cable channels, the broadcast network division would be spun off into an independent company owned by 21st Century Fox's current shareholders; when the Fox Broadcasting Company launched in October 1986, the network's management, having seen how sports programming played a critical role in the growth of the British satellite service BSkyB, determined that sports would be the type of programming that would ascend Fox to a major network status the quickest.
In 1987, after ABC hedged on renewing its contract with the National Football League for the television rights to Monday Night Football, Fox made an offer for the package at the same price that ABC had been paying at the time – about $13 million per game. However due to the fact that Fox had yet to establish itself as a major network, the NFL decided to resume negotiations with ABC, with the two parties agreeing to a new contract, keeping what was the crown jewel of the league's television broadcasts on that network. Six years as the league's television contracts for both the National Football Conference and American Football Conference divisions, for the Sunday and Monday primetime football packages were up for renewal, Fox placed a bid for $1.58 billion to obtain the broadcast rights to the National Football Conference. On December 17, 1993, the NFL selected Fox's bid and signed a four-year contract with the network to award it the rights to televise regular season and playoff games from the NFC, beginning with the 1994 season.
S. television rights to broadcast Super Bowl XXXI in 1997. The deal stripped CBS of football telecasts for the first time since 1955. Fox lured commentators Pat Summerall, John Madden, Dick Stockton, Matt Millen, James Brown and Terry Bradshaw as well as many behind-the-scenes production personnel from CBS Sports to staff the network's NFL coverage. In order to bolster viewership for the NFL telecasts, Fox parent News Corporation decided to strike affiliation deals with broadcasting companies that owned stations affiliated with ABC, NBC and CBS in order to raise the profile of Fox's affiliate body, which at the time consisted of UHF stations that had little to no prior history as a major network affiliate, had weaker signals and did not carry as much value with advertisers as the Big Three's affiliates. During the late spring and summer of 1994, Fox reached separate agreements with New World Communications and SF Broadcasting to switch a total of sixteen stations to Fox between September 1994 and September 1996 as affiliation contracts with those stations' existing network partners expired.
The NFL television rights and affiliation deals established Fox as the nation's fourth major network. The network's relationship with the NFL would expand in 1997, when it began airing games from NFL Europe, an agreement which ended when the European league folded in 2005. With a sports division now established, Fox decided to seek broadcast rights agreements with other major sports leagues. On September 9, 1994, Fox was awarded the broadcast television rights to the National Hockey League in a $155 million bid. Again, Fox outbid CBS, which wanted to secure the rights as a result of losing the NFL to Fox, for the NHL package. Fox lost the NHL rights to ABC Sports and ESPN in 1999. On November 7, 1995, Fox was awarded partial broadcast rights to Major League Baseball games, in a shared deal with NBC. Through the deal, which Fox paid a fraction of the amount that CBS paid to obtain the rights effective wit
The Bob Newhart Show
The Bob Newhart Show is an American sitcom produced by MTM Enterprises that aired on CBS from September 16, 1972 to April 1, 1978, with a total of 142 half-hour episodes spanning over six seasons. Comedian Bob Newhart portrays a psychologist dealing with his wife, friends and fellow office workers; the show was filmed before a live audience. The show centers on Robert "Bob" Hartley, Ph. D. a Chicago psychologist. Most activity occurs between his work and home life, with his supportive, although sarcastic, wife Emily, their friendly but inept neighbor, airline navigator Howard Borden; the medical building where Bob's psychology practice is located houses Jerry Robinson, D. D. S. an orthodontist whose office is on the same floor, their receptionist, Carol Kester, as well as a number of other doctors who appear occasionally. Bob's three most seen regular patients are the cynical and neurotic Elliot Carlin, the milquetoast Marine veteran Emile Peterson, shy, reserved Lillian Bakerman, an elderly lady who spends most of her sessions knitting.
Carlin was ranked 49th in TV Guide's List of the 50 Greatest TV Characters of All Time, Riley reprised the character in guest appearances on both St. Elsewhere and Newhart. Most of the situations involve Newhart's character playing straight man to his wife, colleagues and patients. A frequent running gag on the show is an extension of Newhart's stand-up comedy routines, where he played one side of a telephone conversation, the other side of, not heard. In a nod to this, for the first two seasons, the episodes opened with Bob answering the telephone by saying "Hello?". Emily acts as straight woman to slow-witted Howard, on occasion to Bob. Bob Newhart as Dr. Robert Hartley, psychologist Suzanne Pleshette as Emily Hartley, his wife, a school teacher and assistant principal Bill Daily as Howard Borden, their next-door neighbor and friend, an airline navigator and co-captain Peter Bonerz as Dr. Jerry Robinson, Bob's friend, an orthodontist Marcia Wallace as Carol Kester, their receptionist Jack Riley as Elliot F. Carlin Florida Friebus as Mrs. Lillian Bakerman Renée Lippin as Michelle Nardo John Fiedler as Emile Peterson Oliver Clark as Ed Herd Noam Pitlik as Victor Gianelli Daniel J. Travanti as Victor Gianelli Howard Hesseman as Craig Plager Lucien Scott as Edgar T.
Vickers Merie Earle as Mrs. Loomis Rhoda Gemignani as Joan Rossi Michael Conrad as Mr. Trevesco Henry Winkler as Miles Lascoe Pat Finley as Ellen Hartley, Bob's sister Martha Scott as Martha Hartley, Bob's mother Barnard Hughes as Herb Hartley, Bob's father John Randolph as Cornelius "Junior" Harrison, Jr. Emily's father Ann Rutherford as Aggie Harrison, Emily's mother Patricia Smith as Margaret Hoover, Emily's friend Tom Poston as Cliff "The Peeper" Murdock, Bob's college friend from Vermont Moosie Drier as Howie Borden, Howard's son Will Mackenzie as Larry Bondurant, Carol's boyfriend and husband Richard Schaal as Don Livingston, boyfriend/short-lived fiancé of Carol's. During the winter of the 1976–77 season, the program moved to 8:30 p.m. EST. For its final season during 1977–78, the program moved to 8:00 p.m. EST; the program aired following The Mary Tyler Moore Show, produced by MTM Enterprises. In 1977, the show received two Emmy nominations – for "Outstanding Comedy Series" and for Pleshette for "Outstanding Continued Performance by an Actress in a Comedy Series".
Newhart was nominated for Golden Globes as "Best TV Actor—Musical/Comedy" in 1975 and 1976. In 1997, the episodes "Over the River and Through the Woods" and "Death Be My Destiny" were ranked No. 9 and No. 50 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time. TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time listed it as No. 44. In 2007, Time placed the show on its unranked list of "100 Best TV Shows of All-TIME". Bravo ranked Bob Hartley 84th on its list of the 100 greatest TV characters. In 2004, TV Land commemorated the show with a statue of Newhart in character as Dr. Hartley and facing an empty couch, as if conducting a therapy session in his office; the statue was temporarily installed in front of 430 North Michigan Avenue, the building used for exterior establishing shots of Hartley's office. The statue is now permanently located in the sculpture park adjacent to Chicago's Navy Pier entertainment complex. In 2005, the TV Land Awards honored The Bob Newhart Show with its Icon Award, presented by Ray Romano
Western lifestyle or cowboy culture is the lifestyle, or behaviourisms, of, resulting from the influence of, the attitudes and history of the American Western cowboy and cowgirl. In the present day these influences affect this sector of the population's choice of recreation and consumption of goods. Today, the Western lifestyle is considered a subculture and includes strong influences from Native American and Mexican American culture; the origins of cowboy culture go back to the Spanish who settled in New Mexico and Texas bringing cattle. Prior to the 19th century, ranchers were Spanish while those working it were Indigenous. By the late 1800s, one in three cowboys were Mexican and brought to the lifestyle its iconic symbols of hats, spurs, stirrups and lasso. With westward movement brought many distinct ethnicities all with their own cultural traditions. Welsh Americans, as one example, had a history in Wales of cattle and sheep droving, that incorporated well into ranch work. A common misconception is in relating Country to Western or vice versa.
While the two may have similarities such as the music being based on folk singing, they are in fact uniquely different. For example, the sound of Country originates from Appalachia where immigrants of the British Isles settled in the hills of the south-east United States. Prior to the coining of the phrase "Country & Western" in 1956, Country was in large part known as Hillbilly music. On the other side, Western music derives from the area west of the Appalachia and ties into cowboy culture from Mexico but today spreads in the western states and parts of Western Canada. In the mid-20th century fusion of the two genres occurred with many musicians applying aspects of both genres into their song repertoire. Beginning in the 1860s, dime novels began sharing erroneous and romanticized tales of the West, feeding the public's interest in the trade and life West of the Mississippi. Throughout the 20th century, radio and television had a profound affect on the fashion and mannerisms that built the foundation of what it meant to be living a Western lifestyle, however most of this was more Hollywood glitz and glamour than historical narrative.
In the 1980s, following the urbanization of much of the Texas population, there was a marked revival of cowboy culture with the creation of a number of organizations devoted to its preservation, among them the American Cowboy Culture Association. The following is a list of notable people who lived or are living a Western lifestyle post to its technological and societal change at the beginning of the 20th century; this list does not include those of whom lived during the 19th century who were living in what was considered the Old West and preoccupied with the Western norms of the day. To be included in this list, the person must be notable and either have a Wikipedia article showing they were or are influenced by the Western lifestyle or must have references showing their claim; this is not a list for artists or entertainers who were playing a Western role or create a subject of Western art for which they are only credited. It is neither for a politician who has only been photographed in a cowboy hat for an event, nor a celebrity who wears cowboy boots.
Earl W. Bascom Joe Beeler George Phippen U. Grant Speed Howard Terpning Frank McCarthy Rex Allen, actor Lynne Anderson, singer Gene Autry, singer-songwriter Bill Barwick Johnny Bond Yakima Canutt, rodeo champion, director Wilf Carter, musician Johnny Cash, singer-songwriter Sunset Carson, actor Eddie Dean, actor Joey Rocketshoes Dillon, singer-songwriter, actor, comedian Don Edwards, cowboy singer Dale Evans, singer Juni Fisher Curley Fletcher Monte Hale, singer William S. Hart, director, writer Iron Eyes Cody, actor Ben Johnson, stuntman, rodeo champion Lash LaRue, actor Chris LeDoux, rodeo champion Tom Mix, actor Patsy Montana, singer Clayton Moore, actor Michael Martin Murphey Willie Nelson Bob Nolan, singer Buck Owens, singer Slim Pickens, rodeo performer Tex Ritter, singer-songwriter Marty Robbins,singer Tom Russell Tim Spencer, singer Charles Starrett, actor Bob Steele, actor Ian Tyson Roy Rogers, singer Will Rogers, lasso expert, philanthropist Red Steagall Wes Studi, actor Jimmy Wakely, singer John Wayne, actor Dennis Weaver, environmental activist Johnny Western Slim Whitman Bob Wills, singer Andy Adams, fiction writer Don Bendell, rancher Matt Braun, rancher Ralph Compton Robert J. Conley Walt Coburn and son of the founder of the noted Circle C Ranch Zane Grey and dentist Fred Grove Craig Johnson, author Terry C. Johnston Elmer Kelton Mike Kearby and inventor Louis L'Amour and short story writer Lorin Morgan-Richards, children's author and illustrator Elizabeth Savage Thomas Savage Jack Schaefer S. Omar Barker Baxter Black Arthur Chapman Badger Clark Curley Fletcher Bruce Kiskaddon Wally McRae Joel Nelson Georgie Sicking Red Steagall Steven Fromholz Waddie Mitchell Paul Zarzyski Ben Nighthorse Campbell Ronald Reagan Everett Bowman Trevor Brazile, world rodeo champion Clay Carr Tom R. Ferguson Lewis Feild Ryan Jarrett Hall of Fame rodeo champion Larry Mahan Ty Murray Benny Reynolds Jim Shoulders Casey Tibbs, rodeo performer and actor Fred Whitfield, rodeo performer Sherry Cervi Martha Josey Charmayne James, Hall of Fame champion Warren G. Brown Charles Sampson, bull rider Buck Brannaman Dave Thornbury, lasso expert, trick rider Ken Maynard, trick rider, actor Bill Pickett Cowboy Morgan Evans Bushwacker, three-time World Champion Professional Bull Riders bucking bull, PBR Heroes & Legends Celebration: Brand of Honor bull Bodacious, Professional Rodeo Cowboys Associa