Dorothy L. Sayers
Dorothy Leigh Sayers was a renowned English crime writer and poet. She was a student of classical and modern languages, she is best known for her mysteries, a series of novels and short stories set between the First and Second World Wars that feature English aristocrat and amateur sleuth Lord Peter Wimsey, which remain popular to this day. However, Sayers herself considered her translation of Dante's Divine Comedy to be her best work, she is known for her plays, literary criticism, essays. Sayers, an only child, was born on 13 June 1893 to Helen Mary at the Headmaster's House, Christ Church Cathedral School, Oxford, her mother was born at "The Chestnuts", Hampshire, to Frederick Leigh, a solicitor whose family roots were in the Isle of Wight. Her father, the Rev. Henry Sayers, M. A. from Littlehampton, West Sussex, was a chaplain of Christ Church and headmaster of the Choir School. When Sayers was six, her father started teaching her Latin, she grew up in the tiny village of Bluntisham-cum-Earith in Huntingdonshire after her father was given the living there as rector.
The church graveyard next to the elegant Regency-style rectory features the surnames of several characters from her mystery The Nine Tailors. From 1909, she was educated at a boarding school in Salisbury, her father moved to the simpler living of Christchurch, in Cambridgeshire. In 1912, Sayers won a scholarship to Somerville College, Oxford where she studied modern languages and medieval literature and was taught by Mildred Pope, she finished with first-class honours in 1915. Women were not awarded degrees at that time, but Sayers was among the first to receive a degree when the position changed a few years later, her experience of Oxford academic life inspired her penultimate Peter Wimsey novel, Gaudy Night. Sayers's first book of poetry was published in 1916 as OP. I by Blackwell Publishing in Oxford, her second book of poems, "Catholic Tales and Christian Songs", was published in 1918 by Blackwell. Sayers worked for Blackwell's and as a teacher in several locations, including Normandy, France.
She published a number of poems in the Oxford Magazine. Sayers's longest employment was from 1922 to 1931 as a copywriter at S. H. Benson's advertising agency, located at International Buildings, London. A colleague of hers at the agency was Albert Henry Ross, better known by his literary pseudonym Frank Morison, he wrote the best-selling Christian apologetics book Who Moved the Stone? which explored the historicity of the trial and resurrection of Jesus. Sayers relied on his book when she composed the trial scene of Jesus in her play The Man Born to Be King. Sayers was quite successful as an advertiser, her collaboration with artist John Gilroy resulted in "The Mustard Club" for Colman's Mustard and the Guinness "Zoo" advertisements, variations of which still appear today. One famous example was the Toucan, his bill arching under a glass of Guinness, with Sayers's jingle: Sayers is credited with coining the slogan "It pays to advertise!" She used the advertising industry as the setting of Murder Must Advertise, where she describes the role of truth in advertising:... the firm of Pym's Publicity, Ltd.
Advertising Agents... "Now, Mr. Pym is a man of rigid morality—except, of course, as regards his profession, whose essence is to tell plausible lies for money—" "How about truth in advertising?" "Of course, there is some truth in advertising. There's yeast in bread. Truth in advertising... is like leaven. It provides a suitable quantity of gas, with which to blow out a mass of crude misrepresentation into a form that the public can swallow." Sayers began working out the plot of her first novel some time in 1920–21. The seeds of the plot for Whose Body? can be seen in a letter that Sayers wrote on 22 January 1921: My detective story begins brightly, with a fat lady found dead in her bath with nothing on but her pince-nez. Now why did she wear pince-nez in her bath? If you can guess, you will be in a position to lay hands upon the murderer, but he's a cool and cunning fellow... Lord Peter Wimsey burst upon the world of detective fiction with an explosive "Oh, damn!" and continued to engage readers in eleven novels and two sets of short stories, the final novel ending with a different "Oh, damn!".
Sayers once commented that Lord Peter was a mixture of Fred Astaire and Bertie Wooster, most evident in the first five novels. However, it is evident through Lord Peter's development as a rounded character that he existed in Sayers's mind as a living, breathing human being. Sayers introduced the character of detective novelist Harriet Vane in Strong Poison, she remarked more than once that she had developed the "husky voiced, dark-eyed" Harriet to put an end to Lord Peter via matrimony. But in the course of writing Gaudy Night, Sayers imbued Lord Peter and Harriet with so much life that she was never able, as she put it, to "see Lord Peter exit the stage". Sayers did not content herself with writing pure detective stories. In Gaudy Night, Miss Barton writes a book attacking the Nazi doctrine of Kinder, Küche, which restricted women's roles to family activities, in many ways the no
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone. A monastery includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church, or temple, may serve as an oratory. Monasteries vary in size, comprising a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex comprises a number of buildings which include a church, cloister, library and infirmary. Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community; these may include a hospice, a school, a range of agricultural and manufacturing buildings such as a barn, a forge, or a brewery. In English usage, the term monastery is used to denote the buildings of a community of monks.
In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics communities of teaching or nursing religious sisters. A convent denoted a house of friars, now more called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in more specific ways; the word monastery comes from the Greek word μοναστήριον, neut. of μοναστήριος – monasterios from μονάζειν – monazein "to live alone" from the root μόνος – monos "alone". The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the 1st century AD Jewish philosopher Philo in On The Contemplative Life, ch. III. In England the word monastery was applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community. Most cathedrals were not monasteries, were served by canons secular, which were communal but not monastic. However, some were run by monasteries orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a short time a cathedral, was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation, its Chapter preserves elements of the Benedictine tradition.
See the entry cathedral. They are to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St George's Chapel, Windsor. In most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain branches of Buddhism, there is a somewhat more specific definition of the term and many related terms. Buddhist monasteries are called vihara. Viharas may be occupied by men or women, in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can refer to a temple. In Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are called gompa. In Thailand and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat. In Burma, a monastery is called a kyaung. A Christian monastery may be a priory, or conceivably a hermitage, it may be a community of men or of women. A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order. In Eastern Christianity, a small monastic community can be called a skete, a large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra.
The great communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the anchoretic life of an anchorite and the eremitic life of a hermit. There has been under the Osmanli occupation of Greece and Cyprus, an "idiorrhythmic" lifestyle where monks come together but being able to own things individually and not being obliged to work for the common good. In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, koil, or most an ashram. Jains use the Buddhist term vihara. In most religions the life inside monasteries is governed by community rules that stipulate the gender of the inhabitants and require them to remain celibate and own little or no personal property; the degree to which life inside a particular monastery is separate from the surrounding populace can vary widely. Others focus on interacting with the local communities to provide services, such as teaching, medical care, or evangelism; some monastic communities are only occupied seasonally, depending both on the traditions involved and the local weather, people may be part of a monastic community for periods ranging from a few days at a time to an entire lifetime.
The life within the walls of a monastery may be supported in several ways: by manufacturing and selling goods agricultural products, by donations or alms, by rental or investment incomes, by funds from other organizations within the religion, which in the past formed the traditional support of monasteries. There has been a long tradition of Christian monasteries providing hospitable and hospital services. Monasteries have been associated with the provision of education and the encouragement of scholarship and research, which has led to the establishment of schools and colleges and the association with universities. Christian monastic life has adapted to modern society by offering computer services, accounting services and management as well as modern hospital and educational administration. Buddhist monasteries, known as vihāra i
Mystery Mile is a crime novel by Margery Allingham, first published in 1930, in the United Kingdom by Jarrolds Publishing, in the United States by Doubleday, New York. Following his first, supporting appearance in The Crime at Black Dudley, it is the first of many novels starring the mysterious Albert Campion, introduces his butler/valet/bodyguard Magersfontein Lugg. Crossing the Atlantic on the luxurious liner Elephantine are an American judge, Crowdy Lobbett, his children. A number of people around Judge Lobbett have been murdered, he is said to be fleeing to England for safety. Apparent buffoon Albert Campion offers the family sanctuary with his friends in remote Suffolk, but a local commits suicide, the Judge vanishes, another disappearance follows soon after. What is the Judge's mysterious secret? How was he kidnapped from a remote maze? Can Campion and his friends get to the bottom of things before it's too late? When Campion saves him from certain death on the ship over, Judge Lobbett looks into the man's background, is advised to trust him.
So, he takes Campion's advice and brings his handsome son and pretty daughter down to Mystery Mile, a tiny village on a near-island on the Suffolk coast, where Campion's friends Biddy and Giles Paget own a run-down manor house. The night they arrive, a roving fortune-teller visits, soon afterward the local Rector "St." Swithin Cush, a mild and much-loved man, commits gruesome suicide, leaving a note and some mysterious clues—a red knight from his chess set, the word "Danger" in encrypted form. Settling in at the manor, the judge calls in an art expert to inspect a possible masterpiece, but as the man arrives at the house, the judge vanishes inexplicably, while exploring the maze, they search for the judge's secret knowledge, the clue to the identity of crime boss Simister, which has brought such danger, but find only a large box of children's books. Travelling to London to investigate the judge's enemies, to shake off art expert Barber and Lobbett's son Marlowe are recalled by a shocking telegram, but find the local Post Office man has exaggerated things—not a body, but Judge Lobbett's clothes, have been found.
Next day, Biddy disappears, Campion soon sees that the shopkeeper is behind it. Thos. T Knapp, a low-class criminal of Campion's acquaintance, arrives with news of their enemies, they all decamp to London to rescue Biddy, leaving Lobbett's daughter safe in Campion's flat, they break into the house of the fortune-teller, where Biddy is being cruelly interrogated, after a fight and Campion's use of a smoke-bomb, leaving the gang in disarray. Back at Campion's flat, they see a photo of the judge in a newspaper, Campion reveals that he had arranged for the disappearance, hidden the man on a nearby estate, following St. Swithin's advice, they go there, fetch the judge, he, Giles and Campion decamp for Mystery Mile once more, where they find the household, including Mr Barber, drugged. They retrieve the judge's evidence—a book of stories from the Thousand and One Nights from his set—and Giles and the judge flee using the same path used to smuggle the judge away before, a boat from a beach near some dangerous "soft" – mud that works like quicksand.
Campion sits in the hut and deciphers the clue—the art expert's name is Ali Barber. The man comes in, reveals his secret role as Simister, head of a colossal criminal gang, inherited from his father, he tries to kill Campion with a syringe filled with acid, but Campion breaks through the floor of the hut and falls beneath it. Barber is taken by the soft mud, dying horribly. Recuperating Campion's friend Stanislaus Oates tells him the secret of Swithin Cush's suicide – he was in fact not a parson at all, having taken the place of his brother who died young; the fortune-teller, a blackmailer working for Simister, threatened to reveal it. Biddy and Giles Paget plan to marry Marlowe and Isopel Lobbett and to sell the valuable painting for a small fortune. Albert Campion, mysterious but amiable adventurer Magersfontein Lugg, Campion's servant, a beefy ex-crook Giles Paget, owner of the manor on Mystery Mile, a friend of Campion Biddy Paget, Giles' sister, whom Campion admires Addlepate owned by Campion but now the Paget's dog Crowdy Lobbett, an American judge, scourge of gangsters Marlowe Lobbett, his handsome son Isopel Lobbett, his attractive daughter Swithin Cush, rector of Mystery Mile, a friend of the Pagets Ali Ferguson Barber, art collector and bore Thos.
T Knapp, low-class London criminal, a friend of Campion The setting, the semi-island of Mystery Mile, is based on Mersea Island, where Allingham spent some time in her youth, set her first novel, Blackkerchief Dick. The book includes some hints about Campion's background. We learn his real first name is "Rudolph", last name begins with "K", and we learn that Campion looks enough like some Very Important Person to impersonate him on a trip to Asia. These hints appear on throughout many other Campion novels. Campion's affection for Biddy, jealousy of Marlowe Lobbett, is quite apparent throughout, though never explicitly stated. Campion's thoughts turn to Biddy again in Look to the Lady; the character of Simister bears striking similarity to Keyser Söze, a fictional character in the 1995 film The Usual Suspects — an all powerful crime lord, operating through minions so that he himself is never exposed, thought by many to be a myth, to have existed too long to be a single man, originating from the Middle East.
The story was adapted for television by the BBC, the last of eight Campion stories starring Peter Davison as Campion and Brian Glover as Lugg. Broadcast
Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy. Telegraphy requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used; the use of smoke signals, reflected light signals, flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy; the advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy. In the Internet age, telegraphic means developed in sophistication and ease of use, with natural language interfaces that hide the underlying code, allowing such technologies as electronic mail and instant messaging; the word "telegraph" was first coined by the French inventor of the Semaphore telegraph, Claude Chappe, who coined the word "semaphore".
A "telegraph" is a device for transmitting and receiving messages over long distances, i.e. for telegraphy. The word "telegraph" alone now refers to an electrical telegraph. Wireless telegraphy, transmission of messages over radio with telegraphic codes. Contrary to the extensive definition used by Chappe, Morse argued that the term telegraph can be applied only to systems that transmit and record messages at a distance; this is to be distinguished from semaphore, which transmits messages. Smoke signals, for instance, are to be considered semaphore, not telegraph. According to Morse, telegraph dates only from 1832 when Pavel Schilling invented one of the earliest electrical telegraphs. A telegraph message sent by an electrical telegraph operator or telegrapher using Morse code was known as a telegram. A cablegram was a message sent by a submarine telegraph cable shortened to a cable or a wire. A Telex was a message sent by a Telex network, a switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network.
A wire picture or wire photo was a newspaper picture, sent from a remote location by a facsimile telegraph. A diplomatic telegram known as a diplomatic cable, is the term given to a confidential communication between a diplomatic mission and the foreign ministry of its parent country; these continue to be called cables regardless of the method used for transmission. Passing messages by signalling over distance is an ancient practice. One of the oldest examples is the signal towers of the Great Wall of China. In 400 BC, signals could drum beats. By 200 BC complex flag signalling had developed, by the Han dynasty signallers had a choice of lights, flags, or gunshots to send signals. By the Tang dynasty a message could be sent 700 miles in 24 hours; the Ming dynasty added artillery to the possible signals. While the signalling was complex, only predetermined messages could be sent; the Chinese signalling system extended well beyond the Great Wall. Signal towers away from the wall were used to give early warning of an attack.
Others were built further out as part of the protection of trade routes the Silk Road. Signal fires were used in Europe and elsewhere for military purposes; the Roman army made frequent use of them, as did their enemies, the remains of some of the stations still exist. Few details have been recorded of European/Mediterranean signalling systems and the possible messages. One of the few for which details are known is a system invented by Aeneas Tacticus. Tacitus's system had water filled pots at the two signal stations which were drained in synchronisation. Annotation on a floating scale indicated which message was being received. Signals sent by means of torches indicated when to start and stop draining to keep the synchronisation. None of the signalling systems discussed above are true telegraphs in the sense of a system that can transmit arbitrary messages over arbitrary distances. Lines of signalling relay stations can send messages to any required distance, but all these systems are limited to one extent or another in the range of messages that they can send.
A system like flag semaphore, with an alphabetic code, can send any given message, but the system is designed for short-range communication between two persons. An engine order telegraph, used to send instructions from the bridge of a ship to the engine room, fails to meet both criteria. There was only one ancient signalling system described; that was a system using the Polybius square to encode an alphabet. Polybius suggested using two successive groups of torches to identify the coordinates of the letter of the alphabet being transmitted; the number of said torches held up signalled the grid square. The system would have been slow for military purposes and there is no record of it being used. An optical telegraph, or semaphore telegraph is a telegraph consisting of a line of stations in towers or natural high points which signal to each other by means of shutters or paddles. Early proposals for an optical telegraph system were made to the Royal Society by Robert Hooke in 1684 and were first implemented on an experimental level by Sir Richard Lovell Edgeworth in 1767.
The first successful optical telegraph network was invented by Claude Chappe and operated in France from 1
Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward was related to royalty throughout Europe, he was heir apparent to the British throne and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. He was heir presumptive to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha until before his marriage he renounced his right to the duchy, which devolved to his younger brother Alfred. During the long reign of his mother, he was excluded from political power, came to personify the fashionable, leisured elite, he travelled throughout Britain performing ceremonial public duties, represented Britain on visits abroad. His tours of North America in 1860 and the Indian subcontinent in 1875 were popular successes, but despite public approval his reputation as a playboy prince soured his relationship with his mother; as king, Edward played a role in the modernisation of the British Home Fleet and the reorganisation of the British Army after the Second Boer War.
He reinstituted traditional ceremonies as public displays and broadened the range of people with whom royalty socialised. He fostered good relations between Britain and other European countries France, for which he was popularly called "Peacemaker", but his relationship with his nephew, the German Emperor Wilhelm II, was poor; the Edwardian era, which covered Edward's reign and was named after him, coincided with the start of a new century and heralded significant changes in technology and society, including steam turbine propulsion and the rise of socialism. He died in 1910 in the midst of a constitutional crisis, resolved the following year by the Parliament Act 1911, which restricted the power of the unelected House of Lords. Edward was born at 10:48 in the morning on 9 November 1841 in Buckingham Palace, he was the eldest son and second child of Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was christened Albert Edward at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 25 January 1842.
He was named Albert after his father and Edward after his maternal grandfather Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. He was known as Bertie to the royal family throughout his life; as the eldest son of the British sovereign, he was automatically Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth. As a son of Prince Albert, he held the titles of Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony, he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 8 December 1841, Earl of Dublin on 10 September 1849 or 17 January 1850, a Knight of the Garter on 9 November 1858, a Knight of the Thistle on 24 May 1867. In 1863, he renounced his succession rights to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in favour of his younger brother, Prince Alfred. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were determined that their eldest son should have an education that would prepare him to be a model constitutional monarch. At age seven, Edward embarked on a rigorous educational programme devised by Prince Albert, supervised by several tutors.
Unlike his elder sister Victoria, Edward did not excel in his studies. He to no avail. Although Edward was not a diligent student—his true talents were those of charm and tact—Benjamin Disraeli described him as informed, intelligent and of sweet manner. After the completion of his secondary-level studies, his tutor was replaced by a personal governor, Robert Bruce. After an educational trip to Rome, undertaken in the first few months of 1859, he spent the summer of that year studying at the University of Edinburgh under, among others, the chemist Lyon Playfair. In October, he matriculated as an undergraduate at Oxford. Now released from the educational strictures imposed by his parents, he enjoyed studying for the first time and performed satisfactorily in examinations. In 1861, he transferred to Trinity College, where he was tutored in history by Charles Kingsley, Regius Professor of Modern History. Kingsley's efforts brought forth the best academic performances of Edward's life, Edward looked forward to his lectures.
In 1860, Edward undertook the first tour of North America by a Prince of Wales. His genial good humour and confident bonhomie made the tour a great success, he inaugurated the Victoria Bridge, across the St Lawrence River, laid the cornerstone of Parliament Hill, Ottawa. He watched Charles Blondin traverse Niagara Falls by highwire, stayed for three days with President James Buchanan at the White House. Buchanan accompanied the Prince to Mount Vernon, to pay his respects at the tomb of George Washington. Vast crowds greeted him everywhere, he met Ralph Waldo Emerson and Oliver Wendell Holmes. Prayers for the royal family were said in Trinity Church, New York, for the first time since 1776; the four-month tour throughout Canada and the United States boosted Edward's confidence and self-esteem, had many diplomatic benefits for Great Britain. Edward had hoped to pursue a career in the British Army, but his mother vetoed an active military career, he had been gazetted colonel on 9 November 1858—to his disappointment, as he had wanted to earn his commission by examination.
In September 1861, Edward was sent to Germany to watch military manoeuvres, but in order to engineer a meeting between him and Princess Alexandra of Denmark, the eldest daughter of Prince Christian of Denmark and his wife Louise. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert had decided that Edward and Alexandra should marry, they met at Speyer on 24 September under the auspices of his elder sister, who ha
Fox hunting is an activity involving the tracking, chase and, if caught, the killing of a fox, traditionally a red fox, by trained foxhounds or other scent hounds, a group of unarmed followers led by a "master of foxhounds", who follow the hounds on foot or on horseback. Fox hunting with hounds, as a formalised activity, originated in England in the sixteenth century, in a form similar to that practised until February 2005, when a law banning the activity in England and Wales came into force. A ban on hunting in Scotland had been passed in 2002, but it continues to be within the law in Northern Ireland and several other countries, including Australia, France and the United States. In Australia, the term refers to the hunting of foxes with firearms, similar to deer hunting. In much of the world, hunting in general is understood to relate to any game weapons; the sport is controversial in the UK. Proponents of fox hunting view it as an important part of rural culture, useful for reasons of conservation and pest control, while opponents argue that it is cruel and unnecessary.
The use of scenthounds to track prey dates back to Assyrian and ancient Egyptian times, was known as venery. Many Greek - and Roman - influenced. Hunting with Agassaei hounds was popular in Celtic Britain before the Romans arrived, introducing the Castorian and Fulpine hound breeds which they used to hunt. Norman hunting traditions were brought to Britain when William the Conqueror arrived, along with the Gascon and Talbot hounds. Foxes were referred to as beasts of the chase by medieval times, along with the red deer and roes, but the earliest known attempt to hunt a fox with hounds was in Norfolk, England, in 1534, where farmers began chasing foxes down with their dogs for the purpose of pest control; the first use of packs trained to hunt foxes was in the late 1600s, with the oldest fox hunt being the Bilsdale in Yorkshire. By the end of the seventeenth century, deer hunting was in decline; the Inclosure Acts brought fences to separate open land into many smaller fields, deer forests were being cut down, arable land was increasing.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, people began to move out of the country and into towns and cities to find work. Roads, railway lines, canals all split hunting countries, but at the same time they made hunting accessible to more people. Shotguns were improved during the nineteenth century and the shooting of gamebirds became more popular. Fox hunting developed further in the eighteenth century when Hugo Meynell developed breeds of hound and horse to address the new geography of rural England. In Germany, hunting with hounds was first banned on the initiative of Hermann Göring on July 3, 1934. In 1939, the ban was extended to cover Austria after Germany's annexation of the country. Bernd Ergert, the director of Germany's hunting museum in Munich, said of the ban, "The aristocrats were understandably furious, but they could do nothing about the ban given the totalitarian nature of the regime." According to the Masters of Foxhounds Association of America, Englishman Robert Brooke was the first man to import hunting hounds to America, bringing his pack of foxhounds to Maryland in 1650 along with his horses.
Around this time, numbers of European red foxes were introduced into the Eastern seaboard of North America for hunting. The first organised hunt for the benefit of a group was started by Thomas, sixth Lord Fairfax in 1747. In the United States, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson both kept packs of fox hounds before and after the American Revolutionary War. In Australia, the European red fox was introduced for the purpose of fox hunting in 1855. Native animal populations have been badly affected, with the extinction of at least 10 species attributed to the spread of foxes. Fox hunting with hounds is practised in the east of Australia. In the state of Victoria there are thirteen hunts, with more than 1000 members between them. Fox hunting with hounds results in around 650 foxes being killed annually in Victoria, compared with over 90,000 shot over a similar period in response to a State government bounty; the Adelaide Hunt Club traces its origins to 1840, just a few years after colonization of South Australia.
The controversy around hunting led to the passing of the Hunting Act 2004 in November of that year, after a free vote in the House of Commons, which made "hunting wild mammals with a pack of dogs" unlawful in England and Wales from February 18, 2005. However, exemptions stated in Schedule 1 of the 2004 Act permit some unusual forms of hunting wild mammals with dogs to continue, such as "hunting... for the purpose of enabling a bird of prey to hunt the wild mammal". An amendment to the 2004 Act which would have allowed licensed traditional hunting under stricter conditions, advocated by the Prime Minister Tony Blair and some members of the government's independent inquiry on fox hunting, was voted down; the passing of the Hunting Act was notable in that it was implemented through the use of the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 after the House of Lords refused to pass the legislation, despite the Commons passing it by a majority of 356 to 166. Scotland, which has its own Parliament, restricted fox hunting in 2002, more tha