Robyn Rowan Hitchcock is an English singer-songwriter and guitarist. While a vocalist and guitarist, he plays harmonica and bass guitar. After reaching prominence in the late 1970s with The Soft Boys, Hitchcock launched a prolific solo career, his musical and lyrical styles have been influenced by Bob Dylan, John Lennon, Syd Barrett, Captain Beefheart, Bryan Ferry and Roger McGuinn. Hitchcock's lyrics tend to include surrealism, comedic elements, characterisations of English eccentrics, melancholy depictions of everyday life, he has recorded for two major American labels over the course of the 1980s and 1990s, was the subject of a live performance/documentary film by major motion picture director Jonathan Demme in 1998, but despite this, mainstream success has been limited. He has earned strong critical reviews over a steady stream of album releases and live performances, a "cult following" for his songs. Hitchcock was educated at Winchester College, where he was a "groovy and alternative" friend of Julia Darling.
While at art school in London around 1972, Hitchcock was a member of the college band the Beetles. In 1974 he moved to Cambridge, where he did some busking, joined a series of local bands: B. B. Blackberry and the Swelterettes, the Worst Fears, Maureen and the Meatpackers, his next group and the Experts, became the neo-psychedelia band The Soft Boys in Cambridge in 1976, recording their first EP, "Give It to the Soft Boys", at Spaceward studios, Cambridge, in 1977. After recording A Can of Bees and Underwater Moonlight the group broke up in 1981. Hitchcock released his solo debut, Black Snake Diamond Röle in 1981, which included instrumental backing by several former Soft Boys, he followed it in 1982 with the critically maligned Groovy Decay. Following his solo acoustic album I Often Dream of Trains in 1984, he formed a new band, The Egyptians, comprising former members of the Soft Boys, resulting in their 1985 debut Fegmania!, which featured surrealist Hitchcock songs such as "My Wife and My Dead Wife" and "The Man with the Lightbulb Head".
Their popularity grew with the 1986 album Element of Light and they were subsequently signed to A&M Records in the U. S; the album Globe of Frogs, released in 1988, further expanded their reach, as the single "Balloon Man" became a college radio and MTV hit, followed in 1989 by "Madonna of the Wasps" from their Queen Elvis album. In 1989 they teamed up with Peter Buck of R. E. M. and Peter Holsapple of The dB's, playing two gigs as Nigel and the Crosses covers. The Crosses had their cover of "Wild Mountain Thyme" included on a Byrds tribute album, though Hitchcock always alluded to the Bryan Ferry version when performing it live with the Egyptians. At the beginning of 1990, Hitchcock took a break from the Egyptians and A&M Records to release another solo acoustic album, Eye resumed with the band's Perspex Island release in 1991. 1993's Respect, influenced a great deal by his father's death, marked the last Egyptians release and the end of his association with A&M Records. Early in 1994, after disbanding the Egyptians, Hitchcock embarked on a short reunion tour with the Soft Boys.
His work received a slight boost in 1995 when his back catalogue were re-packaged and re-issued in the United States by the respected Rhino Records label. For the rest of the decade he continued recording and performing as a solo artist, releasing several albums on Warner Brothers Records, such as 1996's Moss Elixir, the soundtrack from the Jonathan Demme-directed concert film Storefront Hitchcock in 1998; the 1999 release Jewels for Sophia on Warner, featured cameos from Southern California-based musicians Jon Brion and Grant-Lee Phillips, both of whom shared the stage with Hitchcock when he played Los Angeles nightclub Largo. An album of outtakes from the Sophia sessions called A Star for Bram, released on Hitchcock's own label and his subsequent albums appeared on a variety of independent labels. In 1999 he authorised a book about him written by Italian underground writer Luca Ferrari, edited in December 2000 in Italian-English with the title A Middle-Class Hero: a long'in the raw' interview about life, religion and passions that portraits the musician as human and real.
Included some of his paintings and for the first time his father Raymond's old ones. In 2001 Hitchcock reunited and toured with Kimberley Rew, bassist Matthew Seligman, Morris Windsor for the Soft Boys' re-release of their best-known album, 1980's Underwater Moonlight; the following year they recorded and released a new album, accompanied by a short album of outtakes, Side Three. The reunion proved to be short-lived; the 2002 double album Robyn Sings comprised cover versions of Bob Dylan songs, including a live re-creation of Dylan's so-called Live at the Royal Albert Hall 1966 concert. Hitchcock celebrated his 50th birthday in 2003 with a concert at the Queen Elizabeth Hall in London at which his then-new solo acoustic album Luxor was given away as a gift to all those attending, an original poem of his was read by actor Alan Rickman, he continued collaborating with a series of different musicians, as on the album Spooked, recorded with country/folk duo Gillian Welch and David Rawlings. The Soft Boys re-formed again in 2006 to perform a
Methamphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant, used as a recreational drug and less as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity. Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine. Methamphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, an equal mixture of levomethamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine in their pure amine forms, it is prescribed over concerns involving human neurotoxicity and potential for recreational use as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant, among other concerns, as well as the availability of safer substitute drugs with comparable treatment efficacy. Dextromethamphetamine is a much stronger CNS stimulant than levomethamphetamine. Both methamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine are illicitly trafficked and sold owing to their potential for recreational use; the highest prevalence of illegal methamphetamine use occurs in parts of Asia, in the United States, where racemic methamphetamine, levomethamphetamine, dextromethamphetamine are classified as schedule II controlled substances.
Levomethamphetamine is available as an over-the-counter drug for use as an inhaled nasal decongestant in the United States. Internationally, the production, distribution and possession of methamphetamine is restricted or banned in many countries, due to its placement in schedule II of the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty. While dextromethamphetamine is a more potent drug, racemic methamphetamine is sometimes illicitly produced due to the relative ease of synthesis and limited availability of chemical precursors. In low to moderate doses, methamphetamine can elevate mood, increase alertness and energy in fatigued individuals, reduce appetite, promote weight loss. At high doses, it can induce psychosis, breakdown of skeletal muscle and bleeding in the brain. Chronic high-dose use can precipitate unpredictable and rapid mood swings, stimulant psychosis and violent behavior. Recreationally, methamphetamine's ability to increase energy has been reported to lift mood and increase sexual desire to such an extent that users are able to engage in sexual activity continuously for several days.
Methamphetamine is known to possess a high addiction liability and high dependence liability. Heavy recreational use of methamphetamine may lead to a post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, which can persist for months beyond the typical withdrawal period. Unlike amphetamine, methamphetamine is neurotoxic to human midbrain dopaminergic neurons, it has been shown to damage serotonin neurons in the CNS. This damage includes adverse changes in brain structure and function, such as reductions in grey matter volume in several brain regions and adverse changes in markers of metabolic integrity. Methamphetamine belongs to the substituted phenethylamine and substituted amphetamine chemical classes, it is related to the other dimethylphenethylamines as a positional isomer of these compounds, which share the common chemical formula: C10H15N1. In the United States, dextromethamphetamine hydrochloride, under the trade name Desoxyn, has been approved by the FDA for treating ADHD and obesity in both adults and children.
Methamphetamine is sometimes prescribed off label for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. In the United States, methamphetamine's levorotary form is available in some over-the-counter nasal decongestant products; as methamphetamine is associated with a high potential for misuse, the drug is regulated under the Controlled Substances Act and is listed under Schedule II in the United States. Methamphetamine hydrochloride dispensed in the United States is required to include a boxed warning regarding its potential for recreational misuse and addiction liability. Methamphetamine is used recreationally for its effects as a potent euphoriant and stimulant as well as aphrodisiac qualities. According to a National Geographic TV documentary on methamphetamine, an entire subculture known as party and play is based around sexual activity and methamphetamine use. Participants in this subculture, which consists entirely of homosexual male methamphetamine users, will meet up through internet dating sites and have sex.
Due to its strong stimulant and aphrodisiac effects and inhibitory effect on ejaculation, with repeated use, these sexual encounters will sometimes occur continuously for several days on end. The crash following the use of methamphetamine in this manner is often severe, with marked hypersomnia; the party and play subculture is prevalent in major US cities such as San Francisco and New York City. Methamphetamine is contraindicated in individuals with a history of substance use disorder, heart disease, or severe agitation or anxiety, or in individuals experiencing arteriosclerosis, hyperthyroidism, or severe hypertension; the FDA states that individuals who have experienced hypersensitivity reactions to other stimulants in the past or are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors should not take methamphetamine. The FDA advises individuals with bipolar disorder, elevated blood pressure, liver or kidney problems, psychosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, thyroid problems, tics, or Tourette s
Bakersfield is a city in and the county seat of Kern County, United States. It covers about 151 sq mi near the southern end of the San Joaquin Valley and the Central Valley region. Bakersfield's population is around 380,000, making it the 9th-most populous city in California and the 52nd-most populous city in the nation; the Bakersfield–Delano Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Kern County, had a 2010 census population of 839,631, making it the 62nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States. The more built-up urban area that includes Bakersfield and areas around the city, such as East Bakersfield and Rosedale, has a population of over 520,000. Bakersfield is a charter city; the city is a significant hub for both oil production. Kern County is the most productive oil-producing county and the fourth-most productive agricultural county in the United States. Industries include natural gas and other energy extraction, mining, petroleum refining, distribution, food processing, corporate regional offices.
The city is the birthplace of the country music genre known as the Bakersfield sound. Archaeological evidence indicates the presence of Native American settlements dating back thousands of years; the Yokuts lived in lodges along the branches of the Kern River delta and hunted antelope, tule elk, bear and game birds. In 1776, Spanish missionary Father Francisco Garcés became the first European to explore the area. Owing to the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, the Yokuts remained isolated until after the Mexican War of Independence, when Mexican settlers began to migrate to the area. Following the discovery of gold in California in 1848, settlers flooded into the San Joaquin Valley. In 1851, gold was discovered along the Kern River in the southern Sierra Nevada, in 1865, oil was discovered in the valley; the Bakersfield area, once a tule reed-covered marshland, was first known as Kern Island to the handful of pioneers, who built log cabins there in 1860. The area was subject to periodic flooding from the Kern River, which occupied what is now the downtown area, experienced outbreaks of malaria.
In 1862, disastrous floods swept away the original settlement founded in 1860 by the German-born Christian Bohna. Among those attracted to the area by the California gold rush was Thomas Baker, a lawyer and former colonel in the militia of Ohio, his home state. Baker moved to the banks of the Kern River in 1863, at what became known as Baker's Field, which became a stopover for travelers. By 1870, with a population of 600, what is now known as Bakersfield was becoming the principal town in Kern County. In 1873, Bakersfield was incorporated as a city, by 1874, it replaced the dying town of Havilah as the county seat. Alexander Mills was hired as the city marshal, a man one historian would describe as "... an old man by the time he became Marshal of Bakersfield, he walked with a cane. But he was a Kentuckian, a handy man with a gun, not lacking in initiative and resource when the mood moved him." Businessmen and others began to resent Mills, cantankerous and high-handed in his treatment of them.
Wanting to fire him but fearing reprisals, they came up with a scheme to disincorporate leaving him without an employer. According to local historian Gilbert Gia the city was failing to collect the taxes it needed for services. In 1876, the city voted to disincorporate. For the next 22 years, a citizen's council managed the community. By 1880, the town had a population of 801, by 1890, it had a population of 2,626. Migration from Texas, Louisiana and Southern California brought new residents, who were employed by the oil industry; the city reincorporated on January 11, 1898. On July 21, 1952, an earthquake struck at 4:52 am Pacific Daylight Time; the earthquake, which measured 7.5 on the moment magnitude scale and was felt from San Francisco to the Mexican border, destroyed the nearby communities of Tehachapi and Arvin. The earthquake's destructive force bent cotton fields into U shapes, slid a shoulder of the Tehachapi Mountains across all four lanes of the Ridge Route, collapsed a water tower creating a flash flood, destroyed the railroad tunnels in the mountain chain.
Bakersfield was spared. A large aftershock occurred on July 29, did minor architectural damage, but raised fears that the flow of the Friant-Kern Canal could be dangerously altered flooding the city and surrounding areas. Aftershocks, for the next month, had become normal to Bakersfield residents until, on August 22 at 3:42 pm, a 5.8 earthquake struck directly under the town's center in the most densely populated area of the southern San Joaquin Valley. Four people died in the aftershock, some of the town's historic structures sustained heavy damage. Between 1970 and 2010, Bakersfield grew 400%, making it one of the fastest-growing cities in California. Bakersfield's close proximity to mountain passes the Tejon Pass on Interstate 5 between the Los Angeles metropolis and the central San Joaquin Valley, has made the city a regional transportation hub. In 1990, Bakersfield was one of 10 U. S. communities to receive the All-America City Award from the National Civic League. In 2010, the Bakersfield MSA had a gross metropolitan product of $29.466 billion, making it the 73rd-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Bakersfield lies near the southern "horseshoe" end of the San Joaquin Valley, with the southern tip of the Sierra Nevada just to the east. The city limits extend to the Sequoia National Forest, at the foot of the Greenhorn Mountain Range and at the en
Duran Duran are an English new wave band formed in Birmingham in 1978. The band were one of the most successful acts of the 1980s, but by the end of the decade and music style changes challenged the band before a resurgence in the early 1990s; the group were a leading band in the MTV-driven "Second British Invasion" of the US. They achieved 14 singles in the top 10 of the UK Singles Chart and 21 in the Billboard Hot 100, have sold over 100 million records worldwide; when the band emerged they were considered part of the New Romantic scene, along with bands such as Spandau Ballet and Visage. However, Duran Duran would soon shed this image by using fashion and marketing to build a more refined and elegant presentation; the band has won a number of awards throughout their career: two Brit Awards including the 2004 award for Outstanding Contribution to Music, two Grammy Awards, an MTV Video Music Award for Lifetime Achievement, a Video Visionary Award from the MTV Europe Music Awards. They were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
The video age catapulted Duran Duran into the mainstream with the introduction of the 24-hour music channel MTV. Many of their videos were shot on 35 mm film, which gave a much more polished look than was standard at the time, they collaborated with professional film directors to take the quality a step further teaming up with Australian director Russell Mulcahy for some of their most memorable video offerings. In 1984, the band were early innovators with video technology in their live stadium shows; the group was formed by keyboardist Nick Rhodes and bass guitarist John Taylor, with the addition of drummer Roger Taylor, after numerous personnel changes, guitarist Andy Taylor and lead singer Simon Le Bon. These five members featured the most commercially successful line-up; the group has never disbanded, but after separation of Andy and Roger Taylor in 1986, the line-up has changed to include former Missing Persons American guitarist Warren Cuccurullo from 1989 to 2001 and American drummer Sterling Campbell from 1989 to 1991.
The reunion of the original five members in the early 2000s created a stir among the band's fans and music media. Andy Taylor left the band once again in mid-2006, guitarist Dom Brown has since been working with the band as a session player and touring member. John Taylor and Nick Rhodes formed Duran Duran in Birmingham, England, in 1978, where they became the resident band at the city's Rum Runner nightclub, they were doing jobs at John working the door and Nick deejaying for £ 10 a night. They began rehearsing and playing at the venue. There were many nearby nightclubs where bands such as the Sex Pistols and the Clash played gigs, the most significant was called Barbarella's, they went on to name the band after the Milo O'Shea character from Barbarella, a Roger Vadim sci-fi film, "Dr. Durand Durand"; the band's first singer was Stephen Duffy. Simon Colley soon joined Taylor and Duffy. Colley was the band's original bass player; this was the first complete line-up of the band. For percussion, an electronic drum machine belonging to Rhodes was used.
Colley left the band prior to the addition of Andy Taylor. A few guitarists were subsequently auditioned unsuccessfully, as well as a handful of vocalists after Duffy left Duran Duran early in 1979. Among them was a vocalist they had prior to Simon Le Bon, Andy Wickett, who had a major part in the writing of "Girls on Film" during his tenure with the band, according to Andy Taylor's autobiography. Wickett is featured on some of the demos that were presented to EMI. According to both Wickett's and John Taylor's websites, Wickett co-wrote an early version of the song that came to be known as "Rio". Upon Colley's and Wickett's departures, the band enlisted singer Jeff Thomas and guitarist Alan Curtis, each for only a brief period, before settling on Andy Taylor for lead guitar and Le Bon for vocals in 1980; the meeting of drummer Roger Taylor in 1979 with John Taylor and Wickett at a party, as well as the departure of Colley, led John Taylor to switch to bass. Roger Taylor became their original drummer.
It was this line-up. In April 1980, guitarist Andy Taylor came from Newcastle to audition after responding to an advertisement in Melody Maker. In May 1980, London vocalist Simon Le Bon was recommended to the band by an ex-girlfriend who worked at the Rum Runner; the owners of the club, brothers Paul and Michael Berrow, became the band's management, paying them to work as doormen, disc jockeys and busboys when they were not rehearsing. In 1980 they performed in clubs around Birmingham and London; that same year, when touring as an opening act for Hazel O'Connor, the band attracted critical attention, resulting in a bidding war between the record companies EMI and Phonogram. "A certain patriotism" toward the label of the Beatles led them to sign with EMI in December. Duran Duran were amongst the earliest bands to work on their own remixes. Before the days of digital synthesizers and easy audio sampling, they created multi-layered arrangements of their singles, sometimes recording different extended performances of the songs in the studio.
These "night versions" were available only on vinyl as b-sides to 45-rpm singles or on 12-inch club singles until the release of the compilation Night Versions: The Essential Duran Duran in 1999. From the beginning of their career, all the members had a keen sense of visual style, they worked with stylist Perry Haines and fashion desig
Psychedelic rock is a diverse style of rock music inspired, influenced, or representative of psychedelic culture, centred around perception-altering hallucinogenic drugs. The music is intended to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of psychedelic drugs, most notably LSD. Many psychedelic groups differ in style, the label is applied spuriously. Originating in the mid-1960s among British and American musicians, the sounds of psychedelic rock invokes three core effects of LSD: depersonalization and dynamization. Musically, the effects may be represented via novelty studio tricks, electronic or non-Western instrumentation, disjunctive song structures, extended instrumental segments; some of the earlier 1960s psychedelic rock musicians were based in folk and the blues, while others showcased an explicit Indian classical influence called "raga rock". In the 1960s, there existed two main variants of the genre: the whimsical British pop-psychedelia and the harder American West Coast acid rock.
While "acid rock" is sometimes deployed interchangeably with the term "psychedelic rock", it refers more to the heavier and more extreme ends of the genre. The peak years of psychedelic rock were between 1966 and 1969, with milestone events including the 1967 Summer of Love and the 1969 Woodstock Rock Festival, becoming an international musical movement associated with a widespread counterculture before beginning a decline as changing attitudes, the loss of some key individuals and a back-to-basics movement, led surviving performers to move into new musical areas; the genre bridged the transition from early blues and folk-based rock to progressive rock and hard rock, as a result contributed to the development of sub-genres such as heavy metal. Since the late 1970s it has been revived in various forms of neo-psychedelia; as a musical style, psychedelic rock attempted to replicate the effects of and enhance the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs, incorporating new electronic sound effects and recording effects, extended solos, improvisation.
Common features include: electric guitars used with feedback, wah wah and fuzzbox effects units. The term "psychedelic" was coined in 1956 by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond first as an alternative descriptor for hallucinogenic drugs in the context of psychedelic psychotherapy; as the countercultural scene developed in San Francisco, the terms acid rock and psychedelic rock were used in 1966 to describe the new drug-influenced music and were being used by 1967. The terms psychedelic rock and acid rock are used interchangeably, but acid rock may be distinguished as a more extreme variation, heavier, relied on long jams, focused more directly on LSD, made greater use of distortion. In the popular music of the early 1960s, it was common for producers and engineers to experiment with musical form, unnatural reverb, other sound effects; some of the best known examples are Phil Spector's Wall of Sound production formula and Joe Meek's use of homemade electronics for acts like the Tornados. XTC's Andy Partridge interprets the music of psychedelic groups as a "grown-up" version of children's novelty records, believing that many acts were trying to emulate those records that they grew up with.
There was no transition to be made. You go from things like'Flying Purple People Eater' to'I Am the Walrus', they go hand-in-hand." Music critic Richie Unterberger says that attempts to "pin down" the first psychedelic record are therefore "nearly as elusive as trying to name the first rock & roll record". Some of the "far-fetched claims" include the instrumental "Telstar" and the Dave Clark Five's "massively reverb-laden" "Any Way You Want It"; the first mention of LSD on a rock record was the Gamblers' 1960 surf instrumental "LSD 25". A 1962 single by The Ventures, "The 2000 Pound Bee", issued forth the buzz of a distorted, "fuzztone" guitar, the quest into "the possibilities of heavy, transistorised distortion" and other effects, like improved reverb and echo began in earnest on London's fertile rock'n' roll scene. By 1964 fuzztone could be heard on singles by P. J. Proby, the Beatles had employed feedback in "I Feel Fine", their 6th consecutive No. 1 hit in the UK. American folk singer Bob Dylan was a massive influence on mid 1960s rock music.
He led directly to the creation of folk rock and the psychedelic rock musicians that followed, his lyrics were a touchstone for the psychedelic songwriters of the late 1960s. Virtuoso sitarist Ravi Shankar had begun in 1956 a mission to bring Indian classical music to the West, inspiring jazz and folk musicians.
The Kern River Rio de San Felipe La Porciuncula, is a river in the U. S. state of California 165 miles long. It drains an area of the southern Sierra Nevada mountains northeast of Bakersfield. Fed by snowmelt near Mount Whitney, the river passes through scenic canyons in the mountains and is a popular destination for whitewater rafting and kayaking, it is the only major river in the Sierra Nevada mountain range. The Kern River emptied into the now dry Buena Vista Lake and Kern Lake via the Kern River Slough, Kern Lake in turn emptied into Buena Vista Lake via the Connecting Slough at the southern end of the Central Valley. Buena Vista Lake, when overflowing, first backed up into Kern Lake and upon rising higher drained into Tulare Lake via Buena Vista Slough and a changing series of sloughs of the Kern River; the lakes were part of a endorheic basin that sometimes overflowed into the San Joaquin River. This basin included the Kaweah and Tule Rivers, as well as southern distributaries of the Kings that all flowed into Tulare Lake.
Since the late 19th century the Kern has been entirely diverted for irrigation, recharging aquifers and the California Aqueduct, although some water empties into Lake Webb and Lake Evans, two small lakes in a portion of the former Buena Vista Lakebed. The lakes were created in 1973 for recreational use; the lakes hold. Crops are grown in the rest of the former lakebed. In wet years the river will reach the Tulare Lake basin through a series of sloughs and flood channels. Despite its remote source, nearly all of the river is publicly accessible; the Kern River is popular for wilderness hiking and whitewater rafting. The Upper Kern River is paralleled by trails to within a half-mile of its source. With the presence of Lake Isabella, the river is perennial down to the lower Tulare Basin, its swift flow at low elevation makes the river below the reservoir an popular location for rafting. The Kern River is the southernmost river in the San Joaquin Valley, it begins in the Sierra Nevada on the eastern side of Tulare County and ends on the west side of Kern County where it is diverted for local water supplies.
The main branch of the river rises from several small lakes west of Mount Whitney in the high Sierra Nevada mountains in northeastern Tulare County, in the northeast corner of Sequoia National Park. It flows south through the mountains, passing through Inyo and Sequoia national forests, the Golden Trout Wilderness; the Little Kern River joins from the northwest at a site called Forks of the Kern. At Kernville the river emerges from its narrow canyon into a widening valley where it is impounded in Lake Isabella, a reservoir formed by Isabella Dam; the area was once known as the former location of the town of Kernville. The South Fork Kern River joins in Lake Isabella. Like the North Fork, the South Fork rises in Tulare County and flows south, through Inyo National Forest. After entering Kern County the South Fork flows into Lake Isabella. Below Isabella Dam the Kern River flows southwest through a spectacular rugged canyon along the south edge of the Greenhorn Mountains, emerging from mountains east of Bakersfield, the largest city on the river.
Despite being dammed upstream, this part of the river has remarkably swift flow in the driest summers. In Bakersfield proper, the river loses most of its remaining flow. In the Kern's lower course downstream from Bakersfield the river is diverted through a series of canals to irrigate the farms of the southern San Joaquin Valley and provide municipal water supplies to the City of Bakersfield and surrounding areas. In this region near Bakersfield the Kern River once spread out into vast wetlands and seasonal lakes; the Friant-Kern Canal, constructed as part of the Central Valley Project, joins the river about 4 mi west of downtown Bakersfield. The Kern River is one of the few rivers in the Central Valley which does not contribute water to the Central Valley Project. However, water from the CVP the Friant-Kern Canal, will be deposited for water storage in the aquifers; the river flowed an additional 20 mi south through a now-dry distributary to Arvin, where it formed the seasonal Kern Lake, which would grow to cover about 8,300 acres during wet periods.
Water from Kern Lake would flow west through Buena Vista Slough into Lake Buena Vista, another seasonal lake that reached sizes of about 4,000 acres. Another channel of the Kern River flowed from the Bakersfield area southwest directly to Buena Vista Lake. In periods of high runoff, Buena Vista Lake overflowed and joined other wetlands and seasonal lakes in a series of sloughs that drained north into the former Tulare Lake, which would sometimes overflow into the San Joaquin River via Fresno Slough, forming one of the longest river systems in California at 535 mi; the river was named by John C. Frémont in honor of Edward M. Kern in 1845 who, as the story goes, nearly drowned in the turbulent waters. Kern was the topographer of Fremont's third expedition through the American West. Before this, the Kern River was known as the "Rio de San Felipe" as named by Spanish missionary explorer Fr. Francisco Garcés when he explored the Bakersfield area on May 1, 1776. On August 2, 1806, Padre Zavidea renamed the river La Porciuncula for the day of the Porciuncula Indulgence.
It was locally known as Po-sun-co-la until its renaming by Fremont. Gold was discovered along the upper river in 1853. T
Break On Through (To the Other Side)
"Break On Through" is a song by the Doors from their debut album, The Doors. It was the first single released by the band and was unsuccessful compared with hits, reaching only number 126 in the United States. Despite this, it became a concert staple and remains one of the band's signature and most popular songs. Twenty-four years after its original US release, "Break On Through" became a minor hit in the UK, peaking at number 64 in the singles chart; the song appears as track one on the band's debut album. Elektra Records edited the line "she gets high," expecting that a drug reference would discourage airplay; the original album version and all re-issues until the 1990s have the word "high" deleted, with Morrison singing "she gets" four times before a final wail. Live versions and more recent remastered releases have the full line restored. Regardless, classic rock radio stations, the iTunes release and most compilations continue to use the censored version, as it is the version most familiar to listeners.
The song is in quite fast-paced. It begins with a bossa nova drum groove in which a clave pattern is played as a rim click underneath a driving ride cymbal pattern. John Densmore appreciated the new bossa nova craze coming from Brazil at the time, decided to use it in the song. Robby Krieger has stated that the guitar riff he played was inspired by the one in Paul Butterfield's version of the song "Shake Your Moneymaker". A disjointed quirky organ solo is played quite similar to the introduction of Ray Charles' "What'd I Say", which has a few intentionally misplaced notes in it; the bass line, similar to a typical bass line used in bossa nova, continues all of the way through the song. Jim Morrison – lead vocals Ray Manzarek – Vox Continental organ, Fender Rhodes piano bass Robby Krieger – electric guitar John Densmore – drums Stone Temple Pilots covered the song for the Doors tribute album Stoned Immaculate. Mexican hard rock band La Cuca has done a cover as a hidden track in their album La Racha.
Heavy metal supergroup Adrenaline Mob covered it on their EP Coverta. When the Doors were featured on an episode of VH1 Storytellers, various guest singers filled in for Jim Morrison. Stone Temple Pilots lead singer Scott Weiland filled in and sang "Break On Through", along with the song he said inspired him to rock, "Five to One". Serbian rock band Night Shift covered the song in 2002 on their debut album Undercovers. American new wave band Blondie performed the song several times during their 1997–1999 comeback tours, they used it as opener of their first two comeback shows. British rock band Bush was never released officially. Bono sang the chorus of the song during the bridge of U2's The Electric Co. while being held by an overweight shirtless man during a concert in Paris in 1987. This version can be heard on the album Live from Paris. Marc Ribot's three man jazz punk. In 2014, Noise-Pop duo The Raveonettes sampled the song on the opening track "Endless Sleeper" from the album Pe'ahi. Most Alice Cooper covered the song with his supergroup Hollywood Vampires on their debut album, released September 11, 2015.
In the Oliver Stone film, The Doors, the song is performed three times. The third and final performance is paired with "Dead Cats, Dead Rats", coupled with the song when the band performed it live; the song is heard in the 1994 film Forrest Gump as Forrest takes up ping pong during his tour in Vietnam. "Love Her Madly" and "Soul Kitchen" are featured in the movie The song is used in an episode of Miami Vice called "Back in the World". Appears in the video game Tony Hawk's Underground 2. Featured on one of the trailers for Disney/Pixar's film Monsters, Inc. Featured in the TV spot for the 2007 film Game Over Featured in the trailer for the 2008 film 21. A remixed version of the song is featured in the video game Burnout Revenge, it was remixed by BT and it is 7:08 long. Featured in the 2005 film Jarhead. Featured on The Simpsons during a 4th Season episode when Krusty sings during a flashback to 1973; the song is used in the music/rhythm game Rock Band 3, with the song being featured in the opening cinematic.
Performed by artist Travis Meeks in November 2002. He had performed with The Doors on Stoned Immaculate: The Music of the Doors; the song was used in a mashup as a runway soundtrack for the 2012 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show. The song is used as part of a possessed woman's ranting in the 2014 horror film Deliver Us from Evil; the song is heard in the 2015 film Minions. The song is mentioned on the fourth episode of the second season of SyFy's 12 Monkeys series where Jones cites the song's hook only for Jennifer to confront her for quoting Jim Morrison, adding the fact he is a'