Nevil Shute Norway was an English novelist and aeronautical engineer who spent his years in Australia. He used his full name in his engineering career and Nevil Shute as his pen name to protect his engineering career from any potential negative publicity in connection with his novels, which included On the Beach and A Town Like Alice. Born in Somerset Road, Middlesex, he was educated at the Dragon School, Shrewsbury School and Balliol College, Oxford. Shute's father, Arthur Hamilton Norway, became head of the Post Office in Ireland before the First World War and was based at the main post office in Dublin in 1916 at the time of the Easter Rising. Shute himself was commended for his role as a stretcher-bearer during the rising. On 13 June 1915 his elder brother, Fredrick Hamilton Norway, aged 19, was wounded at Epinette, near Armentières, was evacuated to Wimereux where he died, on 4 July, with his parents by his side, he was buried at Pas-de-Calais. Shute attended the Royal Military Academy, but because of his stammer was unable to take up a commission in the Royal Flying Corps, instead serving in the Great War as a soldier in the Suffolk Regiment.
An aeronautical engineer as well as a pilot, he began his engineering career with the De Havilland Aircraft Company. Dissatisfied with the lack of opportunities for advancement, he took a position in 1924 with Vickers Ltd. where he was involved with the development of airships, working as Chief Calculator on the R100 airship project for the Vickers subsidiary Airship Guarantee Company. In 1929 he was promoted to Deputy Chief Engineer of the R100 project under Barnes Wallis and when Wallis left the project he became the Chief Engineer; the R100 was a prototype for passenger-carrying airships that would serve the needs of Britain's empire. The government-funded but developed R100 made a successful 1930 round trip to Canada. While in Canada it made trips from Montreal to Ottawa and Niagara Falls; the fatal 1930 crash in France of its government-developed counterpart R101 ended British interest in dirigibles. The Secretary of State for Air, Lord Thomson, was killed in the crash along with several senior figures in the airship development program.
The R100 was grounded and subsequently scrapped. Shute gives a detailed account of the development of the two airships in his 1954 autobiographical work, Slide Rule, his account is critical of the R101 design and management team, hints that senior team members were complicit in concealing flaws in the airship's design and construction. In The Tender Ship, Manhattan Project engineer and Virginia Tech professor Arthur Squires used Shute's account of the R100 and R101 as a primary illustration of his thesis that governments are incompetent managers of technology projects. In 1931, with the cancellation of the R100 project, Shute teamed up with the talented de Havilland trained designer A. Hessell Tiltman to found the aircraft construction company Airspeed Ltd. A site was available in a former trolleybus garage on York. Despite setbacks, including the usual problems of a new business, Airspeed Limited gained recognition when its Envoy aircraft was chosen for the King's Flight. With the approach of war, a military version of the Envoy was developed, to be called the Airspeed Oxford.
The Oxford became the standard advanced multi-engined trainer for the RAF and British Commonwealth, with over 8,500 being built. For the innovation of developing a hydraulic retractable undercarriage for the Airspeed Courier, his work on R100, Shute was made a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society. On 7 March 1931, Shute married a 28-year-old medical practitioner, they had two daughters and Shirley. By the outbreak of the Second World War, Shute was a rising novelist; as war seemed imminent he was working on military projects with his former boss at Vickers, Sir Dennistoun Burney. He was commissioned into the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve as a sub-lieutenant and ended up in what would become the Directorate of Miscellaneous Weapons Development. There he was a head of engineering, working on secret weapons such as Panjandrum, a job that appealed to the engineer in him, he developed the Rocket Spear, an anti-submarine missile with a fluted cast iron head. After the first U-boat was sunk by it, Charles Goodeve sent him a message concluding "I am pleased as it substantiates the foresight you showed in pushing this in its early stages.
My congratulations."His celebrity as a writer caused the Ministry of Information to send him to the Normandy Landings on 6 June 1944 and to Burma as a correspondent. He finished the war with the rank of lieutenant commander in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserves. Shute's first novel, Stephen Morris, was written in 1923, but not published until 1961, his first published novel was Marazan, which came out in 1926. After that he averaged one novel every two years through the 1950s, with the exception of a six-year hiatus while he was establishing his own aircraft construction company, Airspeed Ltd, his popularity grew with each novel, but he became much more famous after the publication of On the Beach in 1957. Shute's novels are written in a simple readable style, with delineated plot lines. Where there is a romantic element, sex is referred to only obliquely. Many of the stories are introduced by a narrator, not a character in the story; the most common theme in Shu
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Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkien's writings, described as the greatest realm of Men in the west of Middle-earth by the end of the Third Age; the third volume of The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, is concerned with the events in Gondor during the War of the Ring and with the restoration of the realm afterward. The history of the kingdom is outlined in the appendices of the book. According to the narrative, Gondor was founded by the brothers Isildur and Anárion, exiles from the downfallen island kingdom of Númenor. Along with Arnor in the north, the South-kingdom, served as a last stronghold of the Men of the West. After an early period of growth, Gondor declined as the Third Age progressed, being continually weakened by internal strife and conflict with the allies of the Dark Lord Sauron; the kingdom's ascendancy was restored only with the crowning of Aragorn. Based upon early conceptions, the history and geography of Gondor were developed in stages as a part of the major extension of Tolkien's legendarium that he undertook during the writing of The Lord of the Rings.
The role of the kingdom emerged when a side adventure in the plot became the focus of writings. The textual history was traced by Christopher Tolkien in The History of Middle-earth, the subject has gained attention from researchers and fans; the history of Gondor is described with different levels of detail. Within the narrative of The Lord of the Rings, the kingdom is first introduced at the Council of Elrond, with a brief summary of the Second and Third Ages; the events of the latter are elaborated in the appendices to the book, those of the former in the last parts of The Silmarillion. Retellings at an ample scale of some particular episodes are included in Unfinished Tales; the first people in the region that would become Gondor were the Drúedain. They were a hunter-gatherer people of Men, they were marginalized by settlers, surviving in isolated pockets such as Drúwaith Iaur and the Drúadan Forest. The next people to settle in the region were more advanced, they established a realm in the White Mountains, became known as the Men of the Mountains.
The centre of their culture was at Dunharrow, where they built a megalithic subterranean complex which led all the way to the other side of the mountains. The Men of the Mountains became subject to the Dark Lord Sauron in the Dark Years of the Second Age. Erech and Dunharrow were sacred sites in the pre-Númenórean cultures. Fragments of pre-Númenórean languages survived in ages in place-names such as Erech and Umbar, the beacon hills Eilenach and Rimmon. Forlong, the lord of Arnach in the War of the Ring, was "a name of the same sort." The shorelands of Gondor had been colonized by the Númenóreans from around the middle of the Second Age by the Elf-friends loyal to the house of Elendil. When his sons Isildur and Anárion landed in Middle-earth after the drowning of Númenor, they co-founded the Kingdom of Gondor in S. A. 3320. They were welcomed by the colonists living there, their claim of lordship was accepted. Elendil, who had founded the Kingdom of Arnor to the north, was held to be the High King of all lands of the Dúnedain.
Within the South-kingdom, the hometowns of Isildur and Anárion were Minas Ithil and Minas Anor and the capital city Osgiliath was situated between them. Sauron, had survived the destruction of Númenor and secretly returned to his realm of Mordor just to the east of Gondor. Soon he launched a war against the Númenórean kingdoms, hoping to destroy them before their power was established, he captured Minas Ithil. Elendil and the Elven-king Gil-galad formed the Last Alliance of Elves and Men, together with Isildur and Anárion, they besieged and defeated Mordor. In S. A. 3441, Sauron was overthrown. Both Elendil and Anárion had been slain in the war, so Isildur conferred rule of Gondor upon Anárion's son Meneldil and went north to ascend to the kingship of Arnor, retaining suzerainty over Gondor as High King of the Dúnedain; however and his three elder sons were ambushed and killed by Orcs in the Gladden Fields. Isildur's remaining son Valandil did not attempt to claim his father's place as Gondor's monarch, therefore the kingdom was ruled by Meneldil and his descendants until their line died out with Eärnur.
During the first millennium of the Third Age, Gondor was victorious in war and its wealth and power grew. After Sauron's defeat, Gondor watched over Mordor. In T. A. 490, Gondor's centuries-old peace was ended by the first of many Easterling invasions. That war lasted into the following century, from it Gondor conquered much territory in Rhûn north of Mordor. Under the rule of the four "Ship-kings", Gondor established a powerful navy and extended along the coast from the Mouths of Anduin. In 933, Gondor captured the southern port city Umbar held by the hostile Black Númenóreans; the Haradrim defeated Gondor on land and besieged Umbar. A. 1050. Gondor reached its peak during the reign of Hyarmendacil, controlling a vast territory and holding suzerainty over neighbouring nations such as the Haradrim and the northern Men of the Vales of Anduin. Mordor was desolate and guarded by fortresses. Under Hyarmendacil I's successor, At
Expanded Universe (book)
Expanded Universe, The New Worlds of Robert A. Heinlein is a 1980 collection of stories and essays by Robert A. Heinlein; the trade paperback 1981 edition lists the subtitle under other Heinlein books as More Worlds of Robert A. Heinlein because the contents subsume the 1966 Ace Books collection, The Worlds of Robert A. Heinlein; the current volume is dedicated to William Targ. The book collects essays, with a foreword for each, they are: Forward "Life-Line" "Successful Operation" "Blowups Happen" "Solution Unsatisfactory" "The Last Days of the United States" "How to Be a Survivor" "Pie from the Sky" "They Do It with Mirrors" "Free Men" "No Bands Playing, No Flags Flying" "A Bathroom of Her Own" "On the Slopes of Vesuvius" "Nothing Ever Happens on the Moon" "Pandora's Box" "Where To?" "Cliff and the Calories" "Ray Guns and Rocket Ships" "The Third Millennium Opens" "Who Are the Heirs of Patrick Henry?" "Pravda Means Truth" "Inside Intourist" "Searchlight" "The Pragmatics of Patriotism" "Paul Dirac and You" "Larger than Life", a memoir in tribute to E. E.
"Doc" Smith "Spinoff", about NASA spinoff technologies "The Happy Days Ahead"The six items marked with appeared in The Worlds of Robert A. Heinlein; when divided into two volumes, Volume 1 concludes with "On the Slopes of Vesuvius", Volume 2 picks up with "Nothing Ever Happens on the Moon". Expanded Universe title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Expanded Universe on Open Library at the Internet Archive
Samuel Langhorne Clemens, known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, entrepreneur and lecturer. His novels include The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and its sequel, the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, the latter called "The Great American Novel". Twain was raised in Hannibal, which provided the setting for Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, he served an apprenticeship with a printer and worked as a typesetter, contributing articles to the newspaper of his older brother Orion Clemens. He became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada, he referred humorously to his lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise. His humorous story, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", was published in 1865, based on a story that he heard at Angels Hotel in Angels Camp, where he had spent some time as a miner; the short story brought international attention and was translated into French. His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, he was a friend to presidents, artists and European royalty.
Twain earned a great deal of money from his writings and lectures, but he invested in ventures that lost most of it—such as the Paige Compositor, a mechanical typesetter that failed because of its complexity and imprecision. He filed for bankruptcy in the wake of these financial setbacks, but he overcame his financial troubles with the help of Henry Huttleston Rogers, he chose to pay all his pre-bankruptcy creditors in full after he had no legal responsibility to do so. Twain was born shortly after an appearance of Halley's Comet, he predicted that he would "go out with it" as well, he was lauded as the "greatest humorist this country has produced", William Faulkner called him "the father of American literature". Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on November 30, 1835, in Florida, the sixth of seven children born to Jane, a native of Kentucky, John Marshall Clemens, a native of Virginia, his parents met when his father moved to Missouri, they were married in 1823. Twain was of Cornish and Scots-Irish descent.
Only three of his siblings survived childhood: Orion and Pamela. His sister Margaret died when Twain was three, his brother Benjamin died three years later, his brother Pleasant Hannibal died at three weeks of age. When he was four, Twain's family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, a port town on the Mississippi River that inspired the fictional town of St. Petersburg in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Slavery was legal in Missouri at the time, it became a theme in these writings, his father was an attorney and judge, who died of pneumonia in 1847, when Twain was 11. The next year, Twain left school after the fifth grade to become a printer's apprentice. In 1851 he began working as a typesetter, contributing articles and humorous sketches to the Hannibal Journal, a newspaper that Orion owned; when he was 18, he left Hannibal and worked as a printer in New York City, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cincinnati, joining the newly formed International Typographical Union, the printers trade union.
He educated himself in public libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school. Twain describes his boyhood in Life on the Mississippi, stating that "there was but one permanent ambition" among his comrades: to be a steamboatman. Pilot was the grandest position of all; the pilot in those days of trivial wages, had a princely salary – from a hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars a month, no board to pay. As Twain describes it, the pilot's prestige exceeded that of the captain; the pilot had to:...get up a warm personal acquaintanceship with every old snag and one-limbed cottonwood and every obscure wood pile that ornaments the banks of this river for twelve hundred miles. Twain studied the Mississippi, learning its landmarks, how to navigate its currents and how to read the river and its shifting channels, submerged snags, rocks that would "tear the life out of the strongest vessel that floated", it was. Piloting gave him his pen name from "mark twain", the leadsman's cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms, safe water for a steamboat.
As a young pilot, Clemens served on the steamer A. B. Chambers with Grant Marsh, who became famous for his exploits as a steamboat captain on the Missouri River; the two liked each other, admired one another, maintained a correspondence for many years after Clemens left the river. While training, Samuel convinced his younger brother Henry to work with him, arranged a post of mud clerk for him on the steamboat Pennsylvania. On June 13, 1858, the steamboat's boiler exploded. Twain claimed to have foreseen this death in a dream a month earlier, which inspired his interest in parapsychology. Twain held himself responsible for the rest of his life, he continued to work on the river and was a river pilot until the Civil War broke out in 1861, when traffic was curta
In the Wet
In The Wet is a novel by Nevil Shute, first published in the United Kingdom in 1953. It contains many of the typical elements of a hearty and adventurous Shute yarn such as flying, the future, mystic states, ordinary people doing extraordinary things; the story is opened by its initial narrator – an Anglican priest in the Bush Brotherhood named Roger Hargreaves – who describes his ordinary circumstances in a large parish of the Australian outback in 1953. As part of his duties, he has to minister to the dying and this brings him into contact with an aged, opium smoking, diseased, ex-pilot and ex-ringer named Stevie. Caught in Stevie's squalid cabin in a heavy rainy season, Hargreaves struggles with recurring malaria whilst on deathwatch for Stevie; as both men are in altered mental states the story shifts and Stevie becomes David'Nigger' Anderson, a decorated member of the Royal Australian Air Force, telling his story to Hargreaves. But this is a story set 30 years in the future, in 1983. David Anderson is a quadroon, of mixed European and Aboriginal ancestry.
As a first rate pilot he is chosen by his country to be a member of an elite test pilot team in the UK. Although of humble origins, Anderson has advanced in the RAAF and is soon offered a position commanding one of two aircraft of the Queen's Flight; the England of the 1983 in the story is a technically advanced country, abused and bled dry by Socialism. Austerity is the watchword, rationing is still in force, it is an England in which the Royal Family is revered by the common people, but abused by politicians who use them as whipping boys for the economic woes of England. When the politicians attempt indirectly to control the foreign travel of the monarch by curtailing her use of UK government aircraft, the Canadian and Australian governments each donate a modern jet transport to the Queen's Flight, provide for operating expenses, furnish crews. Anderson is chosen as the captain of the Australian plane. Both Canada and Australia are royalist countries, Anderson is shocked at one point by the suggestion that Australia could become a republic.
Both are democracies, though subject to the "multiple vote"—everyone gets one vote, but other votes can be earned by individuals, up to a maximum of seven. Anderson himself has three votes in Australian elections. At first absorbed by the job, Anderson becomes aware of what is going on around him, he sees the Secretary of State for Air, Lord Coles, inspect the advanced aircraft, insist that a signal gun be placed in the radio-equipped aircraft in case it needs to land in a field. The Prime Minister, Iorweth Jones, is more intelligent, but only interested in scoring political points; the Royal family, though, is delighted at the gift of the aircraft, the middle-aged Queen and Consort come down to inspect them. Anderson meets, falls for, a junior secretary to the Queen, daughter of an Oxford don, assigned to help streamline the administrative aspects of the Commonwealth aircraft joining the Queen's Flight. Anderson learns of the difficult political situation; the Queen's visit to Canada in the Canadian craft coincides with another attack on the Royal Family by Labour politicians.
The Prince of Wales has Anderson fly him to Ottawa. It is made clear that the Prince carries an ultimatum from himself and his sister —they will not take the job of monarch as it now stands. Anderson is ordered to fly the Queen and her entourage, including Rosemary, not back to England, but on to Australia to meet with politicians there. En route, they have a lengthy refueling delay on Christmas Island, allowing the Queen to relax a bit—until local officials show up with their wives, in formal dress. Anderson, struck with food poisoning, dreams of the scene with Hargreaves and Stevie in the cabin in the wet. After he recovers, the party move on to Australia; the Queen meets not only with current Australian politicians but with elder statesmen Sir Robert Menzies and Arthur Calwell. After the meetings the Queen is flown back to England, but ground control diverts the flight hundreds of miles to Yorkshire on the pretext that the well-qualified Australian airmen are not qualified to land at a commercial airport—Heathrow—in poor weather.
After Royal intervention the crews are all granted accreditation as civil aviators without further ado. Anderson asks Rosemary to marry him, she arranges for Anderson to meet a political scientist. Her father inadvertently reveals that the Queen is contemplating having a Governor General of Britain who will deal with the politicians, with the monarch devoted to Commonwealth affairs, to make the monarchy bearable for her and her family; the Queen announces this on her Christmas broadcast, makes it clear that she and her family will not return to Britain without the country having undergone political reforms, meaning the multiple vote. Though David takes every precaution to protect the aircraft, which takes off with the Queen soon afterwards, a sixth sense, deriving from his Aboriginal heritage, tells him something is wrong, he searches the party's luggage, finds a sealed metal box a bomb. It seems impossible to get the box outside due to winds, but through skilled flying, he is able to create the right conditions.
The Queen swears all to secrecy, awards David the Seventh Vote, given only by Royal commission. The party reaches Australia safely. Meanwhile, in Britain, the new Governor General has summoned Parliament to debate the multiple vote. Prime Minister J