Costa-Gavras is a Greek-French film director and producer who lives and works in France. He is known for films with overt political themes, such as the thriller Z, but he has made comedies. Most of his movies have been made in French, he produces most of his films himself, through his production company K. G. Productions. Costa-Gavras was born in Arcadia, his family spent the Second World War in a village in the Peloponnese, moved to Athens after the war. His father had been a member of the Pro-Soviet branch of the Greek Resistance, was imprisoned during the Greek Civil War, his father's Communist Party membership made it impossible for Costa-Gavras to attend university in Greece or to be granted a visa to the United States, so after high school he went to France, where he began studying law in 1951. In 1956, he left his university studies to study film at the French national film school, IDHEC. After film school, he apprenticed under Yves Allégret, became an assistant director for Jean Giono and René Clair.
After several further positions as first assistant director, he directed his first feature film, Compartiment Tueurs, in 1965. His 1967 film Shock Troops was entered into the 5th Moscow International Film Festival. In Z, an investigating judge, played by Jean-Louis Trintignant, tries to uncover the truth about the murder of a prominent leftist politician, played by Yves Montand, while government officials and the military attempt to cover up their roles; the film is a fictionalized account of the events surrounding the assassination of Greek politician Grigoris Lambrakis in 1963. It had additional resonance because, at the time of its release, Greece had been ruled for two years by the "Regime of the Colonels". Z won the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film. Costa-Gavras and co-writer Jorge Semprún won an Edgar Award from the Mystery Writers of America for Best Film Screenplay. L'Aveu follows the path of Artur London, a Czechoslovakian communist minister falsely arrested and tried for treason and espionage in the Slánský'show trial' in 1952.
State of Siege takes place in Uruguay under a conservative government in the early 1970s. In a plot loosely based on the case of US police official and alleged torture expert Dan Mitrione, an American embassy official is kidnapped by the Tupamaros, a radical leftist urban guerilla group, which interrogates him in order to reveal the details of secret American support for repressive regimes in Latin America. Missing released in 1982 and based on the book The Execution Of Charles Horman, concerns an American journalist, Charles Horman, who disappeared in the bloody coup led by General Augusto Pinochet in Chile and backed by the United States in 1973. Horman's father, played by Jack Lemmon, wife, played by Sissy Spacek, search in vain to determine his fate. Nathaniel Davis, US ambassador to Chile from 1971–1973, a version of whose character had been portrayed in the movie, filed a US$150 million libel suit, Davis v. Costa-Gavras, 619 F. Supp. 1372, against the studio and the director, dismissed.
The film won an Oscar for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. Betrayed based upon the terrorist activities of American neo-Nazi and white supremacist Robert Mathews and his group The Order. In Music Box, a respected Hungarian immigrant is accused of having commanded an Anti-Semitic death squad during World War II, his daughter, a Chicago defense attorney played by Jessica Lange, agrees to defend him at his denaturalization hearing. The film is inspired by the arrest and trial of Ukrainian immigrant John Demjanjuk and screenwriter Joe Eszterhas' realization that his father had been a member of the Hungarian Arrow Cross Party; the film won the Golden Bear at the 40th Berlin International Film Festival. La Petite Apocalypse was entered into the 43rd Berlin International Film Festival. Amen. was based in part on the controversial 1963 play, Der Stellvertreter. Ein christliches Trauerspiel, by Rolf Hochhuth; the movie alleges that Pope Pius XII was aware of the plight of the Jews in Nazi concentration camps during World War II, but failed to take public action to publicize or condemn the Holocaust.
Costa-Gavras is known for merging controversial political issues with the entertainment value of commercial cinema. Law and justice, legal/illegal violence, torture are common subjects in his work relevant to his earlier films. Costa-Gavras is an expert of the “statement” picture. In most cases, the targets of Costa-Gavras's work have been right-of-center movements and regimes, including Greek conservatives in and out of the military in Z, right-wing dictatorships that ruled much of Latin America during the height of the Cold War, as in State of Siege and Missing. In a broader sense, this emphasis continues with Amen. Given its focus on the conservative leadership of the Catholic Church during the 1940s. In this political context, L'Aveu provides the exception, dealing as it does with oppression on the part of a Communist regime during the Stalinist period. Costa-Gavras is a self-proclaimed communist. Costa-Gavras has brought attention to international issues, some urgent, others problematic, he has done this in the tradition of cinematic story-telling.
Z, one of his most well-known works, is an account of the undermining i
John Gavin Malkovich is an American actor and fashion designer. He received Academy Award nominations for his roles in Places In the Line of Fire, he has appeared in more than 70 films, including Empire of the Sun, The Killing Fields, Johnny English, Con Air, Of Mice and Men, Ripley's Game, Being John Malkovich, Shadow of the Vampire, Burn After Reading, Mulholland Falls, Dangerous Liaisons, Warm Bodies, Bird Box, as well as producing films such as Ghost World and The Perks of Being a Wallflower. Malkovich was born in Illinois, his mother was of French, German and English ancestry. He grew up in Illinois, his father, Daniel Leon Malkovich, was a state conservation director and publisher of Outdoor Illinois, a conservation magazine. His mother, Joe Anne, owned the Benton Evening News, as well as Outdoor Illinois. Malkovich has an older brother, his paternal grandparents were from Ozalj in Croatia, according to his mother they were of Montenegrin ancestry. Malkovich attended Logan Grade School, Webster Junior High School, Benton Consolidated High School.
During his high school years, he appeared in the musical Carousel. He was active in a folk gospel group, singing in area churches and community events; as a member of a local summer theater/comedy project, he co-starred in Jean-Claude van Itallie's America Hurrah in 1972. Upon graduating from high school, he entered Eastern Illinois University, transferred to Illinois State University, where he majored in theater. In 1976, along with Joan Allen, Gary Sinise, Glenne Headly, became a charter member of the Steppenwolf Theatre Company in Chicago, he moved to New York City in 1980 to appear in a Steppenwolf production of the Sam Shepard play True West for which he won an Obie Award. In early 1982, he appeared in A Streetcar Named Desire with Chicago's Wisdom Bridge Theatre. Malkovich directed a Steppenwolf co-production, the 1984 revival of Lanford Wilson's Balm in Gilead, for which he received a second Obie Award and a Drama Desk Award, his Broadway debut that year was as Biff in Death of a Salesman alongside Dustin Hoffman as Willy.
Malkovich won an Emmy Award for this role when the play was adapted for television by CBS in 1985. One of his first film roles was as an extra alongside Allen, Terry Kinney, George Wendt and Laurie Metcalf in Robert Altman's 1978 film A Wedding, he made his feature film debut in 1984 as Sally Field's blind boarder Mr. Will in Places in the Heart. For his portrayal of Mr. Will, Malkovich received his first Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor, he portrayed Al Rockoff in The Killing Fields. He continued to have steady work in films such as Empire of the Sun, directed by Steven Spielberg, the 1987 film adaptation of Tennessee Williams's The Glass Menagerie with Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward, he starred in Making Mr. Right. In 1990, he played Port Moresby in The Sheltering Sky, directed by Bernardo Bertolucci. In 1991, he was directed by Woody Allen in Shadows and Fog, he garnered significant critical and popular acclaim when he portrayed the sinister and sensual Valmont in the 1988 film Dangerous Liaisons, a film adaptation of the stage play Les Liaisons Dangereuses by Christopher Hampton, who had adapted it from the 1782 novel of the same title by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos.
He reprised this role for the music video of "Walking on Broken Glass" by Annie Lennox. In 1990, he recited, in Croatian, verses of the Croatian national anthem Lijepa naša domovino in Nenad Bach's song "Can We Go Higher?"Malkovich starred in the 1992 film adaptation of John Steinbeck's award-winning novella Of Mice and Men as Lennie alongside Gary Sinise as George. In 1994, he was nominated in the same category, for In the Line of Fire. Though he played the title role in the Charlie Kaufman-penned Being John Malkovich, he played a slight variation of himself, as indicated by the character's middle name of "Horatio". In 1996, Malkovich was directed for the second time by Stephen Frears in Mary Reilly, a new adaptation of the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde tale, co-starring Julia Roberts Malkovich appeared in Joan of Arc, directed by Luc Besson in 1999, playing the French king-to-be Charles VII, he made a cameo appearance in Adaptation. — written by Kaufman — appearing as himself during the filming of Being John Malkovich.
The Dancer Upstairs, Malkovich's directorial film debut, was released in 2002. In the same year he played Patricia Highsmith's anti-hero Tom Ripley in Ripley's Game, the second film adaptation of Highsmith's 1974 novel, the first being Wim Wenders' The American Friend starring Dennis Hopper as Ripley.. Other film roles include The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, Eragon, The Man in the Iron Mask, Transformers: Dark of the Moon, Secretariat, RED and RED 2. In 2007, he played Alan Conway in Colour. Malkovich has hosted three episodes of the NBC sketch show Saturday Night Live; the first occasion was in January 1989 with musical guest Anita Baker. I. with Swizz Beatz. In 1993 he was the narrator for the film Alive. In June 2018, Malkovich began filming a three-part adaptation of Agatha Christie's The A. B. C. Murders co-starring Rupert Grint for BBC television, playing the role of fictional Belgian detective Hercule Poirot, it was announced in 2019 that David Mamet w
José Luis Alcaine
José Luis Alcaine is a Spanish born cinematographer. Educated in Tangier's he was the first cinematographer to use fluorescent tube as key lighting in the 1970s, he has worked on films such as Belle Époque - Fernando Trueba - The Skin I Lived In - Pedro Almodovar -, Todos Lo Saben. - Ashgar Farhadi. He won the European Film Award for Volver, his enormous cinematographic work has been rewarded with five Goya Awards for the best photography of a total of eighteen nominations In 2011 he released his theory of the inspiration of Picasso's Guernica. According to him, the inspiration was due to defined images in the film Farewell to Arms by Frank Borzage. There are eleven well-known coincidences between shots of the film and the magnificent Guernica painting: like the horse neighing, the woman who cries out to the sky, the door at the back -with a similar shadow drawing in the film and in the painting-, the fire of the house, the terrified face of a woman, the woman fleeing with open arms, the dead man lying face up in the painting with his hand outstretched - in the film he is face down, but in some photos taken by the photographer of Picasso,Dora Maar, from the first notes of Guernica, we can see that he began painting this body face down - the open hand towards the sky that corresponds to a large foreground of a hand that closes convulsively in the film, the woman with the child in arms that cries to the heavens, the goose that screams in terror that corresponds to a cradle where two scared geese are transported - the broken sword that corresponds to a dialogue in the film in which Gary Cooper tells Helen Hayes that swords are no longer good for the battle front.
In addition, the painting was painted by Picasso in black and white, just like the film and the whole picture gives the impression that everything has a movement from right to left like the sequence from which most inspirations are culled, that all of it develops from right to left. And José Luis Alcaine adds that for him, the bull of Guernica is the representation of his painter, Pablo Picasso since he has shown himself many times as a bull in several of his paintings, and he has a place in the painting, similar to Velázquez's place in Las Meninas, a painting, the most admirable in the world for Picasso. On 18 February 2019 he received the Medalla de Oro al Mérito en las Bellas Artes. Domino Dolor y Gloria The Queen of Spain Wild Oats Altamira I'm So Excited Passion The Skin I Live In Rivales The ruins of my Life Las Galas del Difunto Los Cuernos de Don Friolera Las Trece Rosas Tuya siempre Teresa, el cuerpo de Cristo Tirant Lo Blanc Volver Vida y color La Vida Perra de Juanita Narboni Roma La Puta y la Ballena Bad Education Al sur de Granada The Dancer Upstairs El Caballero Don Quijote Girl from Rio Son de mar Sé quién eres Blast from the Past Celos L'Amante perduto Don Juan Il mio West La Pistola de mi Hermano En brazos de la mujer madura Tranvía a la Malvarrosa Libertarias Más allá del jardín Two Much Belle Époque La Teta i la lluna La Pasión turca Jamón, jamón Huevos de oro Intruso El Pájaro de la felicidad Amantes El Sur ¡Ay, Carmela!
Hay que zurrar a los pobres Solo o en compañía de otros Dancing Machine Tie Me Up! Tie Me Down! El Sueño del mono loco El Mar y el tiempo Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown El Lute II: mañana seré libre Jarrapellejos Malaventura El Lute: camina o revienta Barbablú, Barbablú Mitad del cielo, La El Caballero del Dragon Mambrú se fue a la guerra El Viaje a ninguna parte Hay que deshacer la casa Rustlers' Rhapsody La Reina del mate Los Paraísos perdidos La Corte de Faraón El Caso Almería Akelarre Tasio El Sur Demonios en el jardín La Triple muerte del tercer personaje Asesinato en el Comité Central La Campanada La Muchacha de las bragas de oro Soldados Oro rojo Vámonos, Bárbara Così come sei Marián El Puente Dios bendiga cada rincón de esta casa Retrato de familia ¿Quién puede matar a un niño? Pepita Jiménez Ya soy mujer País, S. A. Yo la vi primero El Niño es nuestro Corazón solitario Vera, un cuento cruel José Luis Alcaine on IMDb Fernández-Santos, Elsa. «Nuevas teorías sobre un icono del siglo XX Un enigma cinematográfico tras el Guernica de Picasso.» 9 de septiembre de 2011.
El País http://www.rtve.es/alacarta/videos/dias-de-cine/dias-cine-jose-luis-alcaine-cree-picasso-se-inspiro-adios-armas-para-guernica/1268475/
Atresmedia Corporación de Medios de Comunicación, S. A. Grupo Antena 3, is a Spanish media group, present in the television and cinema industries. Significant shareholders include RTL Group. On 6 March 2013 Grupo Antena 3 was renamed Atresmedia, thereby Antena 3 de Televisión changed to Atresmedia Televisión. Atresmedia operates several channels through Atresmedia Televisión of which Antena 3 and laSexta are the flagship channels. In addition to these channels, Atresmedia Televisión operates three other national terrestrial channels - Neox and Mega; until 5 May 2014 Xplora, Nitro, laSexta3 were broadcast. In December 2015, Atresmedia Televisión started to air Atreseries, an HD national terrestrial channel centered on fiction TV series. Atresmedia operates three radio stations through Atresmedia Radio - Onda Cero, Europa FM and Melodía FM. Atresmedia Cine is the division responsible for producing film content. Atresmedia Publicidad is the division responsible for producing advertising material. Atresmedia Eventos is the division responsible for management of public events.
Atresmedia Digital is the division responsible for management of internet content. Antena 3's corporate headquarters are located on the outskirts of Madrid, in the municipality of San Sebastián de los Reyes; the building complex covers 94,000 m2. 1989–1992: Javier Godó 1992–1997: Antonio Asensio 1997–2001: José María Mas Millet 2001–2003: Enrique Álvarez 2003–2015: José Manuel Lara Bosch 2015–present: José Creuheras The majority shareholders of Atresmedia are Grupo Planeta-DeAgostini, S. L. and UFA Film-und Fernsehn GmbH. OfficialOfficial websiteFinancialAtresmedia Corporación de Medios de Comunicación, S. A. — Google Finance Atresmedia Corporación de Medios de Comunicación, S. A. — Hoover's
Javier Ángel Encinas Bardem is a Spanish actor. Bardem won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role as the psychopathic assassin Anton Chigurh in the 2007 Coen Brothers film No Country for Old Men, he has received critical acclaim for roles in films such as Jamón, jamón, Carne trémula, Vicky Cristina Barcelona, Boca a boca, Los lunes al sol, Mar adentro, Skyfall, for which he received both a BAFTA and a SAG nomination for Best Supporting Actor. Bardem has won a Screen Actors Guild Award, a BAFTA, five Goya Awards, two European Film Awards, a Prize for Best Actor at Cannes and two Volpi Cups at Venice for his work, he is the first Spanish actor to be nominated for an Oscar, as well as the first Spaniard to win one, for Best Supporting Actor in No Country for Old Men, 2008. He received his third Academy Award nomination, second Best Actor nomination, for the film Biutiful. Bardem was born in the Canary Islands, Spain, his mother, Pilar Bardem, is an actress, his father, José Carlos Encinas Doussinague, was a businessman involved in environmental work.
The two separated shortly after his birth and his mother raised him alone. Bardem comes from a long line of filmmakers and actors dating back to the earliest days of Spanish cinema. Both his older brother and sister, Carlos and Mónica, are actors, he comes from a political background, as his uncle Juan Antonio was imprisoned by Franco for his anti-fascist films. Bardem was brought up in the Roman Catholic faith by his grandmother; as a child, he spent time on film sets. At age six, he made his first film appearance, in Fernando Fernán Gómez's El Pícaro, he played rugby for the junior Spanish National Team. Though he grew up in a family full of actors, Bardem did not see himself going into the family business. Painting was his first love, he went on to study painting for four years at Madrid's Escuela de Artes y Oficios. In need of money he took acting jobs to support his painting, but he says he was a bad painter and abandoned that career pursuit. In 1989, for the Spanish comedy show El Día Por Delante, he had to wear a Superman costume for a comedic sketch, a job that made him question whether he wanted to be an actor at all.
Bardem has confessed to having worked as a stripper during his struggling acting career. Bardem came to notice in a small role in his first major motion picture, The Ages of Lulu, when he was 20, in which he appeared along with his mother, Pilar Bardem. Bigas Luna, the director of Lulu, was sufficiently impressed to give him the leading male role in his next film, Jamón Jamón in 1992, in which Bardem played a would-be underwear model and bullfighter; the film, which starred a teenaged Penélope Cruz, was a major international success. He starred again in Luna's next film Golden Balls. Bardem's talent did not go unnoticed in the English-speaking world. In 1997, John Malkovich was the first to approach him a 27-year-old, for a role in English, but the Spanish actor turned down the offer because his English was still poor, his first English-speaking role came that same year, in with director Álex de la Iglesia's Perdita Durango, playing a santería-practicing bank robber. After starring in about two dozen films in his native country, he gained international recognition in Julian Schnabel's Before Night Falls in 2000, portraying Cuban poet Reinaldo Arenas.
He received praise from his idol Al Pacino. For that role, he received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor, the first for a Spaniard. After, he turned down the role of Danny Witwer in Minority Report which went to Colin Farrell. Instead, in 2002, Bardem starred in The Dancer Upstairs. Malkovich had Bardem in mind for the role of the detective's assistant, but the movie's taking so long to obtain financing gave Bardem time to learn English and take on the lead role of the detective. "I will always be grateful to him because he gave me my first chance to work in English", has said Bardem of Malkovich. Bardem won Best Actor at the Venice Film Festival for his role in Mar Adentro, released in the United States as The Sea Inside, in which he portrayed the quadriplegic turned assisted suicide activist Ramón Sampedro, he made his Hollywood debut in a brief appearance as a crime lord who summons Tom Cruise's hitman to do the dirty work of dispatching witnesses in the crime drama Collateral.
He stars in Miloš Forman's 2006 film Goya's Ghosts opposite Natalie Portman, where he plays a twisted monk during the Spanish Inquisition. In 2007, Bardem acted in two film adaptations: the Coen Brothers' No Country for Old Men, the adaptation of the Colombian novel Love in the Time of Cholera with Giovanna Mezzogiorno by Gabriel García Márquez. In No Country for Old Men, he played Anton Chigurh. For that role, he became the first Spaniard to win an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, he won a Golden Globe Award and Screen Actors Guild Award for Best Supporting Actor, the Critics' Choice Award for Best Supporting Actor, the 2008 British Academy of Film and Television Arts Award for Best Supporting Actor. Bardem's rendition of Chigurh's trademark word, "What business is it of yours where I'm from, friendo?" (in respo
Thriller is a broad genre of literature and television, having numerous overlapping subgenres. Thrillers are characterized and defined by the moods they elicit, giving viewers heightened feelings of suspense, surprise and anxiety. Successful examples of thrillers are the films of Alfred Hitchcock. Thrillers keep the audience on the "edge of their seats" as the plot builds towards a climax; the cover-up of important information is a common element. Literary devices such as red herrings, plot twists, cliffhangers are used extensively. A thriller is a villain-driven plot, whereby he or she presents obstacles that the protagonist must overcome. Homer's Odyssey is one of the oldest stories in the Western world and is regarded as an early prototype of the genre. Writer Vladimir Nabokov, in his lectures at Cornell University, said: "In an Anglo-Saxon thriller, the villain is punished, the strong silent man wins the weak babbling girl, but there is no governmental law in Western countries to ban a story that does not comply with a fond tradition, so that we always hope that the wicked but romantic fellow will escape scot-free and the good but dull chap will be snubbed by the moody heroine."Thrillers may be defined by the primary mood that they elicit: suspenseful excitement.
In short, if it "thrills", it is a thriller. As the introduction to a major anthology argues:... Thrillers provide such a rich literary feast. There are all kinds; the legal thriller, spy thriller, action-adventure thriller, medical thriller, police thriller, romantic thriller, historical thriller, political thriller, religious thriller, high-tech thriller, military thriller. The list goes on and on, with new variations being invented. In fact, this openness to expansion is one of the genre's most enduring characteristics, but what gives the variety of thrillers a common ground is the intensity of emotions they create those of apprehension and exhilaration, of excitement and breathlessness, all designed to generate that all-important thrill. By definition, if a thriller doesn't thrill, it's not doing its job. Suspense is a crucial characteristic of the thriller genre, it gives the viewer a feeling of pleasurable fascination and excitement mixed with apprehension and tension. These develop from unpredictable and rousing events during the narrative, which makes the viewer or reader think about the outcome of certain actions.
Suspense builds. The suspense in a story keeps the person hooked to reading or watching more until the climax is reached. In terms of narrative expectations, it may be contrasted with surprise; the objective is to deliver a story with sustained tension, a constant sense of impending doom. As described by film director Alfred Hitchcock, an audience experiences suspense when they expect something bad to happen and have a superior perspective on events in the drama's hierarchy of knowledge, yet they are powerless to intervene to prevent it from happening. Suspense in thrillers is intertwined with hope and anxiety, which are treated as two emotions aroused in anticipation of the conclusion - the hope that things will turn out all right for the appropriate characters in the story, the fear that they may not; the second type of suspense is the "...anticipation wherein we either know or else are certain about what is going to happen but are still aroused in anticipation of its actual occurrence."According to Greek philosopher Aristotle in his book Poetics, suspense is an important building block of literature, this is an important convention in the thriller genre.
Thriller music has been shown to create a distrust and ominous uncertainty between the viewer of a film and the character on screen at the time when the music is playing. Common methods and themes in crime and action thrillers are ransoms, heists, kidnappings. Common in mystery thrillers are the whodunit technique. Common elements in dramatic and psychological thrillers include plot twists, psychology and mind games. Common elements of science-fiction thrillers are killing robots, machines or aliens, mad scientists and experiments. Common in horror thrillers are serial killers, stalking and horror-of-personality. Elements such as fringe theories, false accusations and paranoia are common in paranoid thrillers. Threats to entire countries, espionage, conspiracies and electronic surveillance are common in spy thrillers. Characters may include criminals, assassins, innocent victims, menaced women, psychotic individuals, spree killers, agents, terrorists and escaped cons, private eyes, people involved in twisted relationships, world-weary men and women, psycho-fiends, more.
The themes include terrorism, political conspiracy, pursuit, or romantic triangles leading to murder. Plots of thrillers involve characters which come into conflict with each other or with outside forces; the protagonist of these films is set against a problem. No matter what subgenre a thriller film falls into, it will emphasize the danger that the protagonist faces; the protagonists are ordinary citizens unaccustomed to danger, although in crime and action thrillers, they may be "hard men" accustomed to danger such as police officers and detectives. While protagonists of thrillers have traditionally been men, women lead characters are common. In psychological thrillers, the protagonists are reliant on their mental resources, whether it be by battling wits with the antagonist or by battling for equilibrium in the cha
Crime films, in the broadest sense, are a cinematic genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre. Films of this genre involve various aspects of crime and its detection. Stylistically, the genre may overlap and combine with many other genres, such as drama or gangster film, but include comedy, and, in turn, is divided into many sub-genres, such as mystery, suspense or noir. Crime films are based on real events or are adaptations of plays or novels. For example, the 1957 film version of Witness for the Prosecution is an adaptation of a 1953 stage play of that name, in turn based on Agatha Christie's short story published in 1933; the film version was remade in 1982, there have been other adaptations. However, each of these media has its own advantages and limitations, which in the case of cinema is the time constraint. Witness for the Prosecution is a classic example of a "courtroom drama". In a courtroom drama, a charge is brought against one of the main characters, who claims to be innocent.
Another major part is played by the lawyer representing the defendant in court and battling with the public prosecutor. He or she may enlist the services of a private investigator to find out what happened and who the real perpetrator is. However, in most cases it is not clear at all whether the accused is guilty of the crime or not—this is how suspense is created; the private investigator storms into the courtroom at the last minute in order to bring a new and crucial piece of information to the attention of the court. This type of literature lends itself to the literary genre of drama focused more on dialogue and little or no necessity for a shift in scenery; the auditorium of the theatre becomes an extension of the courtroom. When a courtroom drama is filmed, the traditional device employed by screenwriters and directors is the frequent use of flashbacks, in which the crime and everything that led up to it is narrated and reconstructed from different angles. In Witness for the Prosecution, Leonard Vole, a young American living in England, is accused of murdering a middle-aged lady he met in the street while shopping.
His wife hires the best lawyer available because she is convinced, or rather she knows, that her husband is innocent. Another classic courtroom drama is U. S. playwright Reginald Rose's Twelve Angry Men, set in the jury deliberation room of a New York Court of Law. Eleven members of the jury, aiming at a unanimous verdict of "guilty", try to get it over with as as possible, and they would succeed in achieving their common aim if it were not for the eighth juror, who, on second thoughts, considers it his duty to convince his colleagues that the defendant may be innocent after all, who, by doing so, triggers a lot of discussion and anger. A hybrid of action films and crime films and a subgenre of action films as well. Most films of this kind fall in the category of heist films, prison films and sometimes cop and gangster films. Car chases and shootouts are featured. Example include Police Story, The Dark Knight, Baby Driver, Master and Heat. A hybrid of crime and comedy films. Mafia comedy looks at organized crime from a comical standpoint.
Humor comes from the incompetence of the criminals and/or black comedy. Examples include Analyze This, The Pope of Greenwich Village, Lock and Two Smoking Barrels, In Bruges, Mafia!, Tower Heist and Pain & Gain. A combination of crime and drama films. Examples include such films as Straight Badlands. A thriller in which the central characters are involved in crime, either in its investigation, as the perpetrator or, less a victim. While some action films could be labelled as such for having criminality and thrills, the emphasis in this genre is the drama and the investigative/criminal methods. Examples include Untraceable, The Silence of the Lambs, Seven, Memories of Murder, The Call, Running Scared. A genre of Indian cinema revolving around dacoity; the genre was pioneered by Mehboob Khan's Mother India. Other examples include Gunga Jumna and Bandit Queen. A genre popular in the 1940s and 1950s fall into the crime and mystery genres. Private detectives hired to solve a crime are in such films as The Maltese Falcon, The Big Sleep, Kiss Me Deadly, L.
A. Confidential, The Long Goodbye, Chinatown. Neo-noir refers to modern films influenced by film noir such as Sin City. A genre of film that focuses on gangs and organized crime. Examples include Goodfellas, The Godfather, Casino; this film deals with a group of criminals attempting to perform a theft or robbery, as well as the possible consequences that follow. Heist films that are lighter in tone are called "Caper films". Examples include The Killing, Oceans 11, Dog Day Afternoon, Reservoir Dogs, The Town. A Hong Kong action cinema crime film genre; the genre was pioneered by John Woo's A Better Tomorrow and Ringo Lam's City on Fire, starring Chow Yun-fat. Elements of the genre can be seen in Hollywood crime films since the 1990s, such as the work of John Woo and Quentin Tarantino. Film dealing with African-American urban issues and culture, they do not always revolve around crime, but criminal activity features in the storyline. Examples include Menace II Boyz n the Hood. Not concerned with the actual crime so much as the trial in the aftermath.
A typical plot would involve a lawyer trying to prove the innocence of his or her cli