CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
The United Nations Children's Fund known as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, was created by the United Nations General Assembly on 11 December 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children and mothers in countries, devastated by World War II. The Polish physician Ludwik Rajchman is regarded as the founder of UNICEF and served as its first chairman from 1946. On Rajchman's suggestion, the American Maurice Pate was appointed its first executive director, serving from 1947 until his death in 1965. In 1950, UNICEF's mandate was extended to address the long-term needs of children and women in developing countries everywhere. In 1953 it became a permanent part of the United Nations System, the words "international" and "emergency" were dropped from the organization's name, though it retained the original acronym, "UNICEF". UNICEF relies on contributions from private donors. UNICEF's total income for 2015 was US$5,009,557,471. Governments contribute two-thirds of the organization's resources.
Private groups and individuals contribute the rest through national committees. It is estimated. UNICEF's programs emphasize developing community-level services to promote the health and well-being of children. UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 and the Prince of Asturias Award of Concord in 2006. Most of UNICEF's work is with a presence in 190 countries and territories. UNICEF's network of over 150 country offices and other offices, 34 National Committees carry out UNICEF's mission through programs developed with host governments. Seven regional offices provide technical assistance to country offices as needed. UNICEF's Supply Division is based in Copenhagen and serves as the primary point of distribution for such essential items as vaccines, antiretroviral medicines for children and mothers with HIV, nutritional supplements, emergency shelters, family reunification, educational supplies. A 36-member executive board establishes policies, approves programs and oversees administrative and financial plans.
The executive board is made up of government representatives who are elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council for three-year terms. Each country office carries out UNICEF's mission through a unique program of cooperation developed with the host government; this five-year program focuses on practical ways to realize the rights of women. Regional offices provide technical assistance to country offices as needed. Overall management and administration of the organization takes place at headquarters, where global policy on children is shaped. Guiding and monitoring all of UNICEF's work is an Executive Board made up of 36 members who are government representatives, they establish policies, approve programs and decide on administrative and financial plans and budgets. Executive Board's work is coordinated by the Bureau, comprising the President and four Vice-Presidents, each officer representing one of the five regional groups; these five officers, each one representing one of the five regional groups, are elected by the Executive Board each year from among its members, with the presidency rotating among the regional groups on an annual basis.
As a matter of custom, permanent members of the Security Council do not serve as officers of the Executive Board. Office of the Secretary of the Executive Board services the Executive Board, it is responsible for maintaining an effective relationship between the Executive Board and the UNICEF secretariat, helps to organize the field visits of the Executive Board. There are national committees in 38 countries, each established as an independent local non-governmental organization; the national committees raise funds from the public sector. UNICEF is funded by voluntary contributions, the National Committees collectively raise around one-third of UNICEF's annual income; this comes through contributions from corporations, civil society organizations around six million individual donors worldwide. In the United States and some other countries, UNICEF is known for its "Trick-Or-Treat for UNICEF" program in which children collect money for UNICEF from the houses they trick-or-treat on Halloween night, sometimes instead of candy.
UNICEF is present in 191 countries and territories around the world, but not involved in nine others. Many people in developed countries first hear about UNICEF's work through the activities of one of the 36 National Committees for UNICEF; these non-governmental organizations are responsible for fundraising, selling UNICEF greeting cards and products, creating private and public partnerships, advocating for children's rights, providing other support. The US Fund for UNICEF is the oldest of the national committees, founded in 1947. On 19 April 2007, Grand Duchess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg was appointed UNICEF Eminent Advocate for Children, in which role she has visited Brazil and Burundi. In 2009, the British retailer Tesco used "Change for Good" as advertising, trademarked by UNICEF for charity usage but not for commercial or retail use; this prompted the agency to say, "it is the first time in Unicef's history that a commercial entity has purposely set out to capitalise on one of our campaigns and subsequently damage an income stream which several of our programs for children are dependent on".
They went on to call on the public "who have children’s welfare at heart, to consider who they support when making consumer choices". In 2013 William Armstrong was the first British m
Harry Belafonte is an American singer, songwriter and actor. One of the most successful Jamaican-American pop stars in history, he was dubbed the "King of Calypso" for popularizing the Caribbean musical style with an international audience in the 1950s, his breakthrough album Calypso is the first million-selling LP by a single artist. Belafonte is best known for singing "The Banana Boat Song", with its signature lyric "Day-O", he has recorded in many genres, including blues, gospel, show tunes, American standards. He has starred in several films, most notably in Otto Preminger's hit musical Carmen Jones, Island in the Sun, Robert Wise's Odds Against Tomorrow. Belafonte was an early supporter of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s, one of Martin Luther King Jr.'s confidants. Throughout his career, he has been an advocate for political and humanitarian causes, such as the Anti-Apartheid Movement and USA for Africa. Since 1987, he has been a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador. In recent years, he has been a vocal critic of the policies of the George W. Bush presidential administrations.
Harry Belafonte now acts as the American Civil Liberties Union celebrity ambassador for juvenile justice issues. Belafonte has won three Grammy Awards, including a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, an Emmy Award, a Tony Award. In 1989, he received the Kennedy Center Honors, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 1994. In 2014, he received the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award at the Academy's 6th Annual Governors Awards. In March 2014, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Berklee College of Music in Boston. Belafonte was born Harold George Bellanfanti Jr. at Lying-in Hospital on March 1, 1927, in Harlem, New York, the son of Melvine, a housekeeper, Harold George Bellanfanti Sr. who worked as a chef. His mother was born in the child of a Scottish white mother and a black father, his father was born in Jamaica, the child of a black mother and Dutch Jewish father of Sephardi origins. Belafonte has described his grandfather, whom he never met, as "a white Dutch Jew who drifted over to the islands after chasing gold and diamonds, with no luck at all".
From 1932 to 1940, he lived with one of his grandmothers in her native country of Jamaica, where he attended Wolmer's Schools. When he returned to New York City, he attended George Washington High School after which he joined the Navy and served during World War II. In the 1940s, he was working as a janitor's assistant in NYC when a tenant gave him, as a gratuity, two tickets to see the American Negro Theater, he fell in love with the art form and met Sidney Poitier. The financially struggling pair purchased a single seat to local plays, trading places in between acts, after informing the other about the progression of the play. At the end of the 1940s, he took classes in acting at the Dramatic Workshop of The New School in New York with the influential German director Erwin Piscator alongside Marlon Brando, Tony Curtis, Walter Matthau, Bea Arthur, Sidney Poitier, while performing with the American Negro Theatre, he subsequently received a Tony Award for his participation in the Broadway revue John Murray Anderson's Almanac.
Belafonte started his career in music as a club singer in New York to pay for his acting classes. The first time he appeared in front of an audience, he was backed by the Charlie Parker band, which included Charlie Parker himself, Max Roach and Miles Davis, among others. At first, he was a pop singer, launching his recording career on the Roost label in 1949, but he developed a keen interest in folk music, learning material through the Library of Congress' American folk songs archives. With guitarist and friend Millard Thomas, Belafonte soon made his debut at the legendary jazz club The Village Vanguard. In 1952, he received a contract with RCA Victor. Belafonte's first released single, which went on to become his "signature" song with audience participation in all his live performances, was "Matilda", recorded April 27, 1953, his breakthrough album Calypso became the first LP in the world "to sell over 1 million copies within a year", Belafonte said on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's The Link program on August 7, 2012.
He added that it was the first million-selling album in England. The album is number four on Billboard's "Top 100 Album" list for having spent 31 weeks at number 1, 58 weeks in the top ten, 99 weeks on the U. S. charts. The album introduced American audiences to calypso music, Belafonte was dubbed the "King of Calypso", a title he wore with reservations since he had no claims to any Calypso Monarch titles. One of the songs included in the album is the now famous "Banana Boat Song", which reached number five on the pop charts, featured its signature lyric "Day-O", his other smash hit was "Jump in the Line". Many of the compositions recorded for Calypso, including "Banana Boat Song" and "Jamaica Farewell", gave songwriting credit to Irving Burgie. While known for calypso, Belafonte has recorded in many different genres, including blues, gospel, show tunes, American standards, his second-most popular hit, which came after "The Banana Boat Song", was the comedic tune "Mama Look at Bubu" known as "Mama Look a Boo-Boo", in which he sings humorously about misbehaving and disrespectful children.
It reached number eleven on the pop chart. In 1959, he starred in Tonight With Belafonte, a nationally televised special that featured Odetta, who sang "Water Boy" and wh
Shirley Mae Jones is an American singer and actress. In her six decades of show business, she has starred as wholesome characters in a number of well-known musical films, such as Oklahoma!, The Music Man. She won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for playing a vengeful prostitute in Elmer Gantry, she played the lead role of Shirley Partridge, the widowed mother of five children, in the musical situation-comedy television series The Partridge Family, which co-starred her real-life stepson, David Cassidy, son of Jack Cassidy. Jones was born on March 31, 1934, in Charleroi, Pennsylvania, to Methodist parents Marjorie, a homemaker, Paul Jones, owners of the Jones Brewing Company. Jones' paternal grandfather came from Wales, she was named for child star Shirley Temple. The family moved to the small nearby town of Smithton, Pennsylvania. Jones began singing at the age of six in the Methodist Church choir and took voice lessons from Ralph Lewando. Upon attending South Huntingdon High School in Ruffs Dale, she participated in school plays.
Jones won the Miss Pittsburgh contest in 1952. Her first audition was for an open biweekly casting call held by John Fearnley, casting director for Rodgers and Hammerstein and their various musicals. At the time, Jones had never heard of Hammerstein. Fearnley was so impressed, he ran across the street to fetch Richard Rodgers, rehearsing with an orchestra for an upcoming musical. Rodgers called Oscar Hammerstein at home; the two saw great potential in Jones. She became the only singer to be put under personal contract with the songwriters, they first cast her in a minor role in South Pacific. For her second Broadway show, Me and Juliet, she started as a chorus girl, an understudy for the lead role, earning rave reviews in Chicago. Jones impressed Rodgers and Hammerstein with her musically trained voice, she was cast as the female lead in the film adaptation of their hit musical Oklahoma! in 1955. Other film musicals followed, including Carousel, April Love, The Music Man, in which she was typecast as a wholesome, kind character.
However, she won a 1960 Academy Award for her performance in Elmer Gantry portraying a woman corrupted by the title character played by Burt Lancaster. Her character becomes a prostitute who encounters her seducer years and takes her revenge; the director, Richard Brooks, had fought against her being in the movie, but after seeing her first scene, told her she would win an Oscar for her performance. She was reunited with Ron Howard in The Courtship of Eddie's Father. Jones landed the role of a lady. In 1970, after turning down the role of Carol Brady on The Brady Bunch, a role that went to her best friend, Florence Henderson, Jones was the producers' first choice to audition for the lead role of Shirley Partridge in The Partridge Family, an ABC musical sitcom based loosely on the real-life musical family The Cowsills; the series focused on a young widowed mother whose five children form a pop rock group after the entire family painted its signature bus to travel. She was convinced that the combination of comedy would be a surefire hit.
Jones realized, that: The problem with Partridge—though it was great for me and gave me an opportunity to stay home and raise my kids—when my agents came to me and presented it to me, they said if you do a series and it becomes a hit show, you will be that character for the rest of your life and your film career will go into the toilet, what happened. But I have no regrets. During its first season, it was screened in over 70 countries. Within months and her co-stars were pop culture television icons, her real-life 20-year-old stepson David Cassidy, an unknown actor at the time, played Shirley Partridge's eldest son Keith and became a teen idol. The show spawned a number of albums and singles by The Partridge Family, performed by David Cassidy and Shirley Jones; that same year, "I Think I Love You" reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 music chart, making Jones the second person, after Frank Sinatra, the first woman to win an acting Oscar and have a number-one hit on that chart, an achievement only matched by Cher and Barbra Streisand.
The Partridge Family won a NARM award for the best-selling single of the year in 1970 for their hit "I Think I Love You". In 1971, The Partridge Family was nominated for a Grammy under the Best New Artist category. By 1974, it was one of six series to be canceled that year to make room for new shows. Shirley Jones's friendship with David Cassidy's family began in the mid-to-late 1950s, when David was just six, after he learned about his father's divorce from his mother Evelyn Ward. Upon David's first meeting with Shirley before co-starring with her on The Partridge Family, he said, "The day he tells me that they're divorced, he tells me,'We're remarried, let me introduce you to my new wife.' He was thrilled when her first film, Oklahoma!, had come out. She's a warm, sweet, good human being, she couldn't have thawed it for me—the coldness and the ice—any more than she did." Shirley was shocked to hear her real-lif
Mary Tyler Moore
Mary Tyler Moore was an American actress, best known for her roles in the television sitcoms The Mary Tyler Moore Show, in which she starred as Mary Richards, a single woman working as a local news producer in Minneapolis, The Dick Van Dyke Show, in which she played Laura Petrie, a former dancer turned Westchester homemaker and mother. Her film work includes 1967's Thoroughly Modern Millie and 1980's Ordinary People, in which she played roles that were different from the television characters she had portrayed, her work in Ordinary People earned her a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Actress. Thanks to her roles on both The Mary Tyler Moore Show and The Dick Van Dyke Show, in which her characters broke from stereotypical images of women and pushed gender norms, Moore became a cultural icon and served as an inspiration for many younger actresses, professional women, she was active in charity work and various political causes the issues of animal rights and diabetes. She was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes early in the run of The Mary Tyler Moore Show.
She suffered from alcoholism, which she wrote about in her first of two memoirs. She died from cardiopulmonary arrest due to pneumonia at the age of 80 on January 25, 2017. Moore was born in Brooklyn, New York, to George Tyler Moore, a clerk, his wife Marjorie Hackett. Moore was the oldest of three children. Moore's family lived on Ocean Parkway in the Flatbush section of Brooklyn, her paternal great-grandfather, Lieutenant Colonel Lewis Tilghman Moore, owned the house, now the Stonewall Jackson's Headquarters Museum in Winchester, Virginia. When she was eight years old, Moore's family moved to Los Angeles at the recommendation of Moore's uncle, an MCA employee, she was raised Catholic, attended St. Rose of Lima Parochial School in Brooklyn until the third grade, she attended Saint Ambrose School in Los Angeles, followed by Immaculate Heart High School in Los Feliz, California. Moore's sister, died at age 21 "from a combination of... painkillers and alcohol", while her brother died at age 47 from kidney cancer.
Moore decided at age 17. Her television career began with Moore's first job as "Happy Hotpoint", a tiny elf dancing on Hotpoint appliances in TV commercials during the 1950s series Ozzie and Harriet. After appearing in 39 Hotpoint commercials in five days, she received $6,000, she became pregnant while still working as "Happy" and Hotpoint ended her work when it was too difficult to conceal her pregnancy with the elf costume. Moore modeled anonymously on the covers of a number of record albums and auditioned for the role of the older daughter of Danny Thomas for his long-running TV show, but was turned down. Much Thomas explained that "she missed it by a nose... no daughter of mine could have a nose that small". Moore's first regular television role was as a mysterious and glamorous telephone receptionist on Richard Diamond, Private Detective. On the show, Moore's voice was heard, but only her legs appeared on camera, adding to the character's mystique. About this time, she guest-starred on John Cassavetes's NBC detective series Johnny Staccato.
She guest-starred in Bachelor Father in the episode titled "Bentley and the Big Board". In 1960, she was featured in two episodes of the William Bendix-Doug McClure NBC western series, Overland Trail and several months in the first episode of NBC's one-season The Tab Hunter Show, a sitcom starring the former teen idol as a bachelor cartoonist. In 1961, Moore appeared in several big parts in movies and on television, including Bourbon Street Beat, 77 Sunset Strip, Surfside 6, Wanted: Dead or Alive, Steve Canyon, Hawaiian Eye and Lock-Up. In 1961, Carl Reiner cast Moore in The Dick Van Dyke Show, a weekly series based on Reiner's own life and career as a writer for Sid Caesar's television variety show Your Show of Shows, telling the cast from the outset that it would run for no more than five years; the show was produced by Danny Thomas' company, Thomas himself recommended her. He remembered Moore as "the girl with three names". Moore's energetic comic performances as Van Dyke's character's wife, begun at age 24, made both the actress and her signature tight capri pants popular, she became internationally known.
When she won her first Emmy Award for her portrayal of Laura Petrie, she said, "I know this will never happen again." In 1970, after having appeared earlier in a pivotal one-hour musical special called Dick Van Dyke and the Other Woman and husband Grant Tinker pitched a sitcom centered on Moore to CBS. The Mary Tyler Moore Show is a half-hour newsroom sitcom featuring Ed Asner as her gruff boss Lou Grant. Moore's show proved so popular that three other regular characters, Valerie Harper as Rhoda Morgenstern, Cloris Leachman as Phyllis Lindstrom and Ed Asner as Lou Grant were spun off into their own series; the premise of the single working woman's life, alternating during the program between work and home, became a television staple. After six years of ratings in the top 20, the show slipped to number 39 during season seven. Producers decided to cancel the series because of falling ratings, afraid that the show's legacy might be damaged if it were renewed for another season. Despite the decline in ratings, the 1977 season would go on to win an Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series, to add to the awards it had won in 1975 and 1976.
All in all, during its seven seasons, the program held the record for winning the most Emmys – 29. That record remained unbroken until 2002 when the NB
Eugene Curran Kelly was an American dancer, actor of film and television, film director and choreographer. He was known for his energetic and athletic dancing style, his good looks, the likable characters that he played on screen. Best known today for his performances in films such as An American in Paris, Anchors Aweigh — for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor—and Singin' in the Rain, he starred in musical films until they fell out of fashion in the late 1950s, he starred in, choreographed, or co-directed some of the most well-regarded musicals of the 1940s and 1950s, debuting with Judy Garland in For Me and My Gal, followed by Du Barry Was a Lady, Thousands Cheer, The Pirate, On the Town, It's Always Fair Weather, among others. He starred in two films outside the musical genre: Inherit the Wind and What a Way to Go!. Kelly directed films without a collaborator, including Hello, Dolly!, nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. His many innovations transformed the Hollywood musical, he is credited with single-handedly making the ballet form commercially acceptable to film audiences.
Kelly received an Academy Honorary Award in 1952 for his career achievements, the same year An American in Paris won six Academy Awards, including Best Picture. He received lifetime achievement awards in the Kennedy Center Honors, from the Screen Actors Guild and American Film Institute. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked him as the 15th greatest male screen legend of Classic Hollywood Cinema. Kelly was born in the East Liberty neighborhood of Pittsburgh, he was the third son of James Patrick Joseph Kelly, a phonograph salesman, his wife, Harriet Catherine Curran. His father was born in Peterborough, Canada, to an Irish Canadian family, his maternal grandfather was an immigrant from Derry and his maternal grandmother was of German ancestry. When he was eight, Kelly's mother enrolled his brother James in dance classes; as Kelly recalled, they both rebelled: "We didn't like it much and were continually involved in fistfights with the neighborhood boys who called us sissies... I didn't dance again until I was 15."
At one time, his childhood dream was to play shortstop for the hometown Pittsburgh Pirates. By the time he decided to dance, he was an accomplished able to defend himself, he attended St. Raphael Elementary School in the Morningside neighborhood of Pittsburgh and graduated from Peabody High School at age 16, he entered the Pennsylvania State College as a journalism major, but the 1929 crash forced him to work to help his family. He created dance routines with his younger brother Fred to earn prize money in local talent contests, they performed in local nightclubs. In 1931, Kelly enrolled at the University of Pittsburgh to study economics, joining the Phi Kappa Theta fraternity, he became involved in the university's Gown Club, which staged original musical productions. After graduating in 1933, he continued to be active with the Cap and Gown Club, serving as the director from 1934 to 1938. Kelly was admitted to the University of Pittsburgh Law School, his family opened a dance studio in the Squirrel Hill neighborhood of Pittsburgh.
In 1932, they renamed it the Gene Kelly Studio of the Dance and opened a second location in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, in 1933. Kelly served as a teacher at the studio during his law-student years at Pitt. In 1931, he was approached by the Beth Shalom Synagogue in Pittsburgh to teach dance, to stage the annual Kermesse; the venture proved Kelly being retained for seven years until his departure for New York. Kelly decided to pursue a career as a dance teacher and full-time entertainer, so he dropped out of law school after two months, he increased his focus on performing and claimed: "With time I became disenchanted with teaching because the ratio of girls to boys was more than ten to one, once the girls reached 16, the dropout rate was high." In 1937, having managed and developed the family's dance-school business, he did move to New York City in search of work as a choreographer. Kelly returned to Pittsburgh, to his family home at 7514 Kensington Street, by 1940, worked as a theatrical actor.
After a fruitless search for work in New York, Kelly returned to Pittsburgh to his first position as a choreographer with the Charles Gaynor musical revue Hold Your Hats at the Pittsburgh Playhouse in April 1938. Kelly appeared in six of the sketches, one of which, La cumparsita, became the basis of an extended Spanish number in the film Anchors Aweigh eight years later, his first Broadway assignment, in November 1938, was as a dancer in Cole Porter's Leave It to Me!—as the American ambassador's secretary who supports Mary Martin while she sings "My Heart Belongs to Daddy". He had been hired by Robert Alton, who had staged a show at the Pittsburgh Playhouse where he was impressed by Kelly's teaching skills; when Alton moved on to choreograph the musical One for the Money, he hired Kelly to act and dance in eight routines. In 1939, he was selected for a musical revue, One for the Money, produced by the actress Katharine Cornell, known for finding and hiring talented young actors. Kelly's first big breakthrough was in the Pulitzer Prize–winning The Time of Your Life, which opened on October 25, 1939—in which, for the first time on Broadway, he danced to his own choreography.
In the same year, he received his first assignment as a Broadway choreographer, for Billy Rose's Diamond Horseshoe. He began dating a cast member, Betsy Blair, they got married on Octo
George Burns was an American comedian, actor and writer. He was one of the few entertainers whose career spanned vaudeville, radio and television, his arched eyebrow and cigar-smoke punctuation became familiar trademarks for over three quarters of a century. He and his wife, Gracie Allen, appeared on radio and film as the comedy duo Burns and Allen. At age 79, Burns had a sudden career revival as an amiable and unusually active comedy elder statesman in the 1975 film The Sunshine Boys, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Burns, who became a centenarian in 1996, continued to work until just weeks before his death of cardiac arrest at his home in Beverly Hills. George Burns was born Nathan Birnbaum on January 20, 1896 in New York City, the ninth of 12 children born to Hadassah "Dorah" and Eliezer Birnbaum, known as Louis or Lippe, Jewish immigrants who had come to the United States from Kolbuszowa, Galicia. Burns was a member of the First Roumanian-American Congregation.
His father was a substitute cantor at the local synagogue but worked as a coat presser. During the influenza epidemic of 1903, Lippe Birnbaum contracted the flu and died at the age of 47. Nattie went to work to help support the family, shining shoes, running errands and selling newspapers; when he landed a job as a syrup maker in a local candy shop at age seven, "Nate" as he was known, was "discovered", as he recalled long after: Burns was drafted into the United States Army when the U. S. entered World War I in 1917, but he failed the physical because he was nearsighted. In order to try to hide his Jewish heritage, he adopted the stage name by which he would be known for the rest of his life, he claimed in a few interviews that the idea of the name originated from the fact that two star major league players were playing major league baseball at the time. Both men hold some major league records. Burns was reported to have taken the name "George" from his brother Izzy, the Burns from the Burns Brothers Coal Company.
He partnered with a girl, sometimes in an adagio dance routine, sometimes comic patter. Though he had an apparent flair for comedy, he never quite clicked with any of his partners, until he met a young Irish Catholic lady in 1923. "And all of a sudden," he said famously in years, "the audience realized I had a talent. They were right. I did have a talent—and I was married to her for 38 years."His first wife was Hannah Siegel, one of his dance partners. The marriage, never consummated, lasted 26 weeks and happened because her family would not let them go on tour unless they were married, they divorced at the end of the tour. Burns' second wife and famous partner in their entertainment routines was Gracie Allen. George Burns started smoking when he was 14. Burns and Allen got a start in motion pictures with a series of comic short films in the late 1930s, their feature credits in the mid- to late-1930s included The Big Broadcast. Honolulu would be Burns's last movie for nearly 40 years. Burns and Allen were indirectly responsible for the Bob Hope and Bing Crosby series of "Road" pictures.
In 1938, William LeBaron and managing director at Paramount, had a script prepared by Don Hartman and Frank Butler. It was to star Burns and Allen with Bing Crosby, already an established star of radio and the movies; the story did not seem to fit the comedy team's style, so LeBaron ordered Hartman and Butler to rewrite the script to fit two male co-stars: Hope and Crosby. The script was titled Road to Singapore, it made motion picture history when it was released in 1940. Burns and Allen first made it to radio as the comedy relief for bandleader Guy Lombardo, which did not always sit well with Lombardo's home audience. In his memoir, The Third Time Around, Burns revealed a college fraternity's protest letter, complaining that they resented their weekly dance parties with their girl friends listening to "Thirty Minutes of the Sweetest Music This Side of Heaven" had to be broken into by the droll vaudeville team. In time, though and Allen found their own show and radio audience, first airing on February 15, 1932 and concentrating on their classic stage routines plus sketch comedy in which the Burns and Allen style was woven into different little scenes, not unlike the short films they made in Hollywood.
They were good for a clever publicity stunt, none more so than the hunt for Gracie's missing brother, a hunt that included Gracie turning up on other radio shows searching for him as well. The couple was portrayed at first as younger singles, with Allen the object of both Burns' and other cast members' affections. Most notably, bandleaders Ray Noble and Artie Shaw played "love" interests to Gracie. In addition, singer Tony Martin played an unwilling love interest of Gracie's, in which Gracie "sexually harassed" him, by threatening to fire him if the romantic interest was not reciprocated. In time, due to slipping ratings and the difficulty of being portrayed as singles in light of the audience's close familiarity with their