The Sortie Made by the Garrison of Gibraltar
The Sortie Made by the Garrison of Gibraltar is the title of a 1789 oil-on-canvas painting by American artist John Trumbull. The painting shows a key point in Gibraltars history when the Great Siege of Gibraltar was undertaken by the Spanish against the British at Gibraltar in November 1781, the Spanish officer Don Jose de Barboza is being given respect as he lies dying. Although left behind by his own retreating troops he still unsuccessfully attacked the British troops with chivalry, the painting is based on a historic battle that took place in Gibraltar on November 27,1781. The Great Siege of Gibraltar was an attempt by Spain. The painting depicts the events of the night of November 26,1781 when British troops made a sudden attack, the death of the Spanish officer Don Jose de Barboza is the focal point of the painting. He fell mortally wounded and died near his post refusing assistance after having been abandoned by his troops and he is portrayed as rejecting the aid of General George Elliott, commander of the British troops.
This had all the ingredients he sought, Trumbull had been engaged in a series of paintings based on the American Revolution, as the project progressed, Trumbulls ambitions for it to be his big breakthrough to major patronage grew too. He refused large offers for the picture, preferring to exhibit it privately for admission fees, horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford had called the painting, The painting is depicted on the back of the 2010 Gibraltar 10-pound note. The people highlighted in this composition are the dying José de Barboza and to his right and from left to right, Ensign A. Mackenzie, Governor Eliott, koehler, Lt. Col J. Hardy, Brig. Gen C. Ross, Capt A. Witham, Capt Roger Curtis, Lieutent Thomas Trigge, Gibraltars Finest Hour The Great Siege 1779-1783. 300 Years of British Gibraltar 1704-2004, Peter-Tan Publishing Co. pp. 28–29
William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe
General William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC was a British Army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American War of Independence. Howe was one of three brothers who had distinguished military careers, having joined the army in 1746, Howe saw extensive service in the War of the Austrian Succession and Seven Years War. Howe participated in the campaigns to take Louisbourg, Belle Île and he was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Wight, a post he would hold until 1795. Howe was sent to North America in March 1775, arriving in May after the American War of Independence broke out. After leading British troops to a victory in the Battle of Bunker Hill. Howes record in North America was marked by the capture of both New York City and Philadelphia. However, poor British campaign planning for 1777 contributed to the failure of John Burgoynes Saratoga campaign, Howes role in developing those plans and the degree to which he was responsible for British failures that year have both been subjects of contemporary and historic debate.
He resigned his post as Commander in Chief, North America, in 1778, and returned to England and he served for many years in Parliament, and was knighted after his successes in 1776. He inherited the Viscountcy of Howe upon the death of his brother Richard in 1799 and he married, but had no children, and the viscountcy was extinguished with his death in 1814. His mother was a regular in the courts of George II and this connection with the crown may have improved the careers of all four sons, but all were very capable officers. His father was a politician, who served as Governor of Barbados where he died in 1735, williams eldest brother, General George Howe, was killed just before the 1758 Battle of Carillon at Fort Ticonderoga. Another brother, Admiral Richard Howe, rose to one of Britains leading naval commanders. A third brother, commanded ships for the East India Company, Winchelsea in 1762–4 and Nottingham in 1766, William entered the army when he was 17 by buying a cornets commission in the Duke of Cumberlands Dragoons in 1746.
He served for two years in Flanders during the War of the Austrian Succession, after the war he was transferred to the 20th Regiment of Foot, where he became a friend of James Wolfe. During the Seven Years War Howes service first brought him to America and he joined the newly formed 58th Regiment of Foot in February 1757, and was promoted to lieutenant colonel in December of that year. He commanded the regiment at the Siege of Louisbourg in 1758 and this action won the attackers a flanking position and earned Howe a commendation from Wolfe. Howe commanded an infantry battalion under General Wolfe during the 1759 Siege of Quebec. Howe led a brigade in the 1761 Capture of Belle Île, off the French coast and he served as adjutant general of the force that captured Havana in 1762, playing a part in a skirmish at Guanabacoa
The Wadsworth Atheneum is an art museum located in Hartford, Connecticut. Founded in 1842 and opened in 1844, it is the oldest continually operating art museum in the United States. The museum is located at 600 Main Street in a distinctive building in downtown Hartford, Connecticut. With 75,000 square feet of space, the museum is the largest art museum in the state of Connecticut. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, the museum is a member of the North American Reciprocal Museums program. The Wadsworth, as it is most commonly known, was constructed on the site of the home of Daniel Wadsworth in the heart of downtown Hartford. Its architects were Alexander Jackson Davis and Ithiel Town, who designed the castle that is the Atheneums oldest building, construction began in 1842 after the museum was incorporated on June 1 of that year. The museum opened on July 31,1844 and has operated continuously since then, the Wadsworth family, being one of the oldest and most affluent in the city, contributed numerous valuable pieces of art to be displayed at the time the museum opened.
The first collection consisted of 78 paintings, two busts, one portrait miniature, and one bronze sculpture. Building on the Wadsworth familys largess, generations of more recent donors have added to the museums collections, foremost among them are Elizabeth Jarvis Colt, widow of firearms magnate Samuel Colt, and financier and Hartford native John Pierpont Morgan. In 1927, the received a million-dollar bequest from banker Frank Sumner. The design required demolishing the Goodwin Building, put up in 1969, the proposal was scrapped in 2003 due to fundraising difficulties and changes in the museums leadership. A plan to expand into the former Hartford Times building was abandoned due to cost concerns. The $33 million renovation, designed by the Hartford-based architecture firm Smith Edwards McCoy, was completed in 2015, the collections span more than 5,000 years of world history. Just outside the castle is a statue of Nathan Hale, dated 1899, a short distance away, within the Connecticut State Capitol is another, better-known sculpture of Hale by Bela Pratt, a copy of his original at Yale University.
The Atheneum owns the A. Everett Austin House, a National Historic Landmark, the house, located in Hartfords historic West End, is open to the public as a museum. Since its beginning, the Wadsworth has had a tradition of firsts. In 1933, the Wadsworth sponsored George Balanchines immigration to the United States from the Soviet Union, shortly after his immigration, Balanchine founded the School of American Ballet, which led to the formation of the New York City Ballet
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 in Saybrook Colony to train Congregationalist ministers, it is the third-oldest institution of education in the United States. The Collegiate School moved to New Haven in 1716, and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century the school introduced graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools, the undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each schools faculty oversees its curriculum, the universitys assets include an endowment valued at $25.4 billion as of June 2016, the second largest of any U. S. educational institution.
The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States, Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. Almost all faculty teach courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents,19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices,20 living billionaires, and many heads of state. In addition, Yale has graduated hundreds of members of Congress,57 Nobel laureates,5 Fields Medalists,247 Rhodes Scholars, and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the University. Yale traces its beginnings to An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School, passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9,1701, the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut.
Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregationalist ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, the group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as The Founders. Originally known as the Collegiate School, the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, the school moved to Saybrook, and Wethersfield. In 1716 the college moved to New Haven, the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to Yale College, meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale. The 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, philosophy and it had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Lockes works and developed his original theology known as the new divinity
Boston Harbor is a natural harbor and estuary of Massachusetts Bay, and is located adjacent to the city of Boston, Massachusetts. It is home to the Port of Boston, a shipping facility in the northeastern United States. Since its discovery to Europeans by John Smith in 1614, Boston Harbor has been an important port in American history and it was the site of the Boston Tea Party as well as almost continuous backfilling of the harbor until the 19th century. By 1660 almost all came to the greater Boston area. A rapid influx of people transformed Boston into a booming city, the health of the harbor quickly decreased as the population of Boston increased. As early as the late 19th century Boston citizens were advised not to swim in any portion of the Harbor, in the 19th century two of the first steam sewage stations were built. With these mandates the harbor was seeing small improvements, but raw sewage was still continuously pumped into the harbor, in 1919 the Metropolitan District Commission was created to oversee and regulate the quality of harbor water.
However, not much improvement was seen and general awareness of the poor quality of water was very low. In 1972 the Clean Water Act was passed in order to promote increased national water quality. Boston did not receive a clean water act waiver from the Environmental Protection Agency, since the mid-1970s organizations within the Boston community have battled for a cleaner Boston Harbor. More recently, the harbor was the site of the $4.5 billion Boston Harbor Project, failures at the Nut Island sewage treatment plant in Quincy and the companion Deer Island plant adjacent to Winthrop had far-reaching environmental and political effects. Fecal coliform bacteria levels forced frequent swimming prohibitions along the harbor beaches and that suit was followed by one by the Conservation Law Foundation and finally by the United States government, resulting in the landmark court-ordered cleanup of Boston Harbor. The court ordered cleanup continued throughout the two decades and is still ongoing. Before the cleanup projects, the water was so polluted that The Standells released a song in 1966 called Dirty Water about the state of the Charles River.
The song is popular with Red Sox fans and is played regularly at Fenway Park whenever the Red Sox win a game. Neal Stephenson, who attended Boston University from 1977 to 1981, based his novel, Zodiac. Boston Harbor is a harbor which constitutes the western extremity of Massachusetts Bay. The harbor is often described as being split into an inner harbor, the harbor itself comprises fifty square miles with 180 miles of shoreline and 34 harbor islands
It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston, over 80% of Massachusetts population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution, during the 20th century, Massachusetts economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a leader in biotechnology, higher education, finance. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, in 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of Americas most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, in 1786, Shays Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention.
In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, in the late 18th century, Boston became known as the Cradle of Liberty for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, in the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams, both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. Massachusetts public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance, the official name of the state is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
While this designation is part of the official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the position and powers within the United States as other states. Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed approximately 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans, the first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, arrived via the Mayflower at Plymouth in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native Wampanoag people. This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that became the United States, the event known as the First Thanksgiving was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World which lasted for three days
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. It did not include Ireland, which remained a separate realm, the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. Also after the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746. On 1 January 1801, the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were merged to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom, the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used officially in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Edward IV of Englands daughter Cecily and James III of Scotlands son James.
The Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be United into one Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain. However, both the Acts and the Treaty refer numerous times to the United Kingdom and the longer form, other publications refer to the country as the United Kingdom after 1707 as well. The websites of the UK parliament, the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, the term United Kingdom was found in informal use during the 18th century to describe the state. The new state created in 1707 included the island of Great Britain, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a union in 1603. Each of the three kingdoms maintained its own parliament and laws and this disposition changed dramatically when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800, legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the location in Westminster. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws. As a result of Poynings Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, the Act was repealed by the Repeal of Act for Securing Dependence of Ireland Act 1782. The same year, the Irish constitution of 1782 produced a period of legislative freedom, the 18th century saw England, and after 1707 Great Britain, rise to become the worlds dominant colonial power, with France its main rival on the imperial stage
A redoubt is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort, usually relying on earthworks, although some are constructed of stone or brick. It is meant to protect soldiers outside the defensive line. The word means a place of retreat, a redoubt differs from a redan in that the redan is open in the rear, whereas the redoubt was considered an enclosed work. The advent of mobile warfare in the 20th century generally diminished the importance of the defence of static positions, during the English Civil War redoubts were frequently built to protect older fortifications from the more effective artillery of the period. Often close to ancient fortifications there were hills that overlooked the defences. A small hill close to Worcester was used as a platform by the Parliamentarians when they successfully besieged Worcester in 1646. In 1651 before the Battle of Worcester the hill was turned into a redoubt by the Royalists, during the Battle of Worcester, the Parliamentarians captured this redoubt and turned its guns on Worcester.
In so doing they made the defence of the city untenable and this action effectively ended the battle, the last of the English Civil War. From 1715 onwards, the Order of Saint John built a number of redoubts in Malta and they were built in the middle of bays to prevent enemy forces from disembarking and outflanking the coastal batteries. The design of the redoubts was influenced by ones built in the French colonies, in all, eleven pentagonal redoubts and a few semi-circular or rectangular ones were built. Most redoubts have been demolished over the years, but a few survive, such as Briconet Redoubt, Saint George Redoubt. These were redoubts built in the form of a tower, with rows of musketry loopholes, three were around Marsaxlokk Bay, and one was located in Marsalforn, Gozo. The only one still in existence is Vendôme Tower in Marsaxlokk, during the siege of Malta of 1798–1800, Maltese insurgents built a number of fortifications to bombard French positions and repel a possible counterattack.
Most of the fortifications were batteries, but at least two redoubts, Windmill Redoubt and Żabbar Redoubt, were built, in 1799, British forces built San Rocco Redoubt and San Lucian Redoubt in Malta. No redoubts from the French blockade survive today, in the late 19th century, the British built a redoubt near Fomm ir-Riħ as part of the Victoria Lines. The chain blocked the river, the forts were positioned to fire on ships attempting to approach the chain, list of military structures Reduit Redoubt on historical map
John Small (British Army officer)
John Small was a career British military officer from Scotland who played a key role in raising and leading the 84th Regiment of Foot during the American Revolution. After the war, he settled with many of the men of the 84th Regiment in Douglas Township, Hants County, the British Crown granted land to soldiers after the war to encourage settlement, especially in Upper Canada. Small is shown deflecting a bayonet away from General Warren, who had been a friend before the hostilities broke out, Small returned to Great Britain after the war. He was appointed as Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey and promoted to Major General, born at Strathardle, Atholl, he was the son of Patrick Small of Leanoch in Glen Shee and Magdalen Robertson, daughter of Alexander Robertson, 5th Laird of Straloch, Perthshire. His brothers were Alexander Small, who became a surgeon, and James Small. John Small was a first cousin and close friend of John Robertson Reid and his niece, Magdalen MacDonald, was the mother of John MacDonald of Garth and Mrs.
William McGillivray. John Small and his relatives were members of the Smalls of Dirnanean, at an early age Smalls family purchased a commission for him to enter the Scots Brigade, and he served with them in the Netherlands. He was promoted to 2nd Lieutenant in the Earl of Drumlanrigs Regiment when it was raised for service of the States General in 1747. In 1756, Small obtained a commission in the British Army, Lieutenant Small went to North America to fight for Great Britain against French Canadian forces in the Seven Years War. On that front, the war known to the colonists of the Thirteen Colonies as the French and Indian War, referring to France. Small fought at the Battle of Fort Oswego in New York, two years later, in 1758, he fought at the Battle of Ticonderoga, in New York, under General James Abercrombie. Following the defeat, he accompanied General Amherst on his expedition to Lake Champlain. He was with him at the Surrender of Montreal in 1760, in Montreal, Small was placed in charge of the French prisoners and took them to New York.
General Amherst had great confidence in him, and frequently used him on particular services, in 1762, Small was promoted to Captain. He sailed with his regiment to take part in the Invasion of Martinique, following the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Captain Small was placed on half-pay. According to General Stewart, he was almost immediately put on the full-pay list of the 21st North British Fusiliers. When the Black Watch left in 1767 for Europe, most of the men of that regiment and he was deservedly popular with them. That same year, Small was appointed Brigade Major to the forces in North America and it may have been during the interval between the Seven Years War and the American Revolution that Small began to acquire his estate, Selmah Hall, in Nova Scotia
The city asserts that it serves as the heart of Black culture in Boston. Roxbury was one of the first towns founded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630, the original boundaries of the Town of Roxbury can be found in Drakes History of Roxbury and its noted Personages. OBryant School of Mathematics & Science, Y. M. C. A, harvard Medical School and many hospitals and schools in the area. This side of the Muddy River is Roxbury, the side is Brookline. Here, Walnut Avenue changes its name to Sigourney Street, indicating the area is now Jamaica Plain, one side of Columbia Road is Roxbury, the other Dorchester. Melnea Cass Boulevard is located approximately over the Roxbury Canal that brought boats into Roxbury, the neighborhood has recently added a new police station improving response time assisting its residents. This facility opened in 2011, and is energy efficient, assisting the community are programs such as the Child Services of Roxbury, the youth build Boston programs, and many more. New initiatives by the city of Boston have propelled the neighborhood of Boston to become eco-friendly, there has been development of new E+ buildings.
Along with the move into a community, each building is now mandated to provide accessibility to people with handicaps. The high density population leads to large amounts of crime, 1/4 of the population are immigrants and half of the population is under 25 years old. Many of the adults are young professionals, many jobs in Roxbury are office and retail oriented. There are many emergency response facilities who help underprivileged people in the area, such as youth centers, the Massachusetts Bay Colony found the coastline largely empty, and quickly founded a group of six towns, among them Boston and Roxbury. For more than 200 years, Roxbury encompassed West Roxbury, three miles south the only land route to the capital led through Roxbury, which made the town important for both transportation and trade. Roxbury in the 1600s held many of the resources English colonists prized, potentially arable land, the settlers of Roxbury originally comprised the congregation of the First Church in Roxbury, established in 1632.
During this time the church served not only as a place of worship, the congregation had no time to raise a meeting house the first winter and so met with the neighboring congregation in Dorchester. One of the leaders of this church was Amos Adams. The first meeting house was built in 1632, and the building pictured here is the meeting house. The town is located where Boston was previously connected to mainland Massachusetts by an isthmus called Boston Neck or alternately
Hartford is the capital of the U. S. state of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960, as of the 2010 Census, Hartfords population was 124,775, making it Connecticuts third-largest city after the coastal cities of Bridgeport and New Haven. Census Bureau estimates since have indicated Hartfords subsequent fall to fourth place statewide as a result of sustained growth in the coastal city of Stamford. Nicknamed the Insurance Capital of the World, Hartford houses many insurance company headquarters, founded in 1635, Hartford is among the oldest cities in the United States. In 1868, resident Mark Twain wrote, Of all the towns it has been my fortune to see this is the chief. Following the American Civil War, Hartford was the richest city in the United States for several decades, Hartford is one of the poorest cities in the nation with 3 out of every 10 families living below the poverty line. In sharp contrast, the Hartford metropolitan area is ranked 32nd of 318 metropolitan areas in total economic production, various tribes, all part of the loose Algonquin confederation, lived in or around present-day Hartford.
The area was referred to as Suckiaug, meaning Black Fertile River-Enhanced Earth, the first Europeans known to have explored the area were the Dutch, under Adriaen Block, who sailed up the Connecticut in 1614. Dutch fur traders from New Amsterdam returned in 1623 with a mission to establish a trading post, the original site was located on the south bank of the Park River in the present-day Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhood. This fort was called Fort Hoop, or the House of Hope, in 1633, Jacob Van Curler formally bought the land around Fort Hoop from the Pequot chief for a small sum. It was home to perhaps a couple families and a few dozen soldiers, the area today is known as Dutch Point, and the name of the Dutch fort, House of Hope, is reflected in the name of Huyshope Avenue. The fort was abandoned by 1654, but its neighborhood in Hartford is still known as Dutch Point, the Dutch outpost, and the tiny contingent of Dutch soldiers that were stationed there, did little to check the English migration.
The Dutch soon realized they were vastly outnumbered, the House of Hope remained an outpost, but it was steadily swallowed up by waves of English settlers. The English began to arrive 1637, settling upstream from Fort Hoop near the present-day Downtown, the settlement was originally called Newtown, but was changed to Hartford in 1637 in honor of Stones hometown of Hertford, England. Hooker created the town of Windsor. The etymology of Hartford is the ford where harts cross, the Seal of the City of Hartford features a male deer, which in full maturity was referred to by the medieval hunting term hart. The fledgling colony along the Connecticut River had issues with the authority by which it was to be governed because it was outside of the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colonys charter. Historians suggest that Hookers conception of self-rule embodied in the Fundamental Orders went on to inspire the Connecticut Constitution, one of Connecticuts nicknames is the Constitution State