New jack swing
New Jack Swing or swingbeat is a fusion genre spearheaded by Teddy Riley and Bernard Belle that became popular from the mid 1980s into the early 1990s, the style originated from Janet Jackson's third studio album, Control from 1986. Its influence, along with hip hop, seeped into pop culture and was the definitive sound of the inventive New York club scene, it fuses the rhythms and production techniques of hip hop and dance-pop with the urban contemporary sound of R&B. The new jack swing style developed as many previous music styles did, by combining elements of older styles with newer sensibilities, it used R&B style vocals sung over hip dance-pop style influenced instrumentation. The sound of new jack swing comes from the hip hop "swing" beats created by drum machine, hardware samplers, which were popular during the Golden Age of Hip Hop, with contemporary R&B style singing. Merriam-Webster's online dictionary defines new jack swing as "pop music performed by black musicians that combines elements of jazz, funk and rhythm and blues".
Encyclopædia Britannica calls it the "most pop-oriented rhythm-and-blues music since 1960s Motown", since its "performers were unabashed entertainers, free of artistic pretensions. New jack swing did take up the trend of using sampled beats and tunes, created beats using the then-new SP-1200 sampler and the Roland TR-808 drum machine to lay an "insistent beat under light melody lines and enunciated vocals." The Roland TR-808 was sampled to create distinctive, swung rhythms, with its snare sound being prominent. Two examples would be "Groove Me" by Guy which samples "Funky President", "My Thang" and "The Champ" as well as its own swing drums and "Right or Wrong" by Mind which fuses sharp drum reverb effects and a hidden looped sample of the Funky Drummer; the key producers were Babyface & L. A. Reid, Bernard Belle, Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, Teddy Riley. A collaboration between former members of Minneapolis music group The Time, Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, Janet Jackson originated the style that came to be known as new jack swing with Jackson's third studio album, Control.
Jam and Lewis used similar influences with hip-hop influenced drums with smoother R&B stylings in the production. Though Jackson had been popular in R&B music, Control established her crossover appeal in the popular music market. Musicologist Richard J. Ripani PhD, author of The New Blue Music: Changes in Rhythm & Blues, 1950–1999, observed that the album was one of the first successful records to influence the rise of new jack swing by creating a fusion of R&B, funk and synthesized percussion; the new jack swing sound is evident in the second single, "Nasty". The success of Control, according to Ripani, bridged the gap between rap music, he asserts that "since Jackson's album was released in 1986 and was hugely successful, it is not unreasonable to assume that it had at least some impact on the new jack swing creations of Teddy Riley." Mantronix's early records in the mid-1980s had new jack elements. The term "new jack swing" was coined in an October 18, 1987, Village Voice profile of Teddy Riley by Barry Michael Cooper.
"New Jack" was a slang term used in a song by Grandmaster Caz of the Cold Crush Brothers, "swing" was intended by Cooper to draw an "analogy between the music played at the speakeasies of F. Scott Fitzgerald's time to the crackhouses of Teddy Riley's time."Teddy Riley's original name for the music was'sophisticated bubblegum music.' The term "new jack swing" describes the sound produced and engineered by R&B/hip hop artist and producer Teddy Riley. Riley is an American R&B and hip hop singer-songwriter and record producer, he led the band Guy in Blackstreet in the 1990s. Riley said, "I define the term as a new kid on the block who's swinging it." The defining feature of Riley's music was the introduction of swingbeats, "a rhythmic pattern using offbeat accented 16th note triplets." In an interview with Revolt TV in 2017, Andre Harrell called Riley the inventor of the sound, hailing him "the king of New Jack Swing, because he invented it."Music website VH1.com notes that while in the 2000s "hip-hop and R&B are kissing cousins," in the early 1980s, "the two genres were mentioned in the same breath."
However, in the late 1980s, "during the era of high-top fades, parachute pants, producer Teddy Riley and label boss Andre Harrell fused and marketed the two sounds in a sexy, exclamatory music that critics termed new jack swing. It sparked a revolution." Riley stated that before new jack swing, "Rappers and singers didn't want anything to do with one another," because "Singers were soft, rappers were street." Riley's new style blended "sweet melody and big beats." The sensibilities of Riley's fusion of the styles would forever change pop music/hip-hop music pairing and was further popularized with Bad Boy's dominance of the late'90s through much of the same techniques. Riley, a 19-year-old kid from Harlem became an A-list producer and commanded big fees to add his sound to major artist projects; the aesthetic of the culture spread to mainstream white audiences through popular groups such as New Kids on the Block. In October 2004, a variety of classic new jack swing tracks are used in the popular video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas.
The songs appear on fictional radio station the soundtrack. Bell Biv DeVoe member Michael Bivins portrays a self-absorbed DJ named Phillip "P. M." Michaels, aspiring to become an actor. New jack swing staged a revival of sorts in the mid-2000s, fueled by the 2
Kenneth Brian Edmonds, known professionally as Babyface, is an American singer and record producer. He has written and produced over 26 number-one R&B hits throughout his career, has won 11 Grammy Awards, he was ranked number 20 on NME's 50 Of The Greatest Producers Ever list. Edmonds was born on April 10, 1959, in Indianapolis, Indiana, to Barbara Edmonds. Barbara was a production operator at a pharmaceutical plant. Edmonds, the fifth of six brothers, attended North Central High School in Indianapolis, as a shy youth, wrote songs to express his emotions; when he was in eighth grade, Edmonds' father died of lung cancer, leaving his mother to raise her sons alone. At this stage, Edmonds became determined to have a career in music. Edmonds played with funk performer Bootsy Collins, who tagged him "Babyface" because of his youthful look, he performed in the group Manchild as a guitarist. He played keyboards in R&B group the Deele. One of his first major credits as a songwriter for outside artists came when he wrote the tune "Slow Jam" for the R&B band Midnight Star in 1983.
The tune was on Midnight Star's 1983 double-platinum No Parking on the Dance Floor album, while it never was a single, it received massive radio airplay and the song is still played on quiet storm radio stations. Babyface remained in the Deele until 1988, his album Playlist consists of two original works. It was released on September 18, 2007, it was the first album on the newly re-launched Mercury Records label. On February 4, 2014, he released a Grammy Award-winning duet album with Toni Braxton titled Love, Marriage & Divorce on Motown Records. In the late 1980s, he contributed to the creation of new jack swing and producing music for the likes of Bobby Brown, Karyn White, Paula Abdul, Michael Jackson and Sheena Easton. In 1989, Edmonds co-founded LaFace Records with Reid. Three of the label's early artists TLC, Toni Braxton were successful. TLC's second album CrazySexyCool, for which he wrote and produced some of the hits, became the best selling album of all time by an American girl group. Under his direction, TLC sold more than 60 million albums worldwide, a combined total of 75 million records.
Toni Braxton's first two albums, Toni Braxton and Secrets, for which he wrote the majority of the songs, went on to sell a combined total of over 10 million copies in America alone. Babyface helped form the popular late-1990s R&B group Az Yet. Edmonds helped to mold and work with some of his then-wife Tracey Edmonds' acts, such as Jon B and producer Jon-John Robinson. Edmonds has worked with many successful performers in contemporary music. “I’m Your Baby Tonight”, produced for Whitney Houston,this was the introduction of her to R&B music and was his first No. 1 Top 40 hit in the US. He wrote and produced Boyz II Men's 1992 "End of the Road" and 1994 "I'll Make Love to You", both of which established records for the longest stay at No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. He co-wrote, co-produced, provided backing vocals on Madonna's 1994 Bedtime Stories, which featured the seven-week No. 1 hit "Take a Bow", shared billing with Eric Clapton on the chart-topping Grammy winner "Change the World" from the Phenomenon soundtrack.
He wrote and produced the No. 1 hit "Exhale" for Houston as well as the rest of the critically acclaimed 10 million-selling Waiting to Exhale soundtrack in 1995, which spawned additional hits for Houston and Mary J. Blige. Additionally, Edmonds has produced and written music for many artists including Carole King, Patti LaBelle, Chaka Khan, Aretha Franklin, Janet Jackson, Faith Evans, Al Green, Beyoncé, Diana Ross, Sheena Easton, Toni Braxton, Michael Jackson, Michael Bolton, Paula Abdul, Eric Clapton, Tevin Campbell, Bobby Brown, Whitney Houston, Mary J. Blige, Shola Ama, 3T, Sisqó, Dru Hill, Fall Out Boy, Céline Dion, Samantha Jade, Backstreet Boys, Katharine McPhee, Mariah Carey, Vanessa L. Williams, Bruno Mars, Kelly Clarkson, Chanté Moore, En Vogue, Kenny G, Kristinia DeBarge, Lil Wayne, Japanese singer Ken Hirai, P!nk, Colbie Caillat, Marc Nelson, TLC, Ariana Grande, Ella Henderson, Jessica Mauboy, Xscape, K-Ci & JoJo, NSYNC, Jordin Sparks and Phil Collins among others. He received three consecutive Grammy Awards for Producer of the Year from 1995 to 1997.
Babyface was in the studio for about two years with Ashanti to produce her album The Declaration. He worked on the Lil Wayne album Tha Carter III, on the Kanye West-produced "Comfortable", he worked with R&B singer Monica for her sixth studio album Still Standing. In 2013, Babyface served as producer for Ariana Grande's debut album Yours Truly, producing the majority of her songs, including her second single, "Baby I". In September 2014, Babyface collaborated with Barbra Streisand on her album Partners, performing a duet on the track "Evergreen" and background vocals for other album tracks. Babyface collaborated with Foxes on her second album, All I Need, producing and co-writing "Scar". In July 2016, Babyface along with Bruce Roberts and Carole Bayer Sager helped write the song "Stronger Together" sung by Jessica Sanchez; the song was played after Hillary Clinton's speech at the 2016 Democratic National Convention. The song's title is named after the slogan that the Clinton camp
Algernod Lanier Washington, better known by his stage name Plies, is an American hip hop recording artist. He is the founder of Big Gates Records. Born in Fort Myers, Washington was a wide receiver on the football team of Miami University in Ohio in 1996 and 1997 before he became a rapper. After dropping out of college, he founded Big Gates with his stepbrother. Signed to Slip-n-Slide Records, from 2007 to 2008 he released three albums. Plies debuted in 2007 with The Real Testament with successful singles "Shawty" and "Hypnotized". Plies released two albums in 2008, Definition of Real and Da REAList, released Goon Affiliated in 2010. Plies was born Algernod Lanier Washington in Fort Myers and grew up in the East Dunbar area of Fort Myers. While at Fort Myers Senior High School, he played receiver and defensive back in its football team, was crowned Homecoming King, was the valedictorian of his high school class, was named the "Best Dressed" student of his class, he attended Miami University and under the name Nod Washington was wide receiver on its football team from 1995 to 1997 transferred to the University of Central Florida and dropped out.
As a freshman in 1995, Washington had nine receptions for 69 yards. In 1996, his sophomore year, Washington had 25 receptions for 2 touchdowns; the next season, Washington had five receptions for 43 yards. In the late 1990s, Plies and his stepbrother Ronnell Lawrence Lavatte known as Big Gates, established an independent record label, Big Gates Records. Although Plies refused to rap, after a demonstration for one of his artists, Big Gates decided to keep Plies' verse on the track "Tell Dem Krackers Dat". Big Gates and Plies promoted the single and traveled many times to Miami, which led to a deal for Plies on Slip-n-Slide Records. After signing to Slip-n-Slide in 2004, Plies released several mixtapes; the Real Testament was released in August 2007. His debut single "Shawty" featuring T-Pain topped the Billboard Hot Rap Tracks chart and peaked at number nine on the Hot 100. "Hypnotized", the second single, featured Akon, peaked at number three on the Rap chart and 14 on the Hot 100. The third single was "I Am the Club".
On February 29, 2008, the Recording Industry Association of America certified the album Gold for having sold over 500,000 units. Plies made guest performances on DJ Khaled's "I'm So Hood" featuring T-Pain, Trick Daddy and Rick Ross in 2007, which peaked at #19 on the Hot 100 and is included on Khaled second studio album We the Best, Fat Joe's single "Ain't Sayin' Nothin'" from The Elephant in the Room in early 2008. Definition of Real, his second album, was released in June 2008, 10 months after releasing his first album; the lead single was "Bust It Baby Pt. 2" featuring Ne-Yo, which peaked at number two on both the Hot Rap Tracks and Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks charts and number seven on the Hot 100. The album debuted at number two on the Billboard 200; the next single was "Please Excuse My Hands", featuring Jamie The-Dream. RIAA certified Gold "Bust It Baby" on September 17 and Definition of Real October 14; that same year Plies released his third album, Da REAList, in December 2008, six months after the release of his second album.
The first single off this album is "Put It on Ya", featuring Chris J. The album debuted at number 14 on the Billboard 200 with 114,000 copies sold in its first week; the second single is "Want It, Need It", featuring Ashanti and the third is "Plenty Money". He did a guest performance on Ludacris's single "Nasty Girl" from Ludacris' album Theater of the Mind, he appeared on DJ Khaled's song "Out Here Grindin' featuring Akon, Young Jeezy, Lil Boosie, Ace Hood and Trick Daddy, from Khaled's third album We Global, which peaked at #38 on the Hot 100 and is. In a November 2008 interview with Plies, according to Slip-n-Slide Records, the rapper announced that he completed a fourth album which he planned to release on February 16, 2009, but stated that the exact date depended on the success of his third album; the album, Goon Affiliated, ended up being released on June 8, 2010. The album's first two singles are "Becky" featuring Bei Maejor; the album debuted at # 5 on the Billboard 200 than his previous album.
He continued to make guest appearances on Usher's "Hey Daddy", Gucci Mane's "Wasted", from The State vs. Radric Davis and Young Jeezy's "Lose My Mind", from Jeezy's fourth album Thug Motivation 103: Hustlerz Ambition, all of which made the top 40 of the Hot 100. In 2010, Plies released a mixtape titled You Need People Like Me on September 3, which included a song titled "Boosie" dedicated to the incarcerated rapper Lil Boosie. On November 18, he released another mixtape titled You Need People Like Me Pt. 2. On December 23, 2010, he released. In 2011, Plies released a mixtape titled I Fuck With The DJ on March 15, a mixtape titled Aristotle on September 1. On May 3, he announced the title for his fifth studio album titled Purple Heart. On September 22, Plies released his first promotion single from the album titled "Just" featuring Jeremih and Ludacris. In 2012, Plies released a mixtape titled On Trial on February 24, which included the second promotional single from his album Purple Heart titled "With You".
On April 17, Plies released a single titled "We Are Trayvon", dedicated to Trayvon Martin which all profits from the single be donated to the "Trayvon Martin Foundation". In 2013, Plies released the promotional single from Purple Heart title
A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. There are cases where songs are used in tie-in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie-ins and merchandising can be used for food or other products. Although the origins of the music video date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they again came into prominence in the 1980s when the channel MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these kinds of videos were described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip". Music videos use a wide range of styles and contemporary video-making techniques, including animation, live action and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film.
Some music videos combine different styles with the music, such as animation and live action. Combining these styles and techniques has become more popular because of the variety for the audience. Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the song's lyrics, while others take a more thematic approach. Other music videos may not have any concept, being a filmed version of the song's live concert performance. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances; this would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song, the first step toward music video. In 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shorts featured many bands and dancers. Animation artist Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", similar to a modern karaoke machine.
Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music; the Warner Bros. cartoons today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Bros. musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were distributed to theaters. Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called St. Louis Blues featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period. Soundies and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that included short dance sequences, similar to music videos. In the mid-1940s, musician Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a feature film, Lookout Sister.
These films were, according to music historian Donald Clarke, the "ancestors" of music video. Musical films were another important precursor to music video, several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "Material Girl", modelled on Jack Cole's staging of "Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend" from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Several of Michael Jackson's videos show the unmistakable influence of the dance sequences in classic Hollywood musicals, including the landmark "Thriller" and the Martin Scorsese-directed "Bad", influenced by the stylised dance "fights" in the film version of West Side Story. According to the Internet Accuracy Project, disc jockey–singer J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959. In his autobiography, Tony Bennett claims to have created "...the first music video" when he was filmed walking along the Serpentine in Hyde Park, London in 1956, with the resulting clip being set to his recording of the song "Stranger in Paradise".
The clip was sent to UK and US television stations and aired on shows including Dick Clark's American Bandstand. The oldest example of a promotional music video with similarities to more abstract, modern videos seems to be the Czech "Dáme si do bytu" created in 1958 and directed by Ladislav Rychman. In the late 1950s the Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France and short films were produced by many French artists, such as Serge Gainsbourg, Françoise Hardy, Jacques Dutronc, the Belgian Jacques Brel to accompany their songs, its use spread to other countries, similar machines such as the Cinebox in Italy and Color-Sonic in the USA were patented. In 1961, for the Canadian show Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio, went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching edited the audio and video together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, the location shoot "videos" were to add variety. In 1964, Kenneth Anger's experimental short film, Scorpio Rising used popular songs instead of dialog.
In 1964, The Moody Blues producer, Alex Murray, wanted to promote his version of "Go Now". The short film clip he produced and directed to promote the single has a striking visual style that predates Queen's similar "Bohemian Rhapsody" vid
The Game (rapper)
Jayceon Terrell Taylor, better known by his stage name The Game, is an American rapper, record producer and actor. He is best known as a rapper in the West Coast hip hop scene and for being one of Dr. Dre's signees under Aftermath. Born in Compton, California, he released his first mixtape You Know What It Is Vol. 1 in 2002. He rose to fame in 2005 with the success of his major-label debut album The Documentary and found continued success with the 2006 follow-up Doctor's Advocate; the Recording Industry Association of America certified The Documentary Double Platinum in March 2005. A rising artist in the 2000s, The Game was considered to be a driving force in bringing back the West Coast hip hop scene into the mainstream and competing with many of his East Coast counterparts; the Game was placed into G-Unit by Jimmy Iovine. As a result of his disputes with 50 Cent, Game left Aftermath and signed with Geffen, another label under Universal's Interscope Geffen A&M unit, to terminate his contractual obligations with G-Unit in the summer of 2006.
The Game's second major label album Doctor's Advocate was released on November 14, 2006 and it became his second album to debut at number one on the U. S. Billboard 200 chart. Doctor's Advocate did not feature any production from Dr. Dre. Pitchfork Media placed The Documentary at number 35 on their list of Top 50 Albums of 2005; the Game was nominated with a total of two nominations, including Grammy Award for Best Rap Song and Grammy Award for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group for the smash single "Hate It or Love It". The New York Times named Doctor's Advocate best hip-hop album of 2006, his next album LAX was released in 2008. With his eighth studio album The R. E. D. Album, The Game again debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. In addition to music, The Game has starred in motion pictures and founded The Black Wall Street Records. In September 2011, The Game started working on his ninth studio album, Jesus Piece, released on December 11, 2012, his final album released by Interscope. After releasing a mixtape OKE, on October 12, 2013, Baby announced The Game had signed to Cash Money, distributed by Republic.
However, The Game refuted this claim. His latest album 1992 was released on October 14, 2016, spawned two official singles; the Game was born Jayceon Terrell Taylor on November 29, 1979, in Compton, in southern Los Angeles County to George Taylor, Jr. and Lynette Baker, who both were members of the Crips street gang. Through his father, Taylor is of partial Mexican American and Native American heritage in addition to the African American ancestry he inherited from both parents, he grew up in a Crip-controlled neighborhood known as Santana Blocc, although Taylor himself grew up to become a member of the Bloods through his brother. In an October 2006 interview with MTV News correspondent Sway Calloway, The Game described his family as "dysfunctional". Taylor endured many hardships in his adolescence. At the age of 7, he was placed in foster care. At 13, one of his older brothers, was shot at a gas station and died soon thereafter; when he was 15, Taylor was removed from the foster care system and moved in with his mother, he had a tumultuous relationship with her.
Taylor attended Compton High School. However, his older half-brother George Taylor III, known as Big Fase 100, attended Centennial High School and was the leader of the Cedar Block Piru Bloods street gang. In high school, Taylor was involved in sports including basketball and track, which his height enabled him to do so. In 1999, Taylor claims that he enrolled in Washington State University on a basketball scholarship and was expelled after a short time when caught with drugs in his possession. However, the university's athletic department stated that Taylor was never enrolled in their athletic program, nor the university. By the early 2000s, Taylor had become involved in "street life," selling drugs and participating in gang activities. While recovering in the hospital from gunshot wounds he incurred in late 2001, Game told his brother to go out and buy all of the classic hip-hop albums. Over the course of five months, he studied all of the various influential rap albums and developed a strategy to turn himself into a rapper.
With the help of his older brother Big Fase, they founded the label. It featured such artists as Glasses Malone, Nu Jerzey Devil, along with Game himself, his stage name was coined by his grandmother, a huge fan of the 1997 blockbuster, The Game. Game first gained prominence when he attended a hip-hop summit hosted by Russell Simmons and Louis Farrakhan. After he had recovered and Big Fase made a mixtape together, he released his first mixtape You Know What It Is Vol. 1 in 2002, landed a record deal with the independent label Get Low Recordz owned by JT the Bigga Figga. Game's mixtape reached the hands of Sean Combs, founder of Bad Boy Records, on the verge of signing him to his label. Five months he was discovered by Dr. Dre who listened to the mixtape, produced by his brother. Dr. Dre contacted Game and signed him to his Aftermath Entertainment label in 2003. In late 2003, Interscope Records CEO Jimmy Iovine and Dr. Dre decided to have Game work with 50 Cent and G-Unit in order to help build a growing buzz around Game which would fuel interest in G-Unit.
Game made his first cameo appearance in the music video for 50 Cent's "In da Club", where he is seen dancing with a girl. Since he has made numerous cameo appearances in music videos by 50 Cent, Lloyd Banks
Myspace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, groups, photos and videos. Myspace was the largest social networking site in the world from 2005 to 2009, it is headquartered in California. Myspace was acquired by News Corporation in July 2005 for $580 million, in June 2006 surpassed Google as the most visited website in the United States. In April 2008, Myspace was overtaken by Facebook in the number of unique worldwide visitors and was surpassed in the number of unique U. S. visitors in May 2009, though Myspace generated $800 million in revenue during the 2008 fiscal year. Since the number of Myspace users has declined in spite of several redesigns; as of January 2018, Myspace was ranked 4,153 by total Web traffic, 1,657 in the United States. Myspace had a significant influence on pop culture and music and created a computer game platform that launched the successes of Zynga and RockYou, among others. Despite an overall decline, in 2015 Myspace still had 50.6 million unique monthly visitors and had a pool of nearly 1 billion active and inactive registered users.
In June 2009, Myspace employed 1,600 employees. In June 2011, Specific Media Group and Justin Timberlake jointly purchased the company for $35 million. On February 11, 2016, it was announced that Myspace and its parent company had been purchased by Time Inc. Time Inc. was in turn purchased by the Meredith Corporation on January 31, 2018. In August 2003, several eUniverse employees with Friendster accounts saw potential in its social networking features; the group decided to mimic the more popular features of the website. Within 10 days, the first version of Myspace was ready for launch, implemented using ColdFusion. A complete infrastructure of finance, human resources, technical expertise and server capacity was available for the site; the project was overseen by Brad Greenspan, who managed Chris DeWolfe, Josh Berman, Tom Anderson, a team of programmers and resources provided by eUniverse. The first Myspace users were eUniverse employees; the company held contests to see. EUniverse used its 20 million users and e-mail subscribers to breathe life into Myspace, move it to the head of the pack of social networking websites.
A key architect was tech expert Toan Nguyen who helped stabilize the Myspace platform when Brad Greenspan asked him to join the team. Co-founder and CTO Aber Whitcomb played an integral role in software architecture, utilizing the superior development speed of ColdFusion over other dynamic database driven server-side languages of the time. Despite over ten times the number of developers, developed in JavaServer Pages, could not keep up with the speed of development of Myspace and cfm; the MySpace.com domain was owned by YourZ.com, Inc. intended until 2002 for use as an online data storage and sharing site. By late 2003, it was transitioned from a file storage service to a social networking site. A friend, who worked in the data storage business, reminded Chris DeWolfe that he had earlier bought the domain MySpace.com. DeWolfe suggested. Brad Greenspan nixed the idea, believing that keeping Myspace free was necessary to make it a successful community. Myspace gained popularity among teenagers and young adults.
In February 2005, DeWolfe held talks with Mark Zuckerberg over acquiring Facebook but DeWolfe rejected Zuckerberg's $75 million offer. Some employees of Myspace, including DeWolfe and Berman, were able to purchase equity in the property before MySpace and its parent company eUniverse was bought. In July 2005, in one of the company's first major Internet purchases, Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation purchased Myspace for US$580 million. News Corporation had beat out Viacom by offering a higher price for the website, the purchase was seen as a good investment at the time. Of the $580 million purchase price $327 million has been attributed to the value of Myspace according to the financial adviser fairness opinion. Within a year, Myspace had tripled in value from its purchase price. News Corporation saw the purchase as a way to capitalize on Internet advertising and drive traffic to other News Corporation properties. After losing the bidding war for Myspace, Viacom chairman Sumner Redstone stunned the entertainment industry in September 2006 when he fired Tom Freston from the position of CEO. Redstone believed that the failure to acquire MySpace contributed to the 20% drop in Viacom's stock price in 2006 up to the date of Freston's ouster.
Freston's successor as CEO, Philippe Dauman, was quoted as saying "never let another competitor beat us to the trophy". Redstone told interviewer Charlie Rose that losing MySpace had been "humiliating", adding, "MySpace was sitting there for the taking for $500 million" In January 2006, Fox announced plans to launch a UK version of Myspace in a bid to "tap into the UK music scene", which they did, they launched similar versions in other countries. The 100 millionth account was created on August 2006, in the Netherlands. On November 1, 2007, Myspace and Bebo joined the Google-led OpenSocial alliance, which included Friendster, Hi5, LinkedIn, Plaxo and Six Apart. OpenSocial was to promote a common set of standards for software developers to write programs for social networks. Facebook remained independent. Google had been unsuccessful in build
Rock Steady (The Whispers song)
"Rock Steady" is a single released by American group The Whispers, from their eighteenth studio album Just Gets Better with Time. It was released on June 13, 1987 and was their highest charting single on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100, peaking at number seven in late August, was their second and final number one on the Hot Black Singles Chart, it was produced by the production duo Antonio "L. A." Reid & Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds. The instrumental from this song was used on Kylie Minogue's song "Look My Way" from her debut album Kylie; the drum beat appeared at the beginning of the third remix of Was' song, "Out Come the Freaks," which appeared on their 1987/88 album, What Up, Dog?. List of number-one R&B singles of 1987