Artists were barred from work on the basis of their alleged membership in or sympathy with the Communist Party USA or refusal to assist investigations into the partys activities. On June 22,1950, a pamphlet entitled Red Channels was published, focused on the field of broadcasting, it identified 151 entertainment industry professionals in the context of Red Fascists and their sympathizers. Soon, most of those named, along with a host of artists, were barred from employment in most of the entertainment field. A number of those blacklisted, were barred from work in their professions for years afterward. The Hollywood blacklist was rooted in events of the 1930s and the early 1940s, encompassing the height of the Great Depression, two major film industry strikes during the 1930s increased tensions between the Hollywood producers and the unions, particularly the Screen Writers Guild. The American Communist Party lost substantial support after the Moscow show trials of 1936–38, the U. S. government began turning its attention to the possible links between Hollywood and the party during this period.
Under chairman Martin Dies, Jr. the House Un-American Activities Committee released a report in 1938 claiming that communism was pervasive in Hollywood. Two years later, Dies privately took testimony from a former Communist Party member, John L. Leech, Dies said he would clear all those who cooperated by meeting with him in what he called executive session. Within two weeks of the grand jury leak, all those on the list except for actress Jean Muir had met with the HUAC chairman, Dies cleared everyone except actor Lionel Stander, who was fired by the movie studio, Republic Pictures, where he was contracted. In 1941, producer Walt Disney took out an ad in Variety, according to historians Larry Ceplair and Steven Englund, In actuality, the strike had resulted from Disneys overbearing paternalism, high-handedness, and insensitivity. Inspired by Disney, California State Senator Jack Tenney, chairman of the state legislatures Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, the probe fell flat, and was mocked in several Variety headlines.
The subsequent wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union brought the American Communist Party newfound credibility, during the war, membership in the party reached a peak of 50,000. As World War II drew to a close, perceptions changed again, with communism increasingly becoming a focus of American fears and hatred. In 1945, Gerald L. K. Smith, founder of the neofascist America First Party, the greatest hotbed of subversive activities in the United States. Rankin promised, Were on the trail of the tarantula now, reports of Soviet repression in Eastern and Central Europe in the wars aftermath added more fuel to what became known as the Second Red Scare. Its counsel revolved around a list of ideological prohibitions, such as Dont smear the free-enterprise system, on July 29,1946, William R. Wilkerson and founder of The Hollywood Reporter, published a TradeView column entitled A Vote For Joe Stalin. In August and September 1946, Wilkerson published other columns containing names of numerous purported Communists and they became known as Billys List and Billys Blacklist.
It had declared its intention to investigate whether Communist agents and sympathizers had been planting propaganda in U. S. films, the hearings opened with appearances by Walt Disney and Ronald Reagan, president of the Screen Actors Guild
Jury nullification is a finding by a trial jury in contradiction to the jurys belief about the facts of the case. This may happen in both civil and criminal trials, in a civil trial, a jury nullifies by finding a defendant not liable, even though members of the jury may believe the defendant is liable. This may occur when members of the jury disagree with the law the defendant has been charged with breaking, a jury can similarly unjustly and illegally convict a defendant on the ground of disagreement with an existing law, even if no law is broken. A jury verdict that is contrary to the letter of the law only to the particular case before it. If a pattern of acquittals develops, however, in response to repeated attempts to prosecute a statutory offence, a pattern of jury nullification may indicate public opposition to an unwanted legislative enactment. In the past, it was feared that a judge or panel of government officials might be unduly influenced to follow established legal practice. Similarly, juries are routinely cautioned by courts and some not to allow sympathy for a party or other affected persons to compromise the fair.
These instructions are criticized by advocates of jury nullification, juries have refused to convict due to the perceived injustice of a law in general, or of the way the law is applied in particular cases. There have been cases where the jury has refused to convict due to their own prejudices, jury nullification is the source of much debate. Some maintain that it is an important safeguard of last resort against wrongful imprisonment and government tyranny, others view it as a violation of the right to a jury trial, which undermines the law. Some view it as a violation of the oath sworn by jurors, United States v. Green,556 F. 2d 71. Some fear that nullification could be used to violence against socially unpopular factions. They point to the danger that a jury may choose to convict a defendant who has not broken the letter of the law, judges retain the rights both to decide sentences and to disregard juries guilty verdicts, acting as a check against malicious juries. Jury nullification may occur in civil suits, in which the verdict is generally a finding of liability or lack of liability, the main deontic issue involved in jury nullification is the tension between democratic self-government and integrity.
The argument has been raised that prosecutors are not allowed to seek jury nullification, for a prosecutor to nullify a jury in this context would require negating the presumption of innocence. Nevertheless, there is doubt as to the ability of a jury to nullify the law. Today, there are several issues raised by jury nullification, such as whether, a judge may remove jurors for cause when they refuse to apply the law as instructed. A judge may punish a juror for exercising the power of jury nullification, all legal arguments, except perhaps on motions in limine to exclude evidence, should be made in the presence of the jury
Kimberly-Clark Corporation is an American multinational personal care corporation that produces mostly paper-based consumer products. Founded in Neenah, Wisconsin, in 1872 and based in Irving, since 1985, Kimberly-Clark UK holds Royal Warrants from Queen Elizabeth II and from the Prince of Wales in the United Kingdom. Kimberly-Clark is listed among the Fortune 500, subsidiaries under Kimberly-Clark include Kimberly-Clark Professional. Kimberly, Clark and Co. was founded in 1872 by John A. Kimberly, Havilah Babcock and Franklyn C. Shattuck in Neenah, with $42,000 of capital. The groups first business was operating paper mills, which the collective expanded throughout the following decades, Kleenex, a disposable handkerchief, followed in 1924. Kimberly & Clark joined with The New York Times Company in 1926 to build a newsprint mill in Kapuskasing, two years later, the company went public as Kimberly-Clark. The firm expanded internationally during the 1950s, opening plants in Mexico, West Germany, and it began operations in 17 more foreign locations in the 1960s.
The company formed Midwest Express Airlines from its corporate department in 1984. Kimberly-Clarks headquarters moved from Neenah, Wisconsin to Irving, Texas the following year, under the leadership of Darwin Smith as CEO from 1971 to 1991, the company went from being a business paper company to a consumer paper products company. In 1991, Kimberly-Clark and The New York Times Company sold their jointly owned paper mill in Kapuskasing, Kimberly-Clark bought Scott Paper in 1995 for $9.4 billion. Augmenting its presence in Germany and Austria, in 1999 the company paid $365 million for the business of Swiss-based Attisholz Holding. Adding to its offerings of medical products, the company bought Ballard Medical Products in 1999 for $774 million and examination glove maker Safeskin in 2000 for about $800 million. Also in 2000, the company bought all of Taiwans S-K Corporation. The company purchased Taiwan Scott Paper Corporation for about $40 million, in 2001, Kimberly-Clark bought Italian diaper maker and announced it was closing four Latin American manufacturing plants.
Kimberly-Clark Sub-Saharan Africas vision is ambitious – nothing less than turning the $250 million business into a $1 billion business by 2015, in 2002, Kimberly-Clark purchased paper-packaging rival Amcors stake in an Australian joint venture. Adding to its global consumer business, in 2003 Kimberly-Clark acquired the Polish tissue-maker Klucze. In early 2004, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Thomas Falk began implementation of the business plan the company detailed in July 2003. Current members of the board of directors of the Kimberly-Clark Corporation are, abelanrdo Bru Pastora Caffeutrty Robert Decherd Thomas J. Falk Claudio X. Gonzalez Mae Jemison Linda Rice Marc Shapiro Craig Sullivan
William Shatner is a Canadian actor, author and director. In his seven decades of television, Shatner became an icon for his portrayal of James T. Kirk, Captain of the USS Enterprise. He has written a series of books chronicling his experiences playing Captain Kirk and being a part of Star Trek and he has written a series of science fiction novels called TekWar, which were adapted for television. Shatner appeared in the NBC series, 3rd Rock from the Sun in seasons 4 and 5 as the role of the Big Giant Head whom the characters of the Series reported to. He has worked as a musician, an author, a director, and he starred as attorney Denny Crane in the final season of the legal drama The Practice and its spinoff series Boston Legal, a role that earned him two Emmy Awards. Shatner was born on March 22,1931, in the Notre-Dame-de-Grâce neighbourhood of Montreal, Canada, the son of Anne and Joseph Shatner and he has two sisters and Farla. His paternal grandfather, Wolf Schattner, anglicized the name to Shatner.
All of Shatners grandparents were Jewish immigrants, and he was raised in Conservative Judaism, Shatner attended two schools in Notre-Dame-de-Grâce, Willingdon Elementary School and Westhill High School, and is an alumnus of the Montreal Childrens Theatre. He studied Economics at the McGill University Faculty of Management in Montreal, Canada, in June 2011, McGill University awarded him an honorary Doctorate of Letters. Shatner began performing at the Stratford Shakespeare Festival in Stratford, Ontario, in 1954, he was cast as Ranger Bob on The Canadian Howdy Doody Show. Shatner was an understudy to Christopher Plummer, the two would appear as adversaries in Star Trek VI, The Undiscovered Country. Shatner had a role in an Alfred Hitchcock Presents third-season episode titled The Glass Eye. In 1959, he received good reviews when he played the role of Lomax in the Broadway production of The World of Suzie Wong. He appeared twice as Wayne Gorham in NBCs Outlaws Western series with Barton MacLane, in 1961, he starred in the Broadway play A Shot in the Dark with Julie Harris and directed by Harold Clurman.
Walter Matthau and Gene Saks were featured in this play, Shatner featured in two episodes of the NBC television series Thriller and the film The Explosive Generation. Guthrie had called the young Shatner the Stratford Festivals most promising actor, Shatner was not as successful as the others and during the 1960s he became a working actor who showed up on time, knew his lines, worked cheap and always answered his phone. His motto was Work equals work, but Shatners willingness to take any role, no matter how forgettable, in the 1963–1964 season, he appeared in episodes of two ABC series and The Outer Limits. In 1963, he starred in the Family Theater production called The Soldier and that same year, he guest starred in Route 66, in the episode, Build Your Houses with Their Backs to the Sea
Euthanasia is the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. There are different euthanasia laws in each country, the British House of Lords Select Committee on Medical Ethics defines euthanasia as a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express intention of ending a life, to relieve intractable suffering. In the Netherlands and Flanders, euthanasia is understood as termination of life by a doctor at the request of a patient, Euthanasia is categorized in different ways, which include voluntary, non-voluntary, or involuntary. Voluntary euthanasia is legal in some countries, non-voluntary euthanasia is illegal in all countries. Involuntary euthanasia is illegal in all countries and is usually considered murder. As of 2006, euthanasia is the most active area of research in contemporary bioethics, in some countries there is a divisive public controversy over the moral and legal issues of euthanasia. Jurisdictions where euthanasia is legal include the Netherlands, Colombia, like other terms borrowed from history, euthanasia has had different meanings depending on usage.
Bacon referred to an outward euthanasia—the term outward he used to distinguish from a spiritual concept—the euthanasia which regards the preparation of the soul, in current usage, euthanasia has been defined as the painless inducement of a quick death. Another approach incorporates the notion of suffering into the definition, the third element incorporated into many definitions is that of intentionality – the death must be intended, rather than being accidental, and the intent of the action must be a merciful death. Beauchamp and Davidson highlight Baruch Brodys an act of euthanasia is one in one person. Kills another person for the benefit of the person, who actually does benefit from being killed. Prior to Draper and Davidson had offered a definition that includes these elements and their definition specifically discounts fetuses in order to distinguish between abortions and euthanasia, In summary, we have argued. In discussing his definition, Wreen noted the difficulty of justifying euthanasia when faced with the notion of the right to life.
In response, Wreen argued that euthanasia has to be voluntary, and that euthanasia is, as such. Other commentators incorporate consent more directly into their definitions, euthanasia can be voluntary only. Euthanasia may be classified according to whether a person gives informed consent into three types, non-voluntary and involuntary, others see consent as essential. Euthanasia conducted with the consent of the patient is termed voluntary euthanasia, active voluntary euthanasia is legal in Belgium and the Netherlands. Passive voluntary euthanasia is legal throughout the U. S. per Cruzan v. Director, when the patient brings about his or her own death with the assistance of a physician, the term assisted suicide is often used instead
Joan Ann Hackett was an American actress of film and television. She was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actress for the 1966 film The Group and she went on to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and win the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress for the 1981 film Only When I Laugh. She starred as Christine Mannon in the 1978 PBS miniseries version of Mourning Becomes Electra and she was born in New York City, the daughter of Mary, and John Hackett. She had a sister, Theresa and a brother and her mother was from Naples and her father had Irish ancestry, and they reared her Roman Catholic and sent her to Catholic schools. Hackett debuted in 1959 with the role of Gail Prentiss in the television series, Young Doctor Malone. In 1961 she won a Theatre World Award, an Obie Award for Best Actress, and she had a recurring role on the CBS legal drama The Defenders as the fiancee of Kenneth Preston, partner in the father-and-son law firm led by patriarch Lawrence Preston.
She appeared regularly in scenes with both lead actors and she had a leading role in The Twilight Zone episode A Piano in the House. In the 1963-1964 season, she guest starred on the ABC drama about life, Channing starring Jason Evers. Hackett had one of the roles in the 1966 Sidney Lumet film The Group, along with Candice Bergen, Larry Hagman, Richard Mulligan, Joanna Pettet. One of her movie performances was the role of Catherine Allen. Hackett had parts in the classic Western comedy Support Your Local Sheriff. With James Garner, and the 1973 murder mystery The Last of Sheila, after this she primarily had parts in TV movies and on episodes of TV series. In 1978, she appeared in a PBS adaptation of Mourning Becomes Electra as Christine Mannon, clive James said that it entitled her to be called a great actress. The same year, she was a regular in the cast of the short-lived CBS situation comedy Another Day and she appeared in the September 22,1979 episode, Grass is Always Greener, of The Love Boat as Julie McCoys former classmate from the lines cruise director course.
She could be seen in Paul Simons film One Trick Pony, from 1966 to 1973 she was married to actor Richard Mulligan, who appeared in The Group. Hackett was diagnosed cancer in 1983. She died of cancer on October 8,1983 at Encino Hospital in Encino. Both of her parents and her former husband Richard Mulligan died of cancer and her remains are interred at Hollywood Forever Cemetery, where her epitaph reads Go Away — Im Asleep
Lever Brothers was a British manufacturing company founded in 1885 by brothers William Hesketh Lever and James Darcy Lever. They invested in and successfully promoted a new soap-making process invented by chemist William Hough Watson, in 1930, Lever Brothers merged with Margarine Unie to form Unilever. Starting with a grocery business begun by his father, William Lever. The brothers teamed up with a Bolton chemist, William Hough Watson, Watson invented the process which resulted in a new soap, using glycerin and vegetable oils such as palm oil, rather than tallow. The resulting soap was a good, free-lathering soap, at first named Honey Soap later named Sunlight Soap, production reached 450 tons per week by 1888. Larger premises were built on marshes at Bromborough Pool on the Wirral Peninsula at what became Port Sunlight, though the company was named Lever Brothers, William Levers brother and co-director James never took a major part in running the business. He fell ill in 1895, probably as a result of diabetes, Lever Brothers was one of several British companies that took an interest in the welfare of its employees.
By 1900 Lifebuoy and Vim brands had been added and subsidiaries had set up in the United States, Canada, Germany. By 1911 the company had its own oil palm plantations in Belgian Congo, Lever Brothers Ltd acquired other soap companies including A&F Pears, Gossages of Widnes, Watsons of Leeds, Crosfields of Warrington, Hazlehurst & Sons of Runcorn and Hudsons of Liverpool. The town Leverville was founded in the Bandundu district, named after William Lever, Lever Brothers rode the cresting late-Victorian consumer revolution to build a vast worldwide industrial empire. Four years after William Levers death in 1925, his enterprises were amalgamated as Unilever, by 1930, it employed 250,000 people and in terms of market value, was the largest company in Britain. The company grew and operated until 1930, when it merged with a Dutch margarine company, Margarine Unie, to form Unilever, as part of the agreement, Lever Brothers changed its name to Unilever plc, and forms the British half of the dual-listed company.
Although the two companies have separate shareholders and stock exchange listings, they have a board of directors. The Lever Brothers name was kept for a time as an imprint, as well as the name of the US subsidiary, Lever Brothers Company, Lever Brothers was sold to a US capital firm Pensler Capital Corporation and renamed Korex in 2008. Korex Don Valley assumed operations of the Lever Brothers Toronto plant and it has since closed and gone bankrupt. The Toronto plant is now being redeveloped into an office and industrial district by First Gulf Corporation, among its presidents was Charles Luckman who in the 1950s championed the construction of the Lever House in New York City. Breeze detergent Lever & Kitchen Lever Brothers Factory originally located in Balmain, New South Wales, Australia Port Sunlight
Filmways, Inc. was a television and film production company founded by American film executive Martin Ransohoff, and Edwin Kasper in 1952. The police drama Cagney & Lacey, and The Addams Family, Filmways acquired famous companies throughout the years, such as Heatter-Quigley Productions, Ruby-Spears Productions and American International Pictures. It was the owner of the film distributor Sigma III Corporation, Wally Heider Recording, Filmways was formed by Martin Ransohoff and Edwin Kasper in 1952, who would part with Filmways 5 years later. In 1966, The company acquired Heatter-Quigley Productions, the show producers known for their biggest hit. In 1969, it bought Sears Point Raceway in Sonoma County and Wally Heider Recording with studios in Hollywood and San Francisco, Studio 3 Inc in Hollywood In 1972, Ransohoff left Filmways as president. In 1974, it acquired book publisher Grosset & Dunlap from American Financial Group, in May 1975, it bought television syndication firm Rhodes Productions from Taft Broadcasting.
In 1978, it acquired Ruby-Spears Productions, which had launched a year earlier, in 1979, after Arkoffs retirement, Filmways purchased American International Pictures. Their TV subsidiary, AITV, became Filmways new syndication division in 1980, Filmways had lost nearly $20 million during the nine months ending in November 1981. However, it exited bankruptcy by selling few of its previously acquired assets. In 1981, Ruby-Spears Productions was sold to Taft Broadcasting and Sears Point Raceway was sold to Speedway Motorsports, in 1982, Grosset & Dunlap was sold to G. P. Putnams Sons. In 1982, Filmways was acquired by Orion Pictures, Filmways was renamed as Orion TV Productions, Inc. on August 31,1982. Most productions ended with the announcement, “This has been a Filmways presentation”. ”The Beverly Hillbillies, following a few episodes, the voice of Jethro, Max Baer, Jr. can be heard saying, shuddup, Elly May, following her announcement. Seasons 1-3, feature Bill Baldwin, the announcer for the shows sponsors, seasons feature Mister Ed saying it after Keatings death in 1963.
The Addams Family, The logo was silent, but in some episodes the phrase was said in a baritone voice by Ted Cassidy. Other times, Carolyn Jones said the phrase and added darling at the end, CBS holds distribution rights to The Beverly Hillbillies and Petticoat Junction. Viacom syndicated these two programs since the 1970s, any new compilation of Hillbillies material will be copyrighted by either MPI Media Group or CBS, depending on the series content. Filmways co-produced Eye Guess, The Face Is Familiar and those four game shows are currently owned by Sony Pictures Television. SPT co-distributed the MGM library for a short time, were retained by Filmways and are now owned by MGM