Palazzo Corsini, Rome
The Palazzo Corsini is a prominent late-baroque palace in Rome, erected for the Corsini family between 1730–1740 as an elaboration of the prior building on the site, a 15th-century villa of the Riario family, based on designs of Ferdinando Fuga. It is located in the Trastevere section of the city, stands beside the Villa Farnesina. During 1659–1689, the former Riario palace had hosted the eccentric Christina, Queen of Sweden, who abdicated and moved to Rome. Under her patronage, this was the site for the first meetings of the Roman Accademia dell'Arcadia. In 1736, the Florentine Cardinal Neri Maria Corsini, nephew of Pope Clement XII, acquired the villa and land, commissioned the structure now standing. During the Napoleonic occupation of Rome, the palace hosted Joseph Bonaparte. Today, the palace hosts some offices of the National Academy of the Galleria Corsini; the gardens, which rise up the Janiculum hill, are part of the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Roma "La Sapienza", a botanical garden.
This is not the sole Palazzo Corsini in Italy. Another Corsini palace of note include the Palazzo Corsini al Parione, facing the banks of the Arno in Florence; the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica di Palazzo Corsini or National Gallery of Antique Art in the Corsini Palace is a prominent art museum comprising the first floor of the palace. The national Arte Antica collections in Rome consist of a number of sites, including Palazzo Barberini, Galleria Borghese, the Palazzo Corsini; the majority of the major works in the Corsini Gallery collection were donated by the Corsini family, were gathered by the avid 17th century collector, the cardinal Neri Maria Corsini, added to by other members and from collections of Pope Clement XII and his nephew. In 1883, this palace and its contents were sold to the state, the collection is displayed in its original location; the collection encompasses the breadth of Italian art from early-Renaissance to late-18th century. It has both historical works, as well as landscapes and genre paintings.
Palazzo Corsini Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, hosted in the Palazzo Corsini and neighboring Villa Farnesina. Romecity entry
Jusepe de Ribera
Jusepe de Ribera was a Spanish-Italian Tenebrist painter and printmaker known as José de Ribera and Josep de Ribera. He was called Lo Spagnoletto by his contemporaries and early writers. Ribera was a leading painter of the Spanish school. Ribera was born at Xàtiva, near Valencia, the second son of Simón Ribera and his first wife Margarita Cucó, he was baptized on February 17, 1591. His father was a shoemaker on a large scale, his parents intended him for a literary or learned career, but he neglected these studies and is said to have apprenticed with the Spanish painter Francisco Ribalta in Valencia, although no proof of this connection exists. Longing to study art in Italy, he made his way to Rome via Parma, where he painted Saint Martin and the Beggar, now lost, for the church of San Prospero in 1611. According to one source, a cardinal noticed him drawing from the frescoes on a Roman palace facade, housed him. Roman artists gave him the nickname "Lo Spagnoletto", his early biographers rank him among the followers of Caravaggio.
Little documentation survives from his early years, with scholars speculating as to the precise time and route by which he came to Italy. Ribera started living in Rome no than 1612, is documented as having joined the Academy of Saint Luke by 1613, he lived for a time in the Via Margutta, certainly associated with other Caravaggisti who flocked to Rome at that time, such as Gerrit van Honthorst and Hendrick ter Brugghen, among other Utrecht painters active in Rome by 1615. In 1616, Ribera moved to Naples. In November, 1616, Ribera married Caterina Azzolino, the daughter of a Sicilian-born Neapolitan painter, Giovanni Bernardino Azzolino, whose connections in the Neapolitan art world helped to establish Ribera early on as a major figure, whose presence was to bear a lasting impact on the art of the city; the Kingdom of Naples was part of the Spanish Empire, ruled by a succession of Spanish Viceroys. Ribera moved to Naples permanently in the middle of 1616, his Spanish nationality aligned him with the small Spanish governing class in the city, with the Flemish merchant community, from another Spanish territory, who included important collectors of and dealers in art.
Ribera began to sign his work as "Jusepe de Ribera, español". He was able to attract the attention of the Viceroy, Pedro Téllez-Girón, 3rd Duke of Osuna recently arrived, who gave him a number of major commissions, which showed the influence of Guido Reni; the period after Osuna was recalled in 1620 seems to have been difficult. Few paintings survive from 1620 to 1626; these were at least an attempt to attract attention from a wider audience than Naples. His career picked up in the late 1620s, he was accepted as the leading painter in Naples thereafter, he received the Order of Christ of Portugal from Pope Urban VIII in 1626. Although Ribera never returned to Spain, many of his paintings were taken back by returning members of the Spanish governing class, for example the Duke of Osuna, his etchings were brought to Spain by dealers, his influence can be seen in Velázquez and most other Spanish painters of the period. He has been portrayed as selfishly protecting his prosperity, is reputed to have been the chief in the so-called Cabal of Naples, his abettors being a Greek painter, Belisario Corenzio and the Neapolitan, Giambattista Caracciolo.
It is said this group aimed to monopolize Neapolitan art commissions, using intrigue, sabotage of work in progress, personal threats of violence to frighten away outside competitors such as Annibale Carracci, the Cavalier d'Arpino and Domenichino. All of them found the place inhospitable; the cabal ended at the time of Domenichino's death in 1641. De Ribera's pupils included the Flemish painter Hendrick de Somer, Francesco Fracanzano, Luca Giordano, Bartolomeo Passante, he was followed by Giuseppe Marullo and influenced the painters Agostino Beltrano, Paolo Domenico Finoglio, Giovanni Ricca, Pietro Novelli. About 1644, his daughter married a Spanish nobleman in the administration. From 1644, Ribera seems to have suffered serious ill-health, which reduced his ability to work, although his workshop continued to produce works under his direction. In 1647–1648, during the Masaniello rising against Spanish rule, he felt forced for some months to take his family with him into refuge in the palace of the Viceroy.
In 1651 he sold the large house he had owned for many years, when he died on September 2, 1652, he was in serious financial difficulties. In his earlier style, founded sometimes on Caravaggio and sometimes on the wholly diverse method of Correggio, the study of Spanish and Venetian masters may be traced. Along with his massive and predominating shadows, he retained from first to last a great strength in local coloring, his forms, although ordinary and sometimes coarse, are correct. He delighted in subjects of horror. In the early 1630s his style changed away from strong contrasts of dark and light to a more diffused and golden lighting, as may be seen in The Clubfoot of 1642. Salvator Rosa and Luca Giordano were his most distinguished followers.
Lausanne is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud. The city is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva, it faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains, with the Jura Mountains to its north-west. Lausanne is located 62 kilometres northeast of Geneva. Lausanne has a population of 146,372, making it the fourth largest city in Switzerland, with the entire agglomeration area having 420,000 inhabitants; the metropolitan area of Lausanne-Geneva was over 1.2 million inhabitants in 2000. Lausanne is a focus of international sport, hosting the International Olympic Committee, the Court of Arbitration for Sport and some 55 international sport associations, it lies in a noted wine-growing region. The city has a 28-station metro system, making it the smallest city in the world to have a rapid transit system. Lausanne will host the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics; the Romans built a military camp, which they called Lousanna, at the site of a Celtic settlement, near the lake where Vidy and Ouchy are situated.
By the 2nd century AD, it was known in 280 as lacu Lausonio. By 400, it was civitas Lausanna, in 990 it was mentioned as Losanna. After the fall of the Roman Empire, insecurity forced the residents of Lausanne to move to its current centre, a hilly site, easier to defend; the city which emerged from the camp was ruled by the Bishop of Lausanne. It came under Bern from 1536 to 1798, a number of its cultural treasures, including the hanging tapestries in the Cathedral, were permanently removed. Lausanne has made repeated requests to recover them. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Lausanne became a place of refuge for French Huguenots. In 1729, a seminary was opened by Benjamin Duplan. By 1750, 90 pastors had been sent back to France to work clandestinely. Official persecution ended in 1787. During the Napoleonic Wars, the city's status changed. In 1803, it became the capital of a newly formed Swiss canton, under which it joined the Swiss Federation. In 1964, the city played host to the Swiss National Exhibition, displaying its newly found confidence to play host to major international events.
From the 1950s to 1970s, a large number of Italians and Portuguese immigrated to Lausanne, settling in the industrial district of Renens and transforming the local diet. The city has served as a refuge for European artists. While under the care of a psychiatrist at Lausanne, T. S. Eliot composed most of his 1922 poem The Waste Land. Ernest Hemingway visited from Paris with his wife during the 1920s, to holiday. In fact, many creative people — such as historian Edward Gibbon and Romantic era poets Shelley and Byron — have "sojourned and worked in Lausanne or nearby"; the city has been traditionally quiet, but in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a series of demonstrations took place that exposed tensions between young people and the police. Demonstrations took place to protest against the high cinema prices, followed by protest against the G8 meetings in 2003; the most important geographical feature of the area surrounding Lausanne is Lake Geneva. Lausanne is built on the southern slope of the Swiss plateau, with a difference in elevation of about 500 metres between the lakeshore at Ouchy and its northern edge bordering Le Mont-sur-Lausanne and Épalinges.
Lausanne boasts a dramatic panorama over the Alps. In addition to its southward-sloping layout, the centre of the city is the site of an ancient river, the Flon, covered since the 19th century; the former river forms a gorge running through the middle of the city south of the old city centre following the course of the present Rue Centrale, with several bridges crossing the depression to connect the adjacent neighbourhoods. Due to the considerable differences in elevation, visitors should make a note as to which plane of elevation they are on and where they want to go, otherwise they will find themselves tens of metres below or above the street which they are trying to negotiate; the name Flon is used for the metro station located in the gorge. The municipality includes the villages of Vidy, Ouchy, Chailly, La Sallaz, Montblesson, Vers-chez-les-Blanc and Chalet-à-Gobet as well as the exclave of Vernand. Lausanne is located at the limit between the extensive wine-growing regions of la Côte. Lausanne has an area, as of 2009, of 41.38–41.33 square kilometers.
Of this area, 6.64 km2 or 16.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 16.18 km2 or 39.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 18.45 km2 or 44.6% is settled, 0.05 km2 or 0.1% is either rivers or lakes and 0.01 km2 or 0.0% is unproductive land. Of the built-up area, industrial buildings made up 1.6% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 21.6% and transportation i
Leonello Spada was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active in Rome and his native city of Bologna, where he became known as one of the followers of Caravaggio. He first apprenticed with painter Cesare Baglioni. By the early 17th century, Spada was active, together with Girolamo Curti, as a member of a team specializing in decorative quadratura painting in Bologna, his early independent canvases reflect a mannerist style akin to the Flemish Denis Calvaert who resided in Bologna. In 1604 he made an unsuccessful bid for the commission to decorate the sacristy of the Basilica of Santa Maria di Loreto. By he had gravitated to the Carracci Academy, having contributed to the decorations for the funeral of Agostino Carracci in 1603, his earliest surviving major painting, the altarpiece of the Virgin and Saints Dominic & Francis Interceding with Christ, shows that he had modeled his style on that of Ludovico Carracci. He collaborated with other students of Ludovico Francesco Brizio and remained in Bologna until 1607.
Spada's figurative style became more robust, as shown by the Miraculous Draught of Fishes. Among his pupils was Pietro Martire Armanni. Whether Spada either met or became an assistant of Caravaggio, like Manfredi, is unclear; the biographer Malvasia makes plain in his Felsina pittrice his distaste for Caravaggio, describes Spada and Caravaggio as "dissolute" and "precipitous". Malvasia tells the story of Spada posing for Caravaggio's ‘’Death of John the Baptist’’: afraid that Spada might flee and, that without a model the painting would be incomplete, Caravaggio imprisoned him in a room until he had finished. However, it is unclear if Spada physically encountered Caravaggio in Rome. Spada was in Rome after 1608-9, when Caravaggio had fled to Malta. Malvasia suggests; this is possible since Spada himself painted frescoes in the Magisterial palace of Valletta in 1609-1610. The dark violence of a painting such as the Cain Killing Abel and his derivative realism Musical Concert garnered him in Bologna, the maligning appellation of "scimmia del Caravaggio".
But this, as much of Spada's output, may not reflect a gathered flame of inspiration but a pale reflection, a mimicry of the harsh passion, which when linked to his Carraci upbringing leads to a weakened pastiche. Leonello Spada is known to have made many copies of other painters, he painted a large canvas for the Basilica of San Domenico in Bologna, depicting St Dominic Burning the Books of the Heretics. The Ghiara frescoes in Reggio Emilia are his masterpiece and demonstrate a return to Carraccian models. Other works of this fruitful period include the Return of Aeneas and Anchises. In 1617, he was commissioned by Duke Ranuccio I Farnese, to decorate the newly built Teatro Farnese for Parma, his ‘’Mystic Marriage of St Catherine’ is a late painting. Aeneas and Anchises Saint Jerome Abraham and Melchizedek Return of Prodigal Son A Soldier, Rudolf. Pelican History of Art, ed. Art and Architecture Italy, 1600-1750. 1980. Penguin Books Ltd. pp. 92, 94–95. Grove art encyclopedia entry
Certosa di San Martino
The Certosa di San Martino is a former monastery complex, now a museum, in Naples, southern Italy. Along with Castel Sant'Elmo that stands beside it, this is the most visible landmark of the city, perched atop the Vomero hill that commands the gulf. A Carthusian monastery, it was finished and inaugurated under the rule of Queen Joan I in 1368, it was dedicated to St. Martin of Tours. During the first half of the 16th century it was expanded. In 1623, it was further expanded and became, under the direction of architect Cosimo Fanzago the structure one sees today. In the early 19th century, under French rule the monastery was closed and was abandoned by the religious order. Today, the buildings house a museum with a display of Spanish and Bourbon era artifacts, as well as displays of the presepe—Nativity scene—considered to be among the finest in the world. Official website
Saint Francis of Assisi in Ecstasy (Caravaggio)
Saint Francis of Assisi in Ecstasy is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. It is held in the Wadsworth Atheneum, Connecticut; the painting was the first of Caravaggio's religious canvasses, is thought to date from 1595, when he had entered the household of Cardinal Francesco Maria Del Monte. It was painted at the behest of Del Monte, is thought to be one of the first paintings done by the artist as "Del Monte's painter", as he is believed to have described himself over the next few years while living in Palazzo Madama, it shows Saint Francis of Assisi at the moment of receiving the signs of the Stigmata, the wounds left in Christ's body by the Crucifixion. The story is told by one of Brother Leo. In 1224 Francis retired to the wilderness with a small number of his followers to contemplate God. On the mountainside at night Brother Leo saw a six-winged seraph come down to Francis in answer to the saint's prayer that he might know both Christ's suffering and His love: All of a sudden there was a dazzling light.
It was as though the heavens were exploding and splashing forth all their glory in millions of waterfalls of colours and stars. And in the centre of that bright whirlpool was a core of blinding light that flashed down from the depths of the sky with terrifying speed until it stopped and sacred, above a pointed rock in front of Francis, it was a fiery figure with wings, nailed to a cross of fire. Two flaming wings rose straight upward, two others opened out horizontally, two more covered the figure, and the wounds in the hands and feet and heart were blazing rays of blood. The sparkling features of the Being wore an expression of supernatural grief, it was the face of Jesus, Jesus spoke. Streams of fire and blood shot from His wounds and pierced the hands and feet of Francis with nails and his heart with the stab of a lance; as Francis uttered a mighty shout of joy and pain, the fiery image impressed itself into his body, as into a mirrored reflection of itself, with all its love, its beauty, its grief.
And it vanished within him. Another cry pierced the air. With nails and wounds through his body, with his soul and spirit aflame, Francis sank down, unconscious, in his blood. Caravaggio's painting is less dramatic than the account given by Leo - the six-winged seraph is replaced by a two-winged angel, there is none of the violent confrontation described by Leo - no streams of fire, no pools of blood, no shouts or fiery images of Christ. Just the gentle-seeming angel, bulking far larger than the unconscious saint, Francis' companions in the middle distance invisible in the darkness; the subject had been a popular one since the 13th century: Giotto treated it about 1290, Giovanni Bellini painted a famous version about 1480-85. Caravaggio's version is much more intimate and marks a sharp change of key: the saint, who has the features of Del Monte, seems to sink back peacefully into the arms of a boy wearing a sheet and some stage-prop wings. There is little to indicate the subject beyond the saint's Franciscan robe - no sign of the Stigmata, or blood, except the wound in his heart, nor of the fearsome seraph.
Yet the atmosphere remains genuinely spiritual, the two figures lit by an unearthly effulgence in the dark night-time landscape where strange glimmerings flicker on the horizon. The scene is at once unreal. Del Monte kept it till the end of his life, several copies went into circulation and were valued