Giovanni Battista Caracciolo was an Italian artist and important Neapolitan follower of Caravaggio. The only substantial early source of biography is that of Bernardo de' Dominici's unreliable publication of 1742. De Dominici's statements are contradicted by documented facts and others cannot be substantiated independently. Archival documents state Caracciolo was born in Naples and baptised on 7 December 1578, as the son of Cesare Caracciolo and his wife Elena; the family lived in the parish of San Giovanni Maggiore. On 3 August 1598, at the age of twenty, Caracciolo married Beatrice de Mario, they had ten children. His initial training was said to be with Francesco Imparato and Fabrizio Santafede, but the first impulse that directed his art came from Caravaggio's sudden presence in Naples in late 1606. Caravaggio had fled there after killing a man in a brawl in Rome, he arrived at the end of September or beginning of October 1606, his stay in the city lasted only about eight months, with another brief visit in 1609/1610, yet his impact on artistic life there was profound.
Caracciolo, only five years younger than Caravaggio, was among the first there to adopt the startling new style with its sombre palette, dramatic tenebrism, sculptural figures in a shallow picture plane defined by light rather than by perspective. He is considered to be the solitary founder of the Neapolitan school of Caravaggism. Among the other Neapolitan Caravaggisti were Giuseppe Ribera, Carlo Sellitto, Artemisia Gentileschi, Caracciolo's pupil, Mattia Preti early in his career. Caracciolo's Caravaggesque phase was fundamental to his entire career, his first contact with Caravaggio must have been around the time of the Radolovich commission, dated 6 October 1606, the contacts continued through Caravaggio's completion of the Seven Works of Mercy during the last months of that year and early 1607. A notable result of Caravaggio's influence is Caracciolo's The Crucifixion of Christ, with its strong echoes of the Crucifixion of Saint Andrew. In 1607, he painted the Immaculate Conception for the Santa Maria della Stella in Naples.
It is considered to be his first documented Caravaggesque painting. In 1612, he made a trip to Rome. A work showing the influence of this visit, that of Orazio Gentileschi, is the Liberation of Saint Peter, painted for the Pio Monte della Misericordia, to hang next to Caravaggio's Seven Works of Mercy painted for the same church. By this time he had become the leader of the new Neapolitan school, dividing his time between religious subjects and paintings for private patrons. After 1618 he visited Genoa and Florence. In Rome he came under the influence of the revived Classicism of the Carracci cousins and the Emilian school, began working towards a synthesis of their style with his own tenebrism – his Cupid, with its bravura handling of the red cloth, shows the influence of the Carracci synthesis. Back in Naples, he translated this into grandiose, wide-ranging scenes frescos including his masterpiece Christ Washing the Feet of the Disciples of 1622, painted for the Certosa di San Martino, he painted further works in the Certosa di San Martino, Santa Maria La Nova and San Diego all'Ospedaletto and these works of the late second decade of the 17th century onward, show the strong influence of Bolognese classicism he might have been exposed to in Rome.
He died in Naples, in the few days between creating his last will, on 19 December 1635, 24 December 1635, when it was opened and read. Bryan, Michael. Robert Edmund Graves, ed. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers and Critical. York St. #4, Covent Garden, London. P. 230. Benedict Nicolson, Caravaggism in Europe, Oxford, 1979, 2e ed. dl. I, p. 74–77 Wittkower, Rudolf. Art and Architecture Italy, 1600–1750. Penguin Books. Pp. 356–358. Ferdinando Bologna Battistello Caracciolo e il primo naturalismo a Napoli, Ausstellungskatalog Castel San Elmo, Chiesa della Certosa di San Martino, 1991/92 Causa, Rafaello. "Aggiunte al Caracciolo". Paragone. I: 42–45. Stefano Causa Battistello Caracciolo: L'Opera Completa 1578–1635, Neapel 2000 Nicola Spinosa u.a. Tres Siglos de Oro de la Pintura Napolitana. De Battistello Caracciolo a Giacinto Gigante, Ausstellungskatalog, Museum der Schönen Künste Valencia 2003/4, Ed. Caja Duero, 2003 Longhi, Roberto. "Battistello Caracciolo". L'Arte. 18: 120–137. Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi, a digitized exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Battistello Caracciolo
A sacristy is a room for keeping vestments and other church furnishings, sacred vessels, parish records. In some countries, it is known as the vestry; the sacristy is located inside the church, but in some cases it is an annex or separate building. In most older churches, a sacristy is near a side altar, or more behind or on a side of the main altar. In newer churches the sacristy is in another location, such as near the entrances to the church; some churches have more than one sacristy. Additional sacristies are used for maintaining the church and its items – such as candles and other materials; the sacristy is where the priest and attendants vest and prepare before the service. They will return there at the end of the service to remove their vestments and put away any of the vessels used during the service; the hangings and altar linens are stored there as well. The Parish registers are administered by the parish clerk. Sacristies contain a special wash basin, called a piscina, the drain of, properly called a "sacrarium" in which the drain flows directly into the ground to prevent sacred items such as used baptismal water from being washed into the sewers or septic tanks.
The piscina is used to wash linens used during the celebration of the Mass and purificators used during Holy Communion. The cruets, ciborium, altar linens and sometimes the Holy Oils are kept inside the sacristy. Sacristies are off limits to the general public; the word "sacristy" derives from the Latin sacristia, sometimes spelled sacrastia, in turn derived from sacrista, from sacra. A person in charge of the sacristy and its contents is called a sacristan; the latter name was given to the sexton of a parish church, where he would have cared for these things, the fabric of the building and the grounds. In Eastern Christianity, the functions of the sacristy are fulfilled by the Diaconicon and the Prothesis, two rooms or areas adjacent to the Holy Table. Work on finding the so-called "lost medieval sacristy of Henry III" at Westminster Abbey during an episode of the archaeological television programme Time Team revealed that the abbey had two separate sacristies; as well as a conventional sacristy for storage of ceremonial vessels such as the chalice and paten, the second, described in a 15th-century document as the "galilee of the sacristy" was determined to have been used for the robing and formation of the procession.
Altar cloth Antependium Sacristan Savilahti Stone Sacristy Sexton Vestry "Sacristy" article from Catholic Encyclopedia
Bernardo de' Dominici
Bernardo de' Dominici or Bernardo De Dominici was an Italian art historian and painter of the late-Baroque period, active in Naples. As a painter he was known for his landscapes, marine vedute and genre scenes in a style characteristic of the Bamboccianti, he is now known for his art historical writings and in particular the Vite dei Pittori, Scultori, ed Architetti Napolitani, a three volume collection of brief biographies of Neapolitan artists. Bernardo de' Dominici was born in Naples as the son of the painter and collector Raimondo de' Dominici and Camilla Tartaglione, he was the brother of Giampaolo, a scholar and theater maker and nephew of Suor Maria, a Maltese artist. His father was a Maltese, a pupil of Mattia Preti in Malta and had moved around his twentieth year to Naples. In 1698 when he was 14 years old Bernardo`s father took him to Malta to meet Preti, he became a pupil of Preti for about seven months until his training was cut short by Preti's death in January 1699. After his return to Naples in 1701, he dedicated himself to painting as a pupil of Francesco Solimena who trained him in landscape painting but was a history painter influenced by Preti.
He studied under the painter Franz Joachim Beich, a landscape painter from Ravensburg (in today's Baden-Württembergho was working in Naples. He studied with the Dutch painter Paul Ganses, a specialist of marines with moonlight. Bernardo de' Dominici became a landscape painter who practised the genre of the "bambocciata", a style of genre painting that depicts the everyday life of the lower classes, he collaborated on such bambocciata with the painter Domenico Brandi. Nothing of his output in these areas has been found, explained by the fact that this was a genre practised by so many artists and was therefore not disctintive. Dominici served for many years the duke of Laurenzana, Niccolò Gaetani dell'Aquila d'Aragona, was the court painter of his wife, the poetess Aurora Sanseverino, he exchanged sonnets with the poet Antonio Roviglione. He was in contact with the intellectual elite of Naples. In 1727, Dominici published a biography of Luca Giordano. Dominici, however, is best remembered as the Neapolitan Vasari, after publishing in 1742 an ample, yet flawed, three volume collection of brief biographies of Neapolitan artists, Vite dei Pittori, Scultori, ed Architetti Napolitani.
It recounts the careers of artists from the "School of Naples," among these: Fra Mattia Preti Pietro Ceraso, Agostino Ferraro, Aniello Perrone, Michele Perrone, Domenico di Nardo Francesco Picchiatti called Picchetti.
Penitent Magdalene (Caravaggio)
Penitent Magdalene is a 16th-century oil on canvas painting by Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio. The painting portrays a repentant Mary Magdalene, bowed over in penitent sorrow as she leaves behind her dissolute life, its trappings abandoned beside her. At the time of its completion, ca. 1594–1595, the painting was unconventional for its contemporary realism and departure from traditional Magdalene iconography. It has invited both criticism and praise, with speculation into the 21st century as to Caravaggio's intentions; the work hangs in the Doria Pamphilj Gallery in Rome. The painting depicts a young brunette, squatting or kneeling on a low chair, with her hands cradled in her lap. By her side is a collection of jewelry and a stoppered bottle of liquid, nearly three-quarters full, her gaze is averted from the viewer, her head turned downward in a position, compared to traditional portrayals of the crucified Jesus Christ. A single tear runs down one cheek to the side of her nose; the painting was completed ca.
1594–1595, during which time Caravaggio was residing with Giuseppe Cesari and Fantin Petrignani. The painting was certainly commissioned by Pietro Vittrice, guardaroba of Pope Gregory XIII. Caravaggio was known to have used several prostitutes as models for his works, historians have speculated that Anna Bianchini is featured in this painting. Contemporary biographers indicate Bianchini may have featured in Caravaggio's Death of the Virgin, Conversion of the Magdalen and Rest on the Flight into Egypt, it may be the first religious painting completed by Caravaggio. The painting represents a departure from the standard paintings of the penitent Mary Magdalene of Caravaggio's day, both in portraying her in contemporary clothing and, in the words of biographer John Varriano, avoiding "the pathos and languid sensuality" with which the subject was treated. Indeed, most of the many depictions of the subject in art showed the Magdalen with no clothing at all, as in Titian's painting of 1533, it having fallen apart during the thirty years she spent, according to medieval legend, repenting in the desert after the Ascension of Jesus.
It was Caravaggio's departure into realism. Decades after the painting's completion, 17th-century art biographer Gian Pietro Bellori opined that Caravaggio had feigned religious imagery by adding items associated with Mary Magdalene—a carafe of oil and discarded jewelry—to an otherwise modern genre scene, but Jesuit poet Giuseppe Silos evidently did not regard the work as feigned spirituality. Rather, in his Pinacotheca sive Romana pictura et sculptura, published in 1673, he praised it and its painter elaborately: We can see the silent remorse hidden in her conscience, in the depths of her heart she is burned by a secret flame. Caravaggio's colors are so lively as to reveal her most intimate sentiments. A rare bird is that painter who can so expose in a mere image that, hidden in the blind darkness of the conscience. In his controversial contemporary biography M, Peter Robb suggested that the realism of the piece and the subtle hints of violence he perceived—broken pearls and the subject's swollen face and hands—might suggest a political dimension, a commentary on the mistreatment of courtesans in Caravaggio's time by police in Rome.
Based on records from Bianchini's life, Robb speculates that Bianchini might have been publicly whipped in the custom of the day, the ointment in the jar her treatment for this, her injury Caravaggio's inspiration. Whatever may have inspired Caravaggio's Magdalene, his piece may have inspired Georges de La Tour to produce several versions of the subject. De la Tour changed the angle of his painting. Although the Magdalene remains seated, face averted, her hands clasped on her lap, she is backlit by a candle set before a mirror, cradles a skull on her lap. Garrard, Mary D.. Artemisia Gentileschi around 1622: the shaping and reshaping of an artistic identity. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22841-2. Retrieved 19 July 2010. Hunt, Patrick. "Irony and Realism in the Iconography of Caravaggio's Penitent Magdalene". In Erhardt, Michelle. Mary Magdalene, Iconographic Studies from the Middle Ages to the Baroque. BRILL. ISBN 9789004231955. Mancini, Giulio. Considerazioni sulla pittura. Quoted and translated in Hibbard, Howard.
Caravaggio. Westview Press. Pp. 346 et seq. ISBN 978-0-06-430128-2. Retrieved 19 July 2010. Moss, Stephen. "M by Peter Robb". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 July 2010. Patton, Kimberley Christine. Holy tears: weeping in the religious imagination. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11444-6. Retrieved 19 July 2010. Robb, Peter. M: The Man Who Became Caravaggio. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-27474-0. Retrieved 19 July 2010. Rowland, Ingrid Drake. From heaven to Arcadia: the sacred and the profane in the Renaissance. New York Review of Books. ISBN 978-1-59017-123-3. Retrieved 19 July 2010. Spurling, Hilary. "The Other Michelangelo". The New York Times Book Reviews 2000. Taylor & Francis. Pp. 396 et seq. ISBN 978-1-57958-058-2. Retrieved 19 July 2010. Strickland, Carol; the annotated Mona Lisa: a crash course in art history from prehistoric to post-modern. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8362-8005-0. Retrieved 19 July 2010. Varriano, John L.. Caravaggio: the Art of Realism. Penn State Press. ISBN 978-0-271-
Cosimo Fanzago was an Italian architect and sculptor considered the greatest such artist of the Baroque period in Naples, Italy. Fanzago was born in Clusone in a family of architects. In 1608, after a short stay in Chieti, he moved to Naples. Here he trained as mason under the Tuscan sculptor Angelo Landi, his first important work was the sepulchre monument of a relative of Cardinal Carafa. His architectural debut was the design of San Giuseppe dei Vecchi a San Potito. According to an essay about Fanzago's life by count Fogaccia, in Naples he obtained the support of the Benedictines, the Viceroy Duke of Medina, Prince Caracciolo and the Carthusians, soon opened a workshop of his own, he sympathised with Masaniello's revolt, after the return of Royal authority, Fanzago was sentenced to death and had to flee to Rome, where he worked for a decade. He designed the initial layout church of Santa Maria Egiziaca a Pizzofalcone; this church displays a Greek cross plan, resembles a hybrid of contemporary Baroque masterpieces by Bernini and Borromini.
He designed the church of Santa Teresa a Chiaia. His last great church was Santa Maria Maggiore, built between 1653 and 1675. Fanzago died at an age of 87 years. One of his pupils was Lorenzo Vaccaro, his works in Naples include: Guglia di San Gennaro: a votive spire in honor of the patron saint of Naples. It imitates the large portable ephemeral decorations common in religious processions model for two other prominent spires, which he helped plan, it was a so-called "plague column". Extensive work on the Certosa di San Martino, including the spectacular central courtyard with its large portals and busts of Carthusian saints; the church and cloisters are considered to be his masterpiece. The Carthusians paid Fanzago 57,000 ducats over 33 years of work. Between 1660 and 1700, a lawsuit alleging underpayment by the monks wound its way through the Neapolitan courts; the facades or facade details of numerous churches and civic buildings, including Santa Maria degli Angeli, anonymous works within the Cathedral of Naples, the Chiesa dell'Ascensione a Chiaia.
Altars within churches, such as in Santa Maria la Nova, Santi Severino e Sossio, Santa Maria di Costantinopoli, the church of San Pietro a Maiella. Public fountains, including the Fontana del Gigante near Santa Lucia and the Sebeto Fountain at Mergellina. Villa Donn'Anna at Posillipo. A number of works outside of Naples, including within the Benedictine Abbey of Montecassino and San Nicola in Venice. Web Gallery of Art Jusepe de Ribera, 1591-1652, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which includes material on Cosimo Fanzago
Luca Ciamberlano was an Italian painter and engraver of the Baroque period. He was born at Urbino. In the early part of his life he applied himself to the study of civil law, in which he had taken a doctor's degree, when he abandoned the study of jurisprudence to devote himself to painting and engraving the latter, he became the leading graphic artist of his day. From 1599 to 1641 he resided at Rome, where he executed a great number of plates from his own designs, as well as after the works of the most celebrated Italian painters, in the style of Agostino Carracci, he codified and engraved Carracci's teaching system in a work published in Rome in 1626 by Pietro Stefanoni, called Scuola perfetta per imparare a disegnare tutto il corpo umano. Ciamberlano collaborated with Guido Reni between 1610 and 1612, when he made engravings based on Reni's drawings of the Life of St Philip, he engraved the anatomical drawings of Pietro da Cortona between 1618 and 1620. He created a nine-part series of engravings depicting the Passion of Christ, dated 1621 and published by Johannes Eillarts.
Of his plates, 114 are known. They were executed with the graver, which he handled with neatness and intelligence, he sometimes signed his plates with his name, sometimes marked them with the cipher LC. Among them are the following: Thirteen plates of Christ and the twelve Apostles. St. Jerome dead, lying upon a stone. St. Thomas. Nine plates of Angels carrying the instruments of the Passion. Duke Francesco Maria II of Urbino. Christ on the Mount of Olives. Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen. 1609. Christ appearing to St. Theresa. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bryan, Michael. "Ciamberlano, Luca". In Graves, Robert Edmund. Bryan's Dictionary of Engravers. I. London: George Bell & Sons
Certosa di San Martino
The Certosa di San Martino is a former monastery complex, now a museum, in Naples, southern Italy. Along with Castel Sant'Elmo that stands beside it, this is the most visible landmark of the city, perched atop the Vomero hill that commands the gulf. A Carthusian monastery, it was finished and inaugurated under the rule of Queen Joan I in 1368, it was dedicated to St. Martin of Tours. During the first half of the 16th century it was expanded. In 1623, it was further expanded and became, under the direction of architect Cosimo Fanzago the structure one sees today. In the early 19th century, under French rule the monastery was closed and was abandoned by the religious order. Today, the buildings house a museum with a display of Spanish and Bourbon era artifacts, as well as displays of the presepe—Nativity scene—considered to be among the finest in the world. Official website