The History of The Lord of the Rings
The History of The Lord of the Rings is a four-volume work by Christopher Tolkien published between 1988 and 1992 that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkien's writing of The Lord of the Rings; the History is numbered as volumes six to nine of The History of Middle-earth. Some information concerning the appendices and a soon-abandoned sequel to the novel can be found in volume twelve, The Peoples of Middle-earth; the volumes include: The Return of the Shadow The Treason of Isengard The War of the Ring Sauron Defeated The first volume of The History encompasses three initial stages of composition or, as Christopher Tolkien calls them, "phases", finishes with the Fellowship of the Ring entering the Mines of Moria. The second volume continues to the meeting with Théoden king of Rohan, includes discussions of the original map of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, of the evolution of Cirth; the third volume, The War of the Ring continues to the opening of the Black Gate. The last volume finishes the story and features the rejected Epilogue, in which Sam answers his children's questions.
It includes The Notion Club Papers, a draft of the Drowning of Anadûnê, the only extant account of Tolkien's fictional language Adûnaic. Some paperback editions of the fourth volume, retitled The End of the Third Age, include only the materials for The Lord of the Rings; the original idea was to release The History of The Lord of the Rings in not four. When The Treason of Isengard was first published in paperback Volume 8 was to be called Sauron Defeated and was to be the last volume; the titles of the volumes derive from discarded titles for the separate books of The Lord of the Rings. J. R. R. Tolkien conceived the latter as a single volume comprising six "books" plus extensive appendices, but the original publisher split the work into three, publishing two books per volume with the appendices included in the third; the titles proposed by Tolkien for the six books were: Book I, The First Journey or The Ring Sets Out. The title The Return of the Shadow was a discarded title for Volume I. Three of the titles of the volumes of The History of The Lord of the Rings were used as book titles for the seven-volume edition of The Lord of the Rings: The Treason of Isengard for Book III, The War of the Ring for Book V, The End of the Third Age for Book VI.
There is an inscription in Fëanorian characters on the title pages of every History of Middle-earth volume, written by Christopher Tolkien and describing the contents of the book. The inscription in Volume VI reads: In the Return of the Shadow are traced the first forms of the story of the Lord of the Rings; the inscription in Volume VII reads: In the Treason of Isengard the story of the Fellowship of the Ring is traced from Rivendell through Moria and the Land of Lothlorien to the time of its ending at Salembel beside Anduin the Great river is told of the return of Gandalf Mithrandir, of the meeting of the hobbits with Fangorn and of the war upon the Riders of Rohan by the traitor Saruman. The inscription in Volume VIII reads: In the War of the Ring is traced the story of the history at Helm's Deep and the drowning of Isengard by the Ents is told of the journey of Frodo with Samwise and Gollum to the Morannon, of the meeting with Faramir and the stairs of Cirith Ungol, of the Battle of the Pelennor Fields and of the coming of Aragorn in the fleet of Umbar.
The inscription in Volume IX reads: In this book is traced first the story of the destruction of the One Ring and the Downfall of Sauron at the End of the Third Age. Follows an account of the intrusion of the Cataclysm of the West into the deliberations of certain scholars of Oxford and the Fall of Sauron named Zigûr in the Drowning of Anadûne; the History of The Lord of the Rings reveals much of the slow, aggregative nature of Tolkien’s creativity. As Christopher Tolkien noted of the first two volumes, Tolkien had brought the story up to Rivendell, but still “without any clear conception of what lay before him”, he noted how, on the way, his father could get caught up in a “spider’s web of argumentation” - what Tom Shippey described as getting “bogged down in sometimes strikingly unnecessary webs of minor causation”. Thus the character known as Peregrin Took was, in a series of rewriting and of deleted adventures, variously known as Odo, Folco, Peregrin, Hamilcar and Olo – the figures being Boffins and Bolgers, as well as Tooks.
Only with the Breaking of the Fellowship did fluency arrive for Tolkien, his son recording how chapters were “achieved with far greater facility than any previous part of the story”. Thereafter Tolkien’s problem was rather one of selecting between alternative accounts, so as to produce the best effect – two episodes in Sauron Defeated that were deleted being the pardoning of Saruman, an awards ceremony at the book’s close. More in-depth information on the individual books in The History of The Lord of the Rings by JRR Tolkien
Songs for the Philologists
Songs for the Philologists is a collection of poems by E. V. Gordon and J. R. R. Tolkien as well as traditional songs, it is the most difficult to find Tolkien-related book. A collection of typescripts compiled by Gordon in 1921–26 for the students of the University of Leeds, it was given by A. H. Smith of University College London, a former student at Leeds, to a group of students to be printed in 1935 or 1936, printed in 1936 with the impressuum "Printed by G. Tillotson, A. H. Smith, B. Pattison and other members of the English Department, University College, London." Since Smith had not asked permission of either Gordon or Tolkien, the printed booklets were not distributed. Most copies were destroyed in a fire, only a few around 14, survived. Of the 30 songs in the collection, 13 were contributed by Tolkien: From One to Five, to the tune of Three Wise Men of Gotham. Syx Mynet, to the tune of I Love Sixpence. Ruddoc Hana, to the tune of Who Killed Cock Robin'. Ides Ælfscýne, to the tune of Daddy Neptune.
Reprinted, together with a Modern English translation in The Road to Middle-earth. Bagmē Blōma, to the tune of Lazy Sheep. Reprinted, together with a Modern English translation in The Road to Middle-earth. Éadig Béo þu!. to the tune of Twinkle, Little Star. Reprinted, together with a Modern English translation in The Road to Middle-earth. Ofer Wídne Gársecg, to the tune of The Mermaid. Reprinted, together with a Modern English translation in The Road to Middle-earth. La Húru, to the tune of O’Reilly. I Sat to the tune of The Carrion Crow. Natura Apis: Morali Ricardi Eremite to the tune of O’Reilly; the Root of the Boot, to the tune of The Fox Went Out. Reprinted in Anderson’s Annotated Hobbit, in a revised form in The Return of the Shadow. Reprinted in The Tolkien Papers: Mankato Studies in English. Revised and printed in The Lord of the Rings and The Adventures of Tom Bombadil as'The Stone Troll'. Frenchmen Froth, to the tune of The Vicar of Bray. Lit' and Lang', to the tune of Polly Put the Kettle On.
TolkienBooks.net - Songs for the Philologists Songs for the Philologists by J. R. R. Tolkien E. V. Gordon - article and review
The Father Christmas Letters
The Father Christmas Letters known as Letters from Father Christmas, are a collection of letters written and illustrated by J. R. R. Tolkien between 1920 and 1942 for his children, from Father Christmas, they were released posthumously by the Tolkien estate on 2 September 1976, the 3rd anniversary of Tolkien’s death. They were edited by second wife of his youngest son, Christopher; the book was warmly received by critics, it has been suggested that elements of the stories inspired parts of Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. The stories are told in the format of a series of letters, told either from the point of view of Father Christmas or his elvish secretary, they document the adventures and misadventures of Father Christmas and his helpers, including the North Polar Bear and his two sidekick cubs and Valkotukka. The stories include descriptions of the massive fireworks that create the northern lights and how Polar Bear manages to get into trouble on more than one occasion; the 1939 letter has Father Christmas making reference to the Second World War, while some of the letters feature Father Christmas' battles against Goblins which were subsequently interpreted as being a reflection of Tolkien's views on the German Menace.
The letters themselves were written over a period of over 20 years to entertain Tolkien's children each Christmas. Starting in 1920 when Tolkien's oldest son was aged three, each Christmas Tolkien would write a letter from Father Christmas about his travels and adventures; each letter was delivered in an envelope, including North Pole stamps and postage marks as designed by Tolkien. Prior to publication, an exhibition of Tolkien's drawings was held at the Ashmolean Museum; these included works from The Hobbit, Lord of the Rings, The Father Christmas Letters. The first edition was by Allen and Unwin on 2 September three years after Tolkien's death; the Houghton Mifflin edition was released that year on 19 October. It was the third work by Tolkien to be released posthumously, after a collection of poems and the Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings. Edited by Baillie Tolkien, the second wife of Christopher Tolkien, it includes illustrations by Tolkien for nearly all the letters; when the book was republished in 1999 it was retitled Letters from Father Christmas and several letters and drawings not contained in the original edition were added.
One edition in 1995 featured the letters and drawings contained in individual envelopes to be read in the manner they were conceived to be. The reception to the first two works published posthumously had been warm, subsequently thought to be due to Tolkien's recent death; the response to The Father Christmas Letters was much more balanced. Jessica Kemball-Cook suggested in her book Twentieth Century Children's Writers that it would become known as a classic of children's literature, while Nancy Willard for The New York Times Book Review received the book positively, saying "Father Christmas lives, and never more merrily than in these pages." In 2002, an article in The Independent on Sunday described the work as rivalling "The Lord of the Rings for sheer imaginative joy". Paul H. Kocher, whilst writing for the journal Mythprint, suggested that the creatures in The Father Christmas Letters may have been a precursor to those which appeared in Tolkien's works such as the Lord of the Rings, a view, shared by Laurence and Martha Krieg in a review in the journal Mythlore.
For example, the 1933 letter features an attack on Polar Bear by a band of goblins. The Kriegs suggested; the Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, authored by L. Frank Baum, author of the first 14 Oz books Sources
Book of Joel
The Book of Joel is part of the Hebrew Bible, one of twelve prophetic books known as the Twelve Minor Prophets. After a superscription ascribing the prophecy to Joel, the book may be broken down into the following sections: Lament over a great locust plague and a severe drought; the effects of these events on agriculture, on the supply of agricultural offerings for the Temple in Jerusalem, interspersed with a call to national lament. A more apocalyptic passage comparing the locusts to an army, revealing that they are God's army. A call to national repentance in the face of God's judgment. Promise of future blessings. Banishment of the locusts and restoration of agricultural productivity as a divine response to national penitence. Future prophetic gifts to all God's people, the safety of God's people in the face of cosmic cataclysm. Coming judgment on God's enemies and the vindication of Israel; the Book of Joel's division into chapters and verses differs between editions of the Bible. Translations with four chapters include: Jewish Publication Society's version of the Hebrew Bible Jerusalem Bible New American Bible Complete Jewish Bible Tree of Life Version In the 1611 King James Bible, the Book of Joel is formed by three chapters: the second one has 32 verses, it is equivalent to the union of the chapter 2 and chapter 3 of other editions of the Bible.
The differences of the division is as follows: As there are no explicit references in the book to datable persons or events, scholars have assigned a wide range of dates to the book. The main positions are: Ninth century BC in the reign of Joash – a position popular among nineteenth-century scholars Early eighth century BC, during the reign of Uzziah c. 630–587 BC, in the last decades of the kingdom of Judah c. 520–500 BC, contemporary with the return of the exiles and the careers of Zechariah and Haggai. The decades around 400 BC, during the Persian period Evidence produced for these positions are allusions in the book to the wider world, similarities with other prophets, linguistic details; some commentators, such as John Calvin, attach no great importance to the precise dating. The Masoretic text places Joel between Hosea and Amos, while the Septuagint order is Hosea–Amos–Micah–Joel–Obadiah–Jonah; the Hebrew text of Joel seems to have suffered little from scribal transmission, but is at a few points supplemented by the Septuagint and Vulgate versions, or by conjectural emendation.
While the book purports to describe a plague of locusts, some ancient Jewish opinion saw the locusts as allegorical interpretations of Israel's enemies. This allegorical interpretation was applied to the church by many church fathers. Calvin took a literal interpretation of chapter 1, but allegorical view of chapter 2, a position echoed by some modern interpreters. Most modern interpreters, see Joel speaking of a literal locust plague given a prophetic/ apocalyptic interpretation; the traditional ascription of the whole book to the prophet Joel was challenged in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by a theory of a three-stage process of composition: 1:1–2:27 were from the hand of Joel, dealt with a contemporary issue. Mentions in the first half of the book to the day of the Lord were ascribed to this continuator. 3:4–8/4:4–8 could be seen as later. Details of exact ascriptions differed between scholars; this splitting of the book's composition began to be challenged in the mid-twentieth century, with scholars defending the unity of the book, the plausibility of the prophet combining a contemporary and apocalyptic outlook, additions by the prophet.
The authenticity of 3:4–8 has presented more challenges, although a number of scholars still defend it. There are many parallels of language between other Old Testament prophets, they may represent Joel's literary use of other prophets, or vice versa. In the New Testament, his prophecy of the outpouring of God's Holy Spirit upon all people was notably quoted by Saint Peter in his Pentecost sermon; the table below represents some of the more explicit quotes and allusions between specific passages in Joel and passages from the Old and New Testaments. Plange quasi virgo, the third responsory for Holy Saturday, is loosely based on verses from the Book of Joel: the title comes from Joel 1:8. See works on the Minor Prophets as a whole. Achtemeier, Elizabeth. Minor Prophets I. New International Biblical Commentary. Ahlström, Gösta W. Joel and the Temple Cult of Jerusalem. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 21. Allen, Leslie C; the Books of Joel, Jonah & Micah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament.
Anders, Max E. & Butler, Trent C. Hosea–Micah. Holman Old Testament Commentary. Assis, Elie. Joel: A Prophet Between Calamity and Hope, New York: Bloomsbury, 2013 Baker, David W. Joel, Malachi. NIV Application Commentary. Barton, John. Joel & Obadiah: a Commentary. Old Testament Library. Birch, Bruce C. Hosea, Joel & Amos
The Tolkien Reader
The Tolkien Reader is an anthology of works by J. R. R. Tolkien, it includes a variety of poems, a play and some non-fiction by Tolkien. It compiles material published as three separate shorter books together with one additional piece and introductory material, it was published in 1966 by Ballantine Books in the USA. "Publisher's Note" "Tolkien's Magic Ring", by Peter S. Beagle "The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son" Tree and Leaf "On Fairy-Stories" "Leaf by Niggle" Farmer Giles of Ham The Adventures of Tom Bombadil "The Adventures of Tom Bombadil" "Bombadil Goes Boating" "Errantry" "Princess Mee" "The Man in the Moon Stayed Up Too Late" "The Man in the Moon Came Down Too Soon" "The Stone Troll" "Perry-the-Winkle" "The Mewlips" "Oliphaunt" "Fastitocalon" "Cat" "Shadow-bride" "The Hoard" "The Sea-Bell" "The Last Ship" Poems and Stories Tales from the Perilous Realm, a similar collection, containing a different collection of material
The Fall of Arthur
The Fall of Arthur is the title of an unfinished poem by J. R. R. Tolkien, concerned with the legend of King Arthur. A first posthumous edition of the poem was published by HarperCollins in May 2013; the poem is alliterative, extending to nearly 1,000 verses imitating the Old English Beowulf metre in Modern English, inspired by high medieval Arthurian fiction. The historical setting of the poem is early medieval, both in form and in content, showing Arthur as a Migration period British military leader fighting the Saxon invasion. At the same time, it avoids the high medieval aspects of the Arthurian cycle, such as the Grail and the courtly setting; the poem begins with a British "counter-invasion" to the Saxon lands. Tolkien wrote the poem during the earlier part of the 1930s when he was Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Pembroke College, Oxford, he abandoned it at some point after 1934, most in 1937 when he was occupied with preparing The Hobbit for publication. Its composition thus dates to shortly after The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun, a poem of 508 lines modelled on the Breton lay genre.
The poem had been abandoned for nearly 20 years in 1955, the publication was complete of The Lord of the Rings when Tolkien expressed his wish to return to his "long poem" and complete it. But it remained unfinished, nonetheless; the existence of the poem was known publicly since the Tolkien biography by Humphrey Carpenter, published in 1977. Carpenter noted. In his own Arthurian poem did not touch on the Grail but began an individual rendering of the Morte d'Arthur, in which the king and Gawain go to war in'Saxon lands' but are summoned home by news of Mordred's treachery; the poem was never finished, but it was read and approved by E. V. Gordon, by R. W. Chambers, Professor of English at London University, who considered it to be'great stuff – heroic, quite apart from its value as showing how the Beowulf metre can be used in modern English'."Carpenter cited a passage from the text of the poem, to make the point that it is one of the few instances in Tolkien's expansive work where sexual passion is given explicit literary treatment, in this case Mordred's "unsated passion" for Guinever: After Tolkien's death, his Arthurian poem would come to be one of the longest-awaited unedited works of his.
According to John D. Rateliff, Rayner Unwin had announced plans to edit the poem as early as 1985, but the edition was postponed in favour of "more pressing projects", answering the demand for background on Tolkien's legendarium more than his literary production in other areas; the Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún Verlyn Flieger, "Arthurian Romance" in: J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. "The Fall of Arthur". Tolkien Gateway. Ruth Lacon, On The Fall of Arthur: Pre-Publication Speculation By a Longtime Student 20 March 2013 Tolkien's handwriting scans 20 December 2009 The Fountain Pen Network
The Story of Kullervo
The Story of Kullervo is a prose version of the Kullervo cycle in the Karelian and Finnish epic poem Kalevala, written by J. R. R. Tolkien when he was an undergraduate at Exeter College, from 1914 to 1915; that was an unsettled period for the author and this is thought to be reflected in the story's dark subject matter. It marks "the first time that J. R. R. Tolkien, a poet until began writing prose". Known as a source for Túrin Turambar, "The Story of Kullervo" was the centre of Tolkien's efforts in 1914, as he was "trying to turn one of the stories —, a great story and most tragic – into a short story"; as well as Tolkien's treatment of the Kullervo cycle, the book contains three essays: two by Tolkien from the same period and the third by Flieger – the two essays by Tolkien are accompanied by notes and commentary by the editor. The first of Tolkien's essays was written in 1914 and was delivered as a talk to the Corpus Christi College'Sundial' club at Oxford in November 1914 and again at the Exeter College Essay Club in February 1915.
Flieger suggests a date of circa 1919 for the revised essay, though she notes Scull & Hammond's estimation to be 1921-24. The main parts of the book are: The Story of Kullervo Notes and commentary On'The Kalevela' or Land of Heroes Notes and commentary The Kalevela Notes and commentary Tolkien, The Kalevela, and'The Story of Kullervo' by Verlyn FliegerThe Story of Kullervo was edited by Verlyn Flieger, published in 2010 in Tolkien Studies, republished in book form in August 2015 by HarperCollins. Citations Works citedCarpenter, Humphrey, ed; the Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-31555-7