Hermes Trismegistus is the purported author of the Hermetic Corpus, a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism. Hermes Trismegistus may be associated with the Egyptian god Thoth. Greeks in the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt recognized the equivalence of Hermes and Thoth through the interpretatio graeca; the two gods were worshiped as one, in what had been the Temple of Thoth in Khemenu, known in the Hellenistic period as Hermopolis. Hermes, the Greek god of interpretive communication, was combined with Thoth, the Egyptian god of wisdom; the Egyptian priest and polymath Imhotep had been deified long after his death and therefore assimilated to Thoth in the classical and Hellenistic periods. The renowned scribe Amenhotep and a wise man named Teôs were coequal deities of wisdom and medicine. A Mycenaean Greek reference to a deity or semi-deity called ti-ri-se-ro-e was found on two Linear B clay tablets at Pylos and could be connected to the epithet "thrice great", applied to Hermes/Thoth.
On the aforementioned PY Tn 316 tablet—as well as other Linear B tablets found in Pylos and Thebes—there appears the name of the deity "Hermes" as e-ma-ha, but not in any apparent connection with the "Trisheros". This interpretation of poorly understood Mycenaean material is disputed, since Hermes Trismegistus is not referenced in any of the copious sources before he emerges in Hellenistic Egypt. Cicero enumerates several deities referred to as "Hermes": a "fourth Mercury was the son of the Nile, whose name may not be spoken by the Egyptians"; the most interpretation of this passage is as two variants on the same syncretism of Greek Hermes and Egyptian Thoth: the fourth being viewed from the Egyptian perspective, the fifth being viewed from the Greek-Arcadian perspective. Both of these early references in Cicero corroborate the view that Thrice-Great Hermes originated in Hellenistic Egypt through syncretism between Greek and Egyptian gods; the Hermetic literature among the Egyptians, concerned with conjuring spirits and animating statues, inform the oldest Hellenistic writings on Greco-Babylonian astrology and on the newly developed practice of alchemy.
In a parallel tradition, Hermetic philosophy rationalized and systematized religious cult practices and offered the adept a means of personal ascension from the constraints of physical being. This latter tradition has led to the confusion of Hermeticism with Gnosticism, developing contemporaneously; as a divine source of wisdom, Hermes Trismegistus was credited with tens of thousands of esteemed writings, which were reputed to be of immense antiquity. Clement of Alexandria was under the impression that the Egyptians had forty-two sacred writings by Hermes, writings that detailed the training of Egyptian priests. Siegfried Morenz has suggested, in Egyptian Religion: "The reference to Thoth's authorship... is based on ancient tradition. The neoplatonic writers took up Clement's "forty-two essential texts"; the Hermetica is a category of papyri containing spells and initiatory induction procedures. The dialogue called the Asclepius describes the art of imprisoning the souls of demons or of angels in statues with the help of herbs and odors, so that the statue could speak and engage in prophecy.
In other papyri, there are recipes for constructing such images and animating them, such as when images are to be fashioned hollow so as to enclose a magic name inscribed on gold leaf. Fowden asserts that the first datable occurrences of the epithet "thrice great" are in the Legatio of Athenagoras of Athens and in a fragment from Philo of Byblos, circa AD 64–141. However, in a work, Copenhaver reports that this epithet is first found in the minutes of a meeting of the council of the Ibis cult, held in 172 BC near Memphis in Egypt. Hart explains that the epithet is derived from an epithet of Thoth found at the Temple of Esna, "Thoth the great, the great, the great." The date of Hermes Trismegistus's sojourn in Egypt during his last incarnation is not now known, but it has been fixed at the early days of the oldest dynasties of Egypt, long before the days of Moses. Some authorities regard him as a contemporary of Abraham, claim that Abraham acquired a portion of his mystical knowledge from Hermes himself.
Many Christian writers, including Lactantius, Giordano Bruno, Marsilio Ficino and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, considered Hermes Trismegistus to be a wise pagan prophet who foresaw the coming of Christianity. They believed in the existence of a prisca theologia, a single, true theology that threads through all religions, it was given by God to man in antiquity and passed through a series of prophets, which included Zoroaster and Plato. In order to demonstrate the verity of the prisca theologia, Christians appropriated the Hermetic teachings for their ow
Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, affiliated with Columbia University. It is directed by Jennifer Crewe and publishes titles in the humanities and sciences, including the fields of literary and cultural studies, social work, religion and international studies. Founded in 1893, Columbia University Press is notable for publishing reference works, such as The Columbia Encyclopedia, The Columbia Granger's Index to Poetry and The Columbia Gazetteer of the World and for publishing music. First among American university presses to publish in electronic formats, in 1998 the Press founded an online-only site, Columbia International Affairs Online and Columbia Earthscape. In 2011, Columbia University Press bought UK publisher Wallflower Press. Official website Columbia Earthscape Columbia International Affairs Online Columbia Granger's World of Poetry Columbia Gazetteer of the World
The earliest reliably documented mention of the spherical Earth concept dates from around the 6th century BC when it appeared in ancient Greek philosophy, but remained a matter of speculation until the 3rd century BC, when Hellenistic astronomy established the spherical shape of the Earth as a physical given and calculated Earth's circumference. The paradigm was adopted throughout the Old World during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. A practical demonstration of Earth's sphericity was achieved by Ferdinand Magellan and Juan Sebastián Elcano's expedition's circumnavigation; the concept of a spherical Earth displaced earlier beliefs in a flat Earth: In early Mesopotamian mythology, the world was portrayed as a flat disk floating in the ocean with a hemispherical sky-dome above, this forms the premise for early world maps like those of Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus. Other speculations on the shape of Earth include a seven-layered ziggurat or cosmic mountain, alluded to in the Avesta and ancient Persian writings.
The realization that the figure of the Earth is more described as an ellipsoid dates to the 17th century, as described by Isaac Newton in Principia. In the early 19th century, the flattening of the earth ellipsoid was determined to be of the order of 1/300; the modern value as determined by the US DoD World Geodetic System since the 1960s is close to 1/298.25. The Earth is massive enough that gravity maintains it as a spherical shape, its formation into a sphere was made easy by its primordial liquid phase. The Solar System formed from a dust cloud, at least the remnant of one or more supernovas that created heavy elements by nucleosynthesis. Grains of matter accreted through electrostatic interaction; as they grew in mass, gravity took over in gathering yet more mass, releasing the potential energy of their collisions and in-falling as heat. The protoplanetary disk had a greater proportion of radioactive elements than the Earth today because, over time, those elements decayed, their decay heated the early Earth further, continue to contribute to Earth's internal heat budget.
The early Earth was thus liquid. A sphere is the only stable shape for a gravitationally self-attracting liquid; the outward acceleration caused by the Earth's rotation is greater at the equator than at the poles, so the sphere gets deformed into an ellipsoid, which represents the shape having the lowest potential energy for a rotating, fluid body. This ellipsoid is fatter around the equator than a perfect sphere would be. Earth's shape is slightly lumpy because it is composed of different materials of different densities that exert different amounts of gravitational force per volume; the liquidity of a hot, newly formed planet allows heavier elements to sink down to the middle and forces lighter elements closer to the surface, a process known as planetary differentiation. This event is known as the iron catastrophe. Though the surface rocks of the Earth have cooled enough to solidify, the outer core of the planet is still hot enough to remain liquid. Energy is still being released. Meteors create impact craters and surrounding ridges.
However, if the energy release ceases from these processes they tend to erode away over time and return toward the lowest potential-energy curve of the ellipsoid. Weather powered by solar energy can move water and soil to make the Earth out of round. Earth undulates as the shape of its lowest potential energy changes daily due to the gravity of the Sun and Moon as they move around with respect to the Earth; this is what causes tides in the oceans' water, which can flow along the changing potential. The IAU definitions of planet and dwarf planet require that a Sun-orbiting body has undergone the rounding process to reach a spherical shape, an achievement known as hydrostatic equilibrium; the same spheroidal shape can be seen from smaller rocky planets like Mars to gas giants like Jupiter. Any natural Sun-orbiting body that has not reached hydrostatic equilibrium is classified by the IAU as a small Solar System body; these come in many non-spherical shapes which are lumpy masses accreted haphazardly by in-falling dust and rock.
Some SSSBs are just collections of small rocks that are weakly held next to each other by gravity but are not fused into a single big bedrock. Some larger SSSBs have not reached hydrostatic equilibrium; the small Solar System body 4 Vesta is large enough to have undergone at least partial planetary differentiation. Stars like the Sun are spheroidal due to gravity's effects on their plasma, a free-flowing fluid. Ongoing stellar fusion is a much greater source of heat for stars compared to the initial heat released during formation; the spherical shape of the Earth can be confirmed by many different types of observation from ground level and spacecraft. The shape causes a number of phenomena; some of these phenomena and observations would be possible on other shapes, such as a curved disc or torus, but no other shape would explain all of them. Many pictures have been taken of the entire Earth by satellites launched by a variety of governments and private organizations. From high orbits, where half the planet can be seen at once, it is plainly spherical.
The only way to piece together all the pictures taken of the ground from lower orbits so that a
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the name for each instance of that project; the project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, translations. Conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, it has expanded to become a general-content library; the project began in November 24, 2003 under the name Project Sourceberg, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg. The name Wikisource was adopted that year and it received its own domain name seven months later; the project holds works that are either in the public domain or licensed. Verification was made offline, or by trusting the reliability of other digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, which ensures the reliability and accuracy of the project's texts; some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.
While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, from comics to film to audio books. Some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question; the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. Wikisource's early history included several changes of name and location, the move to language subdomains in 2005; the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing primary evidence and original source texts, as an archive in its own right; the collection was focused on important historical and cultural material, distinguishing it from other digital archives such as Project Gutenberg. The project was called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages. In 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion.
Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this. In describing the proposed project, user The Cunctator said, "It would be to Project Gutenberg what Wikipedia is to Nupedia," soon clarifying the statement with "we don't want to try to duplicate Project Gutenberg's efforts. Project Sourceberg can work as an interface for linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, as an interface for people to submit new work to PG." Initial comments were sceptical, with Larry Sanger questioning the need for the project, writing "The hard question, I guess, is why we are reinventing the wheel, when Project Gutenberg exists? We'd want to complement Project Gutenberg--how, exactly?", Jimmy Wales adding "like Larry, I'm interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, whatever we want it to be."The project began its activity at ps.wikipedia.org.
The contributors understood the "PS" subdomain to mean either "primary sources" or Project Sourceberg. However, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. Project Sourceberg launched on November 24, 2003 when it received its own temporary URL, at sources.wikipedia.org, all texts and discussions hosted on ps.wikipedia.org were moved to the temporary address. A vote on the project's name changed it to Wikisource on December 6, 2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23, 2004. Since Wikisource was called "Project Sourceberg", its first logo was a picture of an iceberg. Two votes conducted to choose a successor were inconclusive, the original logo remained until 2006. For both legal and technical reasons – because the picture's license was inappropriate for a Wikimedia Foundation logo and because a photo cannot scale properly – a stylized vector iceberg inspired by the original picture was mandated to serve as the project's logo.
The first prominent use of Wikisource's slogan — The Free Library — was at the project's multilingual portal, when it was redesigned based upon the Wikipedia portal on August 27, 2005. As in the Wikipedia portal the Wikisource slogan appears around the logo in the project's ten largest languages. Clicking on the portal's central images links to a list of translations for Wikisource and The Free Library in 60 languages. A MediaWiki extension called ProofreadPage was developed for Wikisource by developer ThomasV to improve the vetting of transcriptions by the project; this displays pages of scanned works side-by-side with the text relating to that page, allowing the text to be proofread and its accuracy verified independently by any other editor. Once a book, or other text, has been scanned, the raw images can be modified with image processing software to correct for page rotations and other problems; the retouched images can be converted into a PDF or DjVu file and uploaded to either Wikis
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus of the Polish Renaissance. The book, first printed in 1543 in Nuremberg, Holy Roman Empire, offered an alternative model of the universe to Ptolemy's geocentric system, accepted since ancient times. Copernicus outlined his system in a short, anonymous manuscript that he distributed to several friends, referred to as the Commentariolus. A physician's library list dating to 1514 includes a manuscript whose description matches the Commentariolus, so Copernicus must have begun work on his new system by that time. Most historians believe that he wrote the Commentariolus after his return from Italy only after 1510. At this time, Copernicus anticipated that he could reconcile the motion of the Earth with the perceived motions of the planets with fewer motions than were necessary in the Alfonsine Tables, the version of the Ptolemaic system current at the time. In particular, the heliocentric Copernican model made use of the Urdi Lemma developed in the 13th century by Mu'ayyad al-Din al-'Urdi, the first of the Maragha astronomers to develop a non-Ptolemaic model of planetary motion.
Observations of Mercury by Bernhard Walther of Nuremberg, a pupil of Regiomontanus, were made available to Copernicus by Johannes Schöner, 45 observations in total, 14 of them with longitude and latitude. Copernicus used three of them in De revolutionibus, giving only longitudes, erroneously attributing them to Schöner. Copernicus' values differed from the ones published by Schöner in 1544 in Observationes XXX annorum a I. Regiomontano et B. Walthero Norimbergae habitae. A manuscript of De revolutionibus in Copernicus' own hand has survived. After his death, it was given to his pupil, who for publication had only been given a copy without annotations. Via Heidelberg, it ended up in Prague, where it was studied in the 19th century. Close examination of the manuscript, including the different types of paper used, helped scholars construct an approximate timetable for its composition. Copernicus began by making a few astronomical observations to provide new data to perfect his models, he may have begun writing the book.
By the 1530s a substantial part of the book was complete. In 1539 Georg Joachim Rheticus, a young mathematician from Wittenberg, arrived in Frauenburg to study with him. Rheticus read Copernicus' manuscript and wrote a non-technical summary of its main theories in the form of an open letter addressed to Schöner, his astrology teacher in Nürnberg. Rheticus' friend and mentor Achilles Gasser published a second edition of the Narratio in Basel in 1541. Due to its friendly reception, Copernicus agreed to publication of more of his main work—in 1542, a treatise on trigonometry, taken from the second book of the still unpublished De revolutionibus. Rheticus published it in Copernicus' name. Under strong pressure from Rheticus, having seen that the first general reception of his work had not been unfavorable, Copernicus agreed to give the book to his close friend, Bishop Tiedemann Giese, to be delivered to Rheticus in Wittenberg for printing by Johannes Petreius at Nürnberg, it was published just before Copernicus' death, in 1543.
The book is dedicated to Pope Paul III in a preface that argues that mathematics, not physics, should be the basis for understanding and accepting his new theory. De revolutionibus is divided into six "books", following the layout of Ptolemy's Almagest which it updated and replaced: Book I chapters 1–11 are a general vision of the heliocentric theory, a summarized exposition of his cosmology; the world is spherical, as is the Earth, the land and water make a single globe. The celestial bodies, including the Earth, have regular everlasting movements; the Earth rotates around the Sun. Answers to why the ancients thought the Earth was central; the order of the planets around the Sun and their periodicity. Chapters 12-14 give theorems for chord geometry as well as a table of chords. Book II describes the principles of spherical astronomy as a basis for the arguments developed in the following books and gives a comprehensive catalogue of the fixed stars. Book III describes his work on the precession of the equinoxes and treats the apparent movements of the Sun and related phenomena.
Book IV is a similar description of its orbital movements. Book V explains how to calculate the positions of the wandering stars based on the heliocentric model and gives tables for the five planets. Book VI deals with the digression in latitude from the ecliptic of the five planets. Copernicus argued; the outermost consisted of fixed stars, with the Sun motionless at the center. The known planets revolved about the Sun, each in its own sphere, in the order: Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn; the Moon, revolved in its sphere around the Earth. What appeared to be the daily revolution of the Sun and fixed stars around the Earth was the Earth's daily rotation on its own axis. Copernicus adhered to one of the standard beliefs of his time, namely that the motions of celestial bodies must be composed of uniform circular motions. For this reason, he was unable to account for the observed apparent motion of the planets without retaining a complex system of epicycles similar to those of the Ptolemaic system.