United States Department of Labor
The United States Department of Labor is a cabinet-level department of the U. S. federal government responsible for occupational safety and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, some economic statistics. S. states have such departments. The department is headed by the U. S. Secretary of Labor; the purpose of the Department of Labor is to foster and develop the wellbeing of the wage earners, job seekers, retirees of the United States. In carrying out this mission, the Department of Labor administers and enforces more than 180 federal laws and thousands of federal regulations; these mandates and the regulations that implement them cover many workplace activities for about 10 million employers and 125 million workers. The department's headquarters is housed in the Frances Perkins Building, named in honor of Frances Perkins, the Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945. In 1884 the U. S. Congress first established a Bureau of Labor Statistics with the Bureau of Labor Act, to collect information about labor and employment.
This bureau was under the Department of the Interior. The Bureau started collecting economic data in 1884, published their first report in 1886. In 1888, the Bureau of Labor became an independent Department of Labor, but lacked executive rank. In February 1903, it became a bureau again when the Department of Commerce and Labor was established. United States President William Howard Taft signed the March 4, 1913 bill, establishing the Department of Labor as a cabinet-level department. William B. Wilson was appointed as the first Secretary of Labor on March 5, 1913, by President Wilson. In October 1919, Secretary Wilson chaired the first meeting of the International Labour Organization though the U. S. was not yet a member. In September 1916, the Federal Employees' Compensation Act introduced benefits to workers who are injured or contract illnesses in the workplace; the act established an agency responsible for federal workers’ compensation, transferred to the Labor Department in the 1940s and has become known as the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs.
Frances Perkins, the first female cabinet member, was appointed to be Secretary of Labor by President Roosevelt on March 4, 1933. Perkins served for 12 years, became the longest-serving Secretary of Labor. During the John F. Kennedy Administration, planning was undertaken to consolidate most of the department's offices scattered around more than 20 locations. In the mid‑1960s construction on the "New Labor Building" began and finished in 1975. In 1980 it was named in honor of Frances Perkins. President Lyndon Johnson asked Congress to consider the idea of reuniting Labor, he argued that the two departments had similar goals and that they would have more efficient channels of communication in a single department. However, Congress never acted on it. In the 1970s, following the civil rights movement, the Labor Department under Secretary George P. Shultz made a concerted effort to promote racial diversity in unions. In 1978, the Department of Labor created the Philip Arnow Award, intended to recognize outstanding career employees such as the eponymous Philip Arnow.
During 2010 a local of the American Federation of Government Employees stated their unhappiness that a longstanding flextime program reduced under the George W. Bush administration had not been restored under the Obama administration. Department officials said the program was modern and fair and that it was part of ongoing contract negotiations with the local. In August 2010, the Partnership for Public Service ranked the Department of Labor 23rd out of 31 large agencies in its annual "Best Places to Work in the Federal Government" list. In December 2010, then-Department of Labor Secretary Hilda Solis was named the Chair of the U. S. Interagency Council on Homelessness, of which Labor has been a member since its beginnings in 1987. In July 2011, the department was rocked by the resignation of Ray Jefferson, Assistant Secretary for VETS, in a contracting scandal. In March 2013, the department began commemorating its centennial. In July 2013, Tom Perez was confirmed as Secretary of Labor. According to remarks by Perez at his swearing-in ceremony, "Boiled down to its essence, the Department of Labor is the department of opportunity."
In the latest Center for Effective Government analysis of 15 federal agencies which receive the most Freedom of Information Act requests, published in 2015, the Labor Department earned a D by scoring 63 out of a possible 100 points, i.e. did not earn a satisfactory overall grade. Title 20 of the Code of Federal Regulations Equal Employment Opportunity Commission National Labor Relations Board Occupational Information Network Ticket to Work USA.gov USAFacts Lombardi, John. Labor's Voice in the Cabinet: A History of the Department of Labor from Its Origins to 1921. New York: Columbia University Press. Official website U. S. Department of Labor in the Federal Register
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office. When term limits are found in presidential and semi-presidential systems they act as a method of curbing the potential for monopoly, where a leader becomes "president for life"; this is intended to protect a democracy from becoming a de facto dictatorship. Sometimes, there is an lifetime limit on the number of terms an officeholder may serve. Term limits have a long history. Ancient Athens and Ancient Rome, two early classic republics, had term limits imposed on their elected offices as did the city-state of Venice. In ancient Athenian democracy, only offices selected by sortition were subject to term limits. Elected offices were all subject to possible re-election, although they were minoritarian, these positions were more prestigious and those requiring the most experience, such as military generals and the superintendent of springs. In the Roman Republic, a law was passed imposing a limit of a single term on the office of censor.
The annual magistrates—tribune of the plebs, quaestor and consul—were forbidden reelection until a number of years had passed.. There was a term limit of 6 months for a dictator. Many modern presidential republics employ term limits for their highest offices; the United States placed a limit of two terms on its presidency by means of the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1951. There are no term limits for Vice Presidency and Senators, although there have been calls for term limits for those offices. Under various state laws, some state governors and state legislators have term limits. Formal limits in America date back to the 1682 Pennsylvania Charter of Liberties, the colonial frame of government of the same year, authored by William Penn and providing for triennial rotation of the provincial council, the upper house of the colonial legislature.. The Russian Federation has a rule for the head of state that allows the President of Russia to serve more than two terms if not consecutive. For governors of federal subjects, the same two-term limit existed until 2004, but now there are no term limits for governors.
Term limits are common in Latin America, where most countries are presidential republics. Early in the last century, the Mexican revolutionary Francisco Madero popularized the slogan Sufragio Efectivo, no Reelección. In keeping with that principle, members of the Congress of Mexico cannot be reelected for the next immediate term under article 50 and 59 of the Constitution of Mexico, adopted in 1917; the President of Mexico is limited to a single six-year term. This makes every presidential election in Mexico a non-incumbent election. Countries that operate a parliamentary system of government are less to employ term limits on their leaders; this is because such leaders have a set "term" at all: rather, they serve as long as they have the confidence of the parliament, a period which could last for life. Many parliaments can be dissolved for snap elections which means some parliaments can last for mere months while others can continue until their expiration dates; such countries may impose term limits on the holders of other offices—in republics, for example, a ceremonial presidency may have a term limit if the office holds reserve powers.
Term limits may be divided into two broad categories: lifetime. With consecutive term limits, an officeholder is limited to serving a particular number of terms in that particular office. Upon hitting the limit in one office, an officeholder may not run for the same office again. After a set period of time, the clock resets on the limit, the officeholder may run for election to his/her original office and serve up to the limit again. With lifetime limits, once an officeholder has served up to the limit, he/she may never again run for election to that office. Lifetime limits are much more restrictive than consecutive limits. Term limits in the United States Term of office List of political term limits Reelection Real Term Limits: Now More Than Ever, an article by Doug Bandow in favor of term limits Legislative Term Limits: An Overview at the Library of Congress Web Archives, term limits information from the National Conference of State Legislatures
Michael Rubens Bloomberg KBE is an American businessman, politician and philanthropist. As of March 2019, his net worth was estimated at $55.5 billion, making him the 8th-richest person in the United States and the 9th richest person in the world. He has joined The Giving Pledge, whereby billionaires pledge to give away at least half of their wealth. To date, Bloomberg has given away $8.2 billion, including his November 2018 $1.8 billion gift to Johns Hopkins University for student aid — the largest private donation made to a higher education institution. Bloomberg is one of the founders, CEO, owner of Bloomberg L. P. a global financial services and mass media company that bears his name, is notable for its Bloomberg Terminal, a computer software system providing financial data used in the global financial services industry. He began his career at the securities brokerage Salomon Brothers, before forming his own company in 1981 and spending the next twenty years as its chairman and CEO. Bloomberg served as chair of the board of trustees at his alma mater, Johns Hopkins University, from 1996 to 2002.
Bloomberg served as the 108th Mayor of New York City, holding office for three consecutive terms, beginning his first in 2001. A Democrat before seeking elective office, Bloomberg switched his party registration in 2001 to run for mayor as a Republican, he defeated opponent Mark Green in a close election held just weeks after the September 11 terrorist attacks. He won a second term in 2005, left the Republican Party two years later. Bloomberg campaigned to change the city's term limits law, was elected to his third term in 2009 as an Independent on the Republican ballot line. Bloomberg was mentioned as a possible centrist candidate for the U. S. Presidential elections in 2008, 2012, as well as for Governor of New York in 2010, he declined opting to continue serving as the mayor of New York City. His final term as mayor ended on January 1, 2014. After a brief stint as a full-time philanthropist, Bloomberg re-assumed the position of CEO at Bloomberg L. P. by the end of 2014. On March 7, 2016, Bloomberg announced that he would not run as a third party candidate in the 2016 U.
S. presidential election despite widespread speculation that he would, endorsed Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton for president. In October 2018, Bloomberg announced that he had changed his political party affiliation to Democratic, which he had been registered as prior to 2001. Michael Bloomberg was born at St. Elizabeth's Hospital, in the Brighton neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts on February 14, 1942. Bloomberg's family is Jewish. Bloomberg is a prominent member of the Emanu-El Temple in Manhattan. Bloomberg's father, William Henry Bloomberg, was born in Chelsea and worked as an accountant for a dairy company, he was the son of an immigrant from Russia. The Bloomberg Center at the Harvard Business School was named in William Henry's honor, his mother, Charlotte Bloomberg was a native of New Jersey. Bloomberg's maternal grandfather, Max Rubens, was an immigrant from; the family lived in Allston until Bloomberg was two years old, when they moved to Brookline for the next two years settling in the Boston suburb of Medford, where he lived until after he graduated from college.
Bloomberg is an Eagle Scout. Bloomberg attended Johns Hopkins University, where he joined the fraternity Phi Kappa Psi. In 1962, as a sophomore, he constructed the school mascot's costume, he graduated in 1964 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. In 1966 he graduated from Harvard Business School with a Master of Business Administration. In 1973, Bloomberg became a general partner at Salomon Brothers, a bulge-bracket Wall Street investment bank, where he headed equity trading and systems development. In 1981, Salomon Brothers was bought by Phibro Corporation, Bloomberg was laid off from the investment bank, he owned $10 million worth of equity as a partner at the firm. Using this money, Bloomberg went on to set up a company named Innovative Market Systems, his business plan was based on the realization that Wall Street was willing to pay for high-quality business information, delivered as as possible and in as many usable forms possible, via technology. In 1982, Merrill Lynch became the new company's first customer, installing 22 of the company's Market Master terminals and investing $30 million in the company.
The company was renamed Bloomberg L. P. in 1987. By 1990, it had installed 8,000 terminals. Over the years, ancillary products including Bloomberg News, Bloomberg Message, Bloomberg Tradebook were launched; as of October 2015, the company had more than 325,000 terminal subscribers worldwide. His company has a radio network which has 1130 WBBR AM in New York City as its flagship station, he left the position of CEO to pursue a political career as the mayor of New York City. Bloomberg was replaced as CEO by Lex Fenwick. During Bloomberg's three mayoral terms, the company was led by president Daniel L. Doctoroff, a former deputy mayor under Bloomberg. After completing his final term as the mayor of New York City, Bloomberg spent his first eight months out of office as a full-time philanthropist. In fall 2014, he announced that he would return to Bloomberg L. P. as CEO at the end of 2014, succeeding Doctoroff, who had led the company since retiring from the Bloomberg administration in February 2008. Bloomberg remains the CEO of Bloomberg L.
P. Bloomberg is a member of Kap
St. John's University (New York City)
St. John's University is a private Catholic university in New York City. Founded and run by the Congregation of the Mission in 1870, the school was located in the neighborhood of Bedford–Stuyvesant in the borough of Brooklyn. In the 1950s, the school was relocated to its current site at Utopia Parkway in Queens. St. John's has campuses in Staten Island and Manhattan in New York City and overseas in Rome, Italy. In addition, the university has a Long Island Graduate Center in Hauppauge, along with academic locations in Paris and Limerick, Ireland; the university is named after Saint John the Baptist. St. John's is organized into six graduate schools. In 2016, the university had 4,647 graduate students. St. John's offers more than 100 bachelor and doctoral degree programs as well as professional certificates. St. John's University was founded in 1870, by the Vincentian Fathers of the Roman Catholic Church in response to an invitation by the first Bishop of Brooklyn, John Loughlin, to provide the underprivileged youth of the city with an intellectual and moral education.
St. John's Vincentian values stem from the ideals and works of St Vincent de Paul, the patron saint of Christian charity. Following the Vincentian tradition, the university seeks to provide an education that encourages greater involvement in social justice and service; the Vincentian Center for Church and Society, located on the university's Queens campus serves as "a clearinghouse for and developer of Vincentian information, poverty research, social justice resources, as an academic/cultural programming Center."The English translation of the Greek on the original seal of the University is "a lamp burning and shining" or "a lamp shining brightly" a reference to St. John the Baptist. St. John's University was founded as the College of St. John the Baptist at 75 Lewis Avenue, in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn. Ground was broken for St. John's College Hall, the university's first building, on May 28, 1868; the cornerstone was laid on July 25, 1869. The building was opened for educational purposes on September 5, 1870.
Beginning with the law school in 1925, St. John's started founding other schools and it became a university in 1933. In April 1936, St. John's bought the Hillcrest Golf Club's 100 acres of land for about $500,000, with the intention of moving the school to the new site. Under the terms of the sale, the golf club continued to operate on the site for a few years. On February 11, 1954, St. John's broke ground on a new campus in Queens, on the former site of the Hillcrest Golf Club. During the official groundbreaking ceremony, the shovel used was the same shovel that had broken ground on the original campus in 1868; the following year, the original school of the university, St. John's College, moved from Bedford-Stuyvesant to the new campus; the high school, now St. John's Prep, took over its former buildings and moved to its present location in the Hillcrest-Jamaica sections in Queens. Over the next two decades, the other schools of the university, which were located at a separate campus at 96 Schermerhorn Street in Downtown Brooklyn, moved out to the new campus in Queens.
The last of the schools to relocate to Queens moved there in 1972, bringing an end to the Downtown Brooklyn campus of the university. In 1959, the university established a Freedom Institute to provide lectures and programs that would focus, in the words of university president Rev. John A. Flynn, focus "attention on the dangers of communism threatening free institutions here and abroad," with Arpad F. Kovacs of the St. John's history department as its director; the university hired the noted historian Paul Kwan-Tsien Sih to establish an Institute of Asian Studies in 1959, set up a Center for African Studies under the directorship of the economic geographer Hugh C. Brooks; the university received praise from Time Magazine in 1962 for being a Catholic university that accepted Jews with low household income. St. John's was the defendant in a lawsuit by Donald Scheiber for discrimination after being removed because he was Jewish; the court ruled against St. John's University in this lawsuit. Time ranked St. John's as "good−small" on a list of the nation's Catholic universities in 1962.
The St. John's University strike of 1966-1967 was a protest by faculty at the university which began on January 4, 1966, ended in June 1967; the strike began after 31 faculty members were dismissed in the fall of 1965 without due process, dismissals which some felt were a violation of the professors' academic freedom. The tension of that year was noted in Time Magazine stating, "cademically, has never ranked high among Catholic schools; the strike ended without any reinstatements, but led to the widespread unionization of public college faculty in the New York City area. In 1970 arbitrators ruled. On January 27, 1971, the New York State Board of Regents approved the consolidation of the university with the former Notre Dame College a private women's college and the Staten Island campus of St. John's University became a reality. Classes began in the fall of 1971, combining the original Notre Dame College with the former Brooklyn campus of St. John's, offering undergraduate degrees in liberal arts and education.
Pest control is the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, a member of the animal kingdom that impacts adversely on human activities. The human response depends on the importance of the damage done, will range from tolerance, through deterrence and management, to attempts to eradicate the pest. Pest control measures may be performed as part of an integrated pest management strategy. In agriculture, pests are kept at bay by cultural and biological means. Ploughing and cultivation of the soil before sowing reduces the pest burden and there is a modern trend to limit the use of pesticides as far as possible; this can be achieved by monitoring the crop, only applying insecticides when necessary, by growing varieties and crops which are resistant to pests. Where possible, biological means are used, encouraging the natural enemies of the pests and introducing suitable predators or parasites. In homes and urban environments, the pests are the rodents, birds and other organisms that share the habitat with humans, that feed on and spoil possessions.
Control of these pests is attempted through exclusion, physical removal or chemical means. Alternatively, various methods of biological control can be used including sterilisation programmes. Pest control is at least as old as agriculture, as there has always been a need to keep crops free from pests; as long ago as 3000 BC in Egypt, cats were used to control pests of grain stores such as rodents. Ferrets were domesticated by 500 AD in Europe for use as mousers. Mongooses were introduced into homes to control rodents and snakes by the ancient Egyptians; the conventional approach was the first to be employed, since it is comparatively easy to destroy weeds by burning them or ploughing them under, to kill larger competing herbivores. Techniques such as crop rotation, companion planting, the selective breeding of pest-resistant cultivars have a long history. Chemical pesticides were first used around 2500 BC, when the Sumerians used sulphur compounds as insecticides. Modern pest control was stimulated by the spread across the United States of the Colorado potato beetle.
After much discussion, arsenical compounds were used to control the beetle and the predicted poisoning of the human population did not occur. This led the way to a widespread acceptance of insecticides across the continent. With the industrialisation and mechanization of agriculture in the 18th and 19th centuries, the introduction of the insecticides pyrethrum and derris, chemical pest control became widespread. In the 20th century, the discovery of several synthetic insecticides, such as DDT, herbicides boosted this development. Biological control is first recorded around 300 AD in China, when colonies of weaver ants, Oecophylla smaragdina, were intentionally placed in citrus plantations to control beetles and caterpillars. In China, ducks were used in paddy fields to consume pests, as illustrated in ancient cave art. In 1762, an Indian mynah was brought to Mauritius to control locusts, about the same time, citrus trees in Burma were connected by bamboos to allow ants to pass between them and help control caterpillars.
In the 1880s, ladybirds were used in citrus plantations in California to control scale insects, other biological control experiments followed. The introduction of DDT, a cheap and effective compound, put an effective stop to biological control experiments. By the 1960s, problems of resistance to chemicals and damage to the environment began to emerge, biological control had a renaissance. Chemical pest control is still the predominant type of pest control today, although a renewed interest in traditional and biological pest control developed towards the end of the 20th century and continues to this day. Biological pest control is a method of controlling pests such as insects and mites by using other organisms, it relies on predation, herbivory or other natural mechanisms, but also involves an active human management role. Classical biological control involves the introduction of natural enemies of the pest that are bred in the laboratory and released into the environment. An alternative approach is to augment the natural enemies that occur in a particular area by releasing more, either in small, repeated batches, or in a single large-scale release.
Ideally, the released organism will breed and survive, provide long-term control. Biological control can be an important component of an integrated pest management programme. For example: mosquitoes are controlled by putting Bt Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, a bacterium that infects and kills mosquito larvae, in local water sources. Mechanical pest control is the use of hands-on techniques as well as simple equipment and devices, that provides a protective barrier between plants and insects; this is referred to as tillage and is one of the oldest methods of weed control as well as being useful for pest control. Crop rotation can help to control pests by depriving them of their host plants, it is a major tactic in the control of corn rootworm, has reduced early season incidence of Colorado potato beetle by as much as 95%. A trap crop is a crop of a plant. Pests aggregated on the trap crop can be more controlled using pesticides or other methods. However, trap-cropping, on its own, has failed to cost reduce pest densities on large commercial scales, without the use of pesticides due to the pests' ability to disperse back into the main field
Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being. Social functioning refers to the way in which people perform their social roles, the structural institutions that are provided to sustain them. Social work applies social sciences, such as sociology, political science, public health, community development and economics, to engage with client systems, conduct assessments, develop interventions to solve social and personal problems. Social work practice is divided into micro-work, which involves working directly with individuals or small groups. Social work developed in the 19th century, with roots in voluntary philanthropy and grassroots organizing. However, the act of responding to social needs have existed long before primarily from private charities, religious organizations; the effects of the Industrial Revolution and the Great Depression placed pressure on social work to become a more defined discipline.
Social work is a broad profession. Social work organizations offer the following definitions: “Social work is a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development, social cohesion, the empowerment and liberation of people. Principles of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility and respect for diversities are central to social work. Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences and indigenous knowledge, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance wellbeing." International Federation of Social Workers "Social work is a profession concerned with helping individuals, families and communities to enhance their individual and collective well-being. It aims to help people develop their skills and their ability to use their own resources and those of the community to resolve problems. Social work is concerned with individual and personal problems but with broader social issues such as poverty and domestic violence."
- Canadian Association of Social Workers Social work practice consists of the professional application of social work values and techniques to one or more of the following ends: helping people obtain tangible services. The practice of social work requires knowledge of human behavior; this may be helping to protect vulnerable people from harm or abuse or supporting people to live independently. Social workers support people, act as advocates and direct people to the services they may require. Social workers work in multi-disciplinary teams alongside health and education professionals." - British Association of Social Workers The practice and profession of social work has a modern and scientific origin, is considered to have developed out of three strands. The first was individual casework, a strategy pioneered by the Charity Organization Society in the mid-19th century, founded by Helen Bosanquet and Octavia Hill in London, England. Most historians identify COS as the pioneering organization of the social theory that led to the emergence of social work as a professional occupation.
COS had its main focus on individual casework. The second was social administration, which included various forms of poverty relief –'relief of paupers'. Statewide poverty relief could be said to have its roots in the English Poor Laws of the 17th century, but was first systematized through the efforts of the Charity Organization Society; the third consisted of social action – rather than engaging in the resolution of immediate individual requirements, the emphasis was placed on political action working through the community and the group to improve their social conditions and thereby alleviate poverty. This approach was developed by the Settlement House Movement; this was accompanied by a less defined movement. All had their most rapid growth during the nineteenth century, laid the foundation basis for modern social work, both in theory and in practice. Professional social work originated in 19th century England, had its roots in the social and economic upheaval wrought by the Industrial Revolution, in particular the societal struggle to deal with the resultant mass urban-based poverty and its related problems.
Because poverty was the main focus of early social work, it was intricately linked with the idea of charity work. Other important historical figures that shaped the growth of the social work profession are Jane Addams, who founded the Hull House in Chicago and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931. Social work is an interdisciplinary profession, meaning it draws from a number of areas, s