Antony Gibbs was an English film and television editor with more than 40 feature film credits. He was a member of the American Cinema Editors. Gibbs' editing career began in the mid-1950s as an assistant to Ralph Kemplen and to Alan Osbiston, through them he became involved with the brief "New Wave" of British filmmaking at its beginnings. In particular Osbiston edited The Entertainer, directed by Tony Richardson. Gibbs was principal editor for several of the subsequent "New Wave" films, including Richardson's A Taste of Honey, The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner, Tom Jones, The Knack...and How to Get It, directed by Richard Lester. In his 1995 book and Video Editing, Roger Crittenden notes the influence of this first phase of Gibbs' editing career, "The generation of American editors of which Dede Allen is a part has given considerable credit for the inspiration of their work to Antony Gibbs, the English editor of films directed by, amongst others, Tony Richardson, Nicholas Roeg, Richard Lester.
There is a daring and energetic quality to Tony Gibbs' work in some sequences of The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner, Tom Jones, The Knack, Performance, which must have given a shot of adrenaline to aspiring editors on both sides of the Atlantic at the time. Dede ascribes her work on Bonnie and Clyde directly to the influence of Tony Gibbs." Bonnie and Clyde "marked a turning point in the editing of feature films that sent reverberations through the entire American cinema."Gibbs was the "supervising editor" for Richardson's 1965 film, The Loved One, produced in Hollywood. Gibbs relocated from England to California in about 1970. From 1971–1989 he had an extended collaboration with Norman Jewison that commenced with the well-received Fiddler on the Roof and extended over five films. Gibbs retired from filmmaking in 2001. Gibbs' editing of Tom Jones was nominated for an American Cinema Editors Eddie award. Tom Jones won the Academy Award for Best Picture, Richardson received the Academy Award for Best Director for it.
Subsequent to his "New Wave" films, Gibbs was nominated four times for the BAFTA Award for Best Editing, for the films Performance, Fiddler on the Roof, A Bridge Too Far. Gibbs has never been nominated for the Academy Award for Best Editing. Gibbs was nominated again for ACE Eddie awards for Fiddler on the Roof and, much in his career, he won Eddie awards for the television films George Wallace and for James Dean. Gibbs had been elected to membership in the American Cinema Editors, was the recipient of the American Cinema Editors Career Achievement Award in 2002. Gibbs died on 26 February 2016 at the age of 90; this filmography is based on the internet movie database. James Dean Reindeer Games Ronin George Wallace Crime of the Century A Case for Life Don Juan DeMarco The Man Without a Face Devlin The Taking of Beverly Hills In Country Stealing Home Russkies Tai-Pan Agnes of God Dune Bad Boys From a Far Country The Dogs of War The Wildcats of St Trinian's Yesterday's Hero A Bridge Too Far The Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea Rollerball Juggernaut The Black Windmill Jesus Christ Superstar The Ragman's Daughter Fiddler on the Roof Walkabout Shangani Patrol Performance The Birthday Party Petulia The Sailor from Gibraltar Mademoiselle The Knack …and How to Get It The Loved One The Luck of Ginger Coffey Girl with Green Eyes Tom Jones The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner Tiara Tahiti During One Night A Taste of Honey The Snake Woman Doctor Blood's Coffin Offbeat Oscar Wilde The Unstoppable Man List of film director and editor collaborations Antony Gibbs on IMDb
A grenade launcher is a weapon that fires a specially-designed large-caliber projectile with an explosive, smoke or gas warhead. Today, the term refers to a class of dedicated firearms firing unitary grenade cartridges; the most common type are man-portable, shoulder-fired weapons issued to individuals, although larger crew-served launchers are issued at higher levels of organisation by military forces. Grenade launchers can either come in the form of standalone weapons or attachments mounted to a parent firearm a rifle. Larger crew-served automatic grenade launchers such as the Mk 19 are mounted on vehicles; some armored fighting vehicles mount fixed arrays of short range, single-shot grenade launchers as a means of defense. The earliest devices which could conceivably be referred to as grenade launchers were slings, which could be used to throw early grenado fuse bombs; the ancestors of modern ballistic grenade launchers, were simplistic muzzle-loading devices using a stake-like body to mount a short, large-bore gun barrel into which an explosive or incendiary device could be inserted.
These weapons were not regarded due to their unreliability, requiring the user to ignite a fuse on the projectile before firing and with a substantial risk of the explosive failing to leave the barrel. During the First World War a number of novel crew-served launchers designed to increase the range of infantry hand grenades were developed, such as the Sauterelle crossbow and West Spring Gun and Leach Trench Catapult devices. None were effective, such devices were replaced by light mortar systems like the Stokes Mortar, while the task of increasing the range of infantry explosive projectiles was taken by rifle grenades. A late example of such a system was the Japanese Type 91 grenade, which could be used as a thrown hand grenade, or fitted with adaptors to either be fired as a rifle grenade or used as a projectile by the Type 89 grenade discharger, a light infantry mortar. A new method of launching grenades was developed during the First World War and used throughout the Second; the principle was to use the soldier's standard rifle as an ersatz mortar, mounting a grenade fitted with a propelling charge, using an adaptor or socket on the weapon's muzzle or inside a mounted launching cup, firing with the weapon's stock resting on the ground.
For older rifle grenades, igniting the charge required loading the parent rifle with a special blank propellant cartridge, though modern rifle grenades can be fired using live rounds using "bullet trap" and "shoot through" systems. The system has some advantages: since it does not have to fit in a weapon's breech, the warhead can be made larger and more powerful compared to that of a unitary grenade round, the rifle's weight and handling characteristics are not affected as with underbarrel systems unless a grenade is mounted. While older systems required the soldier carry a separate adaptor or cup to attach to the rifle to make it ready to launch rifle grenades were designed to attach to the standard factory-mounted flash hider of the parent rifle; the disadvantage of this method is that when a soldier wants to launch a grenade, they must mount the grenade to the muzzle prior to each shot. If they are surprised by a close-range threat while preparing to fire the grenade, they have to reverse the procedure before they can respond with rifle fire.
Due to the lack of a barrel, rifle grenades tend to be more difficult to fire compared to underbarrel or standalone designs. Prior to the development of lightweight disposable anti-tank weapons such as the M72 LAW, large HEAT rifle grenades such as the ENERGA anti-tank rifle grenade were the preferred method for allowing infantry who were not part of dedicated anti-tank teams to engage vehicles. Rifle grenades have fallen out of favor since the 1970s, replaced in most of their traditional roles by dedicated grenade launchers, though there has been a recent resurgence in interest in such devices for special purposes; the earliest examples of standalone grenade launchers in the modern sense were breech-loading riot guns designed to launch tear gas grenades and baton rounds, such as the Federal Riot Gun developed in the 1930s. One of the first examples of a dedicated breech-loading launcher for unitary explosive grenade rounds was the M79 grenade launcher, a result of the American Special Purpose Individual Weapon program.
The goal for the M79 was the production of a device with greater range than a rifle grenade but more portable than a mortar. Such single-shot devices were replaced in military service with underbarrel grenade launchers, removing the need for a dedicated grenadier with a special weapon. Many modern underbarrel grenade launchers can, however be used in standalone configurations with suitable accessories fitted. Single shot launchers are still used in riot control operations. Heavier multi
Jean-François Stévenin is a French actor and filmmaker. He has appeared in 150 films and television shows since 1968, he starred in the film Cold Moon, entered into the 1991 Cannes Film Festival. Jean-François Stévenin on IMDb
War film is a film genre concerned with warfare about naval, air, or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama. It has been associated with the 20th century; the fateful nature of battle scenes means that war films end with them. Themes explored include combat and escape, camaraderie between soldiers, the futility and inhumanity of battle, the effects of war on society, the moral and human issues raised by war. War films are categorized by their milieu, such as the Korean War; the stories told may be historical drama, or biographical. Critics have noted similarities between the war film. Nations such as China, Indonesia and Russia have their own traditions of war film, centred on their own revolutionary wars but taking varied forms, from action and historical drama to wartime romance. Subgenres, not distinct, include anti-war, animated and documentary. There are subgenres of the war film in specific theatres such as the western desert, the Pacific in the Second World War, or Vietnam.
The war film genre is not tightly defined: the American Film Institute, for example, speaks of "films to grapple with the Great War" without attempting to classify these. However, some directors and critics have offered at least tentative definitions; the director Sam Fuller defined the genre by saying that "a war film’s objective, no matter how personal or emotional, is to make a viewer feel war." John Belton identified four narrative elements of the war film within the context of Hollywood production: a) the suspension of civilian morality during times of war, b) primacy of collective goals over individual motivations, c) rivalry between men in predominantly male groups as well as marginalization and objectification of women, d) depiction of the reintegration of veterans. The film critic Stephen Neale suggests that the genre is for the most part well defined and uncontentious, since war films are those about war being waged in the 20th century, with combat scenes central to the drama. However, Neale notes, films set in the American Civil War or the American Indian Wars of the 19th century were called war films in the time before the First World War.
The critic Julian Smith argues, on the contrary, that the war film lacks the formal boundaries of a genre like the Western, but that in practice, "successful and influential" war films are about modern wars, in particular World War II, with the combination of mobile forces and mass killing. The film scholar Kathryn Kane points out some similarities between the war film genre and the Western. Both genres use opposing concepts like war and peace and savagery. War films frame World War II as a conflict between "good" and "evil" as represented by the Allied forces and Nazi Germany whereas the Western portrays the conflict between civilized settlers and the savage indigenous peoples. James Clarke notes the similarity between a Western like Sam Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch and "war-movie escapades" like The Dirty Dozen. Film historian Jeanine Basinger states that she began with a preconception of what the war film genre would be, namely that What I knew in advance was what every member of our culture would know about World War II combat films—that they contained a hero, a group of mixed types, a military objective of some sort.
They take place in the actual combat zones of World War II, against the established enemies, on the ground, the sea, or in the air. They contain many repeated events, such as mail call, all presented visually with appropriate uniforms and iconography of battle. Further, Basinger considers Bataan to provide a definition-by-example of "the World War II combat film", in which a diverse and unsuited group of "hastily assembled volunteers" hold off a much larger group of the enemy through their "bravery and tenacity", she argues. Since she notes that there were in fact only five true combat films made during the Second World War, in her view these few films, central to the genre, are outweighed by the many other films that lie on the margins of being war films. However, other critics such as Russell Earl Shain propose a far broader definition of war film, to include films that deal "with the roles of civilians, espionage agents, soldiers in any of the aspects of war" Neale points out that genres overlap, with combat scenes for different purposes in other types of film, suggests that war films are characterised by combat which "determines the fate of the principal characters".
This in turn pushes combat scenes to the climactic ends of war films. Not all critics agree, that war films must be about 20th-century wars. James Clarke includes Edward Zwick's Oscar-winning Glory among the war films he discusses in detail; the military historian Antony Beevor "despair" at how film-makers from America and Britain "play fast and loose with the facts", yet imply that "their version is as good as the truth." For example, he calls the 2000 American film U-571 a "shameless deception" for pretending that a US warship had helped to win the Battle of the Atlantic—seven months before America entered the war. He is critical of Christopher Nolan's 2017 film Dunkirk with its unhistorically empty beaches, low-level air combat over the sea, res
Tom Berenger is an American television and motion picture actor. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of Staff Sergeant Bob Barnes in Platoon, he is known for playing Jake Taylor in the Major League films and Thomas Beckett in the Sniper films. Other films he appeared in include Looking for Mr. Goodbar, The Dogs of War, The Big Chill and the Cruisers, The Field, The Substitute, One Man's Hero, Training Day, Inception. Berenger won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie for his performance as Jim Vance in the 2012 miniseries Hatfields & McCoys. Berenger was born as Thomas Michael Moore in Chicago, on May 31, 1949, to a Roman Catholic family of Irish ancestry, he has Susan. His father was a printer for a traveling salesman. Moore graduated in 1967 from Rich East High School in Illinois, he studied journalism at the University of Missouri in Columbia, but decided to seek an acting career following his graduation in 1971 with a Bachelor of Arts degree.
He worked in regional theatre and in 1972, he worked as a flight attendant with Eastern Airlines, based in San Juan, Puerto Rico. He transferred to New York in 1973. Moore selected "Berenger" as his professional name after he was forced to change his surname professionally, as there was a "Tom Moore" in the Actors' Equity Association. Berenger had a starring role as lawyer Tim Siegel on One Life to Live, his feature film debut was the lead in Rush an independent film. In 1977, he had a small role as the killer of the lead character in Looking for Mr. Goodbar based on the murder of schoolteacher Roseann Quinn. In 1978, he had a starring role in In Praise of Older Women for Avco-Embassy Pictures. In 1979, he played Butch Cassidy in Butch and Sundance: The Early Days, a role he got in part because of his resemblance to Paul Newman, who played the character in Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. Berenger starred in several significant films in the 1980s, including The Big Chill and the Cruisers, Someone to Watch Over Me, Major League.
In 1986, he received an Academy Award nomination for his portrayal of Staff Sergeant Barnes in Platoon. A role for which he has become well known for is Thomas Beckett, the main character in the mid-1990s film Sniper. Other notable films from that period in which he was featured include Born on the Fourth of July, Shattered and Chasers; when asked in a 1999 interview to name his favorite film out of those in which he had acted, Berenger said it was too difficult to choose but that the one he had watched most was his 1993 film Gettysburg, where he played the role of General James Longstreet. He established the Tom Berenger Acting Scholarship Fund in 1988 to award theatre students for excellence in performance. In more recent years, Berenger has continued to have an active acting career in film and television, although at a supporting level, his most notable television appearance was on Cheers in its last season as Rebecca Howe's blue collar-plumber love interest, for which he was nominated for an Emmy Award for "Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series".
He began a career as a producer in the 1990s. Berenger co-produced the 1997 miniseries Rough Riders starring as Theodore Roosevelt. Berenger was seen on the box art and promotional content for Novalogic's Delta Force: Black Hawk Down, as his roles in Sniper 2 and Sniper 3 were similar to what was chosen for the game's artwork, he starred in the mini-series version of Stephen King's Nightmares & Dreamscapes, as a celebrated author who realizes the warped painting he purchased is alive with illustrations of impending doom for him in "The Road Virus Heads North". Berenger stars opposite Armand Assante and Busta Rhymes in the dramatic thriller Breaking Point, which had a limited release starting in December 2009, he has most appeared in the science fiction thriller Inception with Leonardo DiCaprio and Cillian Murphy, where he played a business executive who served as a mentor to and was an associate of the father of Murphy's character. Inception was a box office success and was his first appearance in a mainstream theatrical movie since Training Day in 2001.
In 2012 he appeared in the TV miniseries Hatfields & McCoys as Jim Vance, uncle of protagonist Devil Anse Hatfield. On September 23, 2012 Berenger earned a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie for the role. Berenger has six children, he has two children by his first wife, Barbara Wilson, to whom he was married from 1976 to 1984: Allison Moore and Patrick Moore. He has three daughters by second wife Lisa Williams: Chloe Moore and Shiloh Moore, he has a daughter named Scout Moore with Patricia Alvaran, to whom he was married from 1998–2011. He married Laura Moretti in Sedona, Arizona in early September 2012. Tom Berenger on IMDb Tom Berenger at AllMovie Tom Berenger Online Celebrity Detective
Colin George Blakely was a Northern Irish actor. He is known for his roles in the films A Man for All Seasons, The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes, Murder on the Orient Express, Equus. Born in Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland, Blakely attended Sedbergh School in Yorkshire. At 18 he started work in his family's sports goods shop, before going on to work as a timber-loader on the railways. In 1957, after a spell of amateur dramatics with the Bangor Drama Club, he turned professional with the Group Theatre, Belfast. In 1957, at the age of 27, Blakely made his stage debut as Dick McCardle in Master of the House, he appeared in several Ulster Group Theatre productions, including Gerard McLarnon's Bonefire and Patricia O'Connor's A Sparrow Falls. From 1957 to 1959 he was at the Royal Court Theatre, appearing in Cock-A-Doodle Dandy, Serjeant Musgrave's Dance and, to critical approval, The Naming of Murderers Rock. In 1961, he joined the Royal Shakespeare Company at Stratford-upon-Avon and from 1963 to 1968 was with the National Theatre at the Old Vic.
On television, director Charles Crichton unusually cast Blakely in two different roles during the same run of episodes of the 1967 series Man in a Suitcase. In 1969, Blakely's controversial role as Jesus Christ in Dennis Potter's Son of Man gained him wide recognition. From that time onwards, he was a regular on British television, in the same year played the leading role in a BBC adaptation of Anthony Trollope's The Way We Live Now. Among the many stage plays in which he appeared were The Recruiting Officer, Saint Joan, The Royal Hunt of the Sun, Filumena Marturano and Oedipus, he returned to the Royal Shakespeare in 1972 in Harold Pinter's Old Times and was subsequently in many West End plays. Film roles included Maurice Braithwaite in This Sporting Life, Vahlin in The Long Ships, Dr. Watson to Robert Stephens's Holmes in The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes, Joseph Stalin in Jack Gold's Red Monarch. In the 1975 British film, It Shouldn't Happen to a Vet, derived from the James Herriot books, Blakely played the eccentric Siegfried Farnon.
He appeared in A Man for All Seasons, Young Winston, The National Health, Murder on the Orient Express, The Pink Panther Strikes Again, The Dogs of War and Evil Under the Sun. A noted Shakespearean actor, Blakely appeared on television as Antony in Antony and Cleopatra, directed by Jonathan Miller as part of the BBC Television Shakespeare series. Other television appearances included Loophole, The Beiderbecke Affair, Operation Julie and Paradise Postponed. Blakely was married to British actress Margaret Whiting for 26 years and had three sons, including twins, he died of leukaemia at the peak of his career, aged 56. Colin Blakely on IMDb Colin Blakely at the TCM Movie Database
The MP 40 is a submachine gun chambered for the 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge. It was developed in Nazi Germany and used extensively by the Axis powers during the Second World War. Designed in 1938 by Heinrich Vollmer with inspiration from its predecessor the MP 38, it was used by infantrymen, by paratroopers, on the Eastern and Western Fronts, its advanced and modern features made it a favorite among soldiers and popular in countries from various parts of the world after the war. It was erroneously called "Schmeisser" by the Allies, although Hugo Schmeisser was not involved in the design or production of the weapon. From 1940 to 1945, an estimated 1.1 million were produced by Erma Werke. The Maschinenpistole 40 descended from its predecessor the MP 38, in turn based on the MP 36, a prototype made of machined steel; the MP 36 was developed independently by Erma Werke's Berthold Geipel with funding from the German Army. It took design elements from Heinrich Vollmer's VPM 1930 and EMP. Vollmer worked on Berthold Geipel's MP 36 and in 1938 submitted a prototype to answer a request from the Heereswaffenamt for a new submachine gun, adopted as MP 38.
The MP 38 was a simplification of the MP 36, the MP 40 was a further simplification of the MP 38, with certain cost-saving alterations, most notably in the more extensive use of stamped steel rather than machined parts. The MP 40 was called the "Schmeisser" by the Allies, after the weapon designer Hugo Schmeisser. Schmeisser had designed the MP 18, the first mass-produced submachine gun in the world, carried some resemblance to the MP 40, he did not, have anything to do with the design or development of the MP 40, although he held a patent on the magazine. The MP 40 submachine guns are blowback-operated automatic arms; the only mode of fire was automatic, but the low rate of fire enabled single shots with controlled trigger pulls. The bolt features a telescoping return spring guide; the cocking handle was permanently attached to the bolt on early MP 38s, but on late production MP 38s and MP 40s, the bolt handle was made as a separate part. It served as a safety by pushing the head of handle into one of two separate notches above the main opening.
The absence of this feature on early MP 38s resulted in field expedients such as leather harnesses with a small loop, used to hold the bolt in forward position. The MP 38 receiver was made of machined steel. To save time and materials, thus increase production, construction of the MP 40 receiver was simplified by using stamped steel and electro-spot welding as much as possible; the MP 38 features longitudinal grooving on the receiver and bolt, as well as a circular opening on the magazine housing. These features were eliminated on the MP 40. One unique feature found on most MP 38 and MP 40 submachine guns was an aluminum, steel, or bakelite resting bar or support under the barrel; this was used to steady the weapon when firing over the side of open-top armored personnel carriers such as the Sd. Kfz. 251 half-track. A handguard, made of a synthetic material derived from bakelite, was located between the magazine housing and the pistol grip; the barrel lacked any form of insulation, which resulted in burns on the supporting hand if it was incorrectly positioned.
The MP 40 had a forward-folding metal stock, the first for a submachine gun, resulting in a shorter overall weapon when folded. However, this stock design was at times insufficiently durable for hard combat use. Although the MP 40 was reliable, a major weakness was its 32-round magazine. Unlike the double-column, dual-feed magazine insert found on the Thompson M1921-28 variants, the MP 40 used a double-column, single-feed insert; the single-feed insert resulted in increased friction against the remaining cartridges moving upwards towards the feed lips resulting in feed failures. Another problem was that the magazine was sometimes misused as a handhold; this could cause the weapon to malfunction when hand pressure on the magazine body caused the magazine lips to move out of the line of feed, since the magazine well did not keep the magazine locked. German soldiers were trained to grasp either the handhold on the underside of the weapon or the magazine housing with the supporting hand to avoid feed malfunctions.
At the outbreak of World War II, the majority of German soldiers carried either Karabiner 98k rifles or MP 40s, both of which were regarded as the standard weapons of choice for an infantryman. However experience with Soviet tactics, such as the Battle of Stalingrad where entire Russian units armed with submachine guns outgunned their German counterparts in short range urban combat, caused a shift in tactics, by the end of the war the MP 40 and its derivatives were being issued to entire assault platoons on a limited basis. Starting in 1943, the German Army moved to replace both the Karabiner 98k rifle and MP 40 with the new, revolutionary StG 44. By the end of World War II, an estimated 1.1 million MP 40s had been produced of all variants. During and after the end of World War II, many MP 40s were captured or surrendered to the Allies and were redistributed to the paramilitary and irregular forces of some developing countries; the Norwegian army used the MP 40 for some years more. In particular, the Territorials used it