For the British poet and author, see Oliver W. F. Lodge Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge, was a British physicist and writer involved in the development of, holder of key patents for, radio, he identified electromagnetic radiation independent of Hertz' proof and at his 1894 Royal Institution lectures, Lodge demonstrated an early radio wave detector he named the "coherer". In 1898 he was awarded the "syntonic" patent by the United States Patent Office. Lodge was Principal of the University of Birmingham from 1900 to 1920. Oliver Lodge was born in 1851 at'The Views', Penkhull a rural village high above the emerging Potteries of North Staffordshire in what is now Stoke-on-Trent, educated at Adams' Grammar School, Shropshire, his parents were Oliver Lodge – a ball clay merchant at Wolstanton, Staffordshire – and his wife, Grace, née Heath. Lodge was their first child, altogether they had eight sons and a daughter. Lodge's siblings included historian; when Lodge was 12, the family moved house a short distance north along the valley ridge, to Wolstanton.
There, at Moreton House on the southern tip of Wolstanton Marsh, he took over a large outbuilding for his first scientific experiments during the long school holidays. In 1865, Lodge, at the age of 14, left his schooling and entered his father's business as an agent for B. Fayle & Co selling Purbeck blue clay to the pottery manufacturers; this work sometimes entailed him travelling as far as Scotland. He continued to assist his father until he reached the age of 22, his father's growing wealth from trade enabled him to move the family to Chatterley House, when Lodge was 18. From there Lodge attended physics lectures in London, attended the Wedgwood Institute in nearby Burslem. At Chatterley House, just a mile south of Etruria Hall where Wedgwood had experimented, Lodge's Autobiography recalled that "something like real experimentation" began for him around 1869. Growing affluent in a booming industrial economy, the family moved again in 1875 – this time to the nearby Watlands Hall at the top of Porthill Bank between Middleport and Wolstanton.
Lodge obtained a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of London in 1875 and gained the title of Doctor of Science in 1877. At Wolstanton he experimented with producing a wholly new "electromagnetic light" in 1879 and 1880, paving the way for experimental success. During this time, he lectured at Bedford College, London. Lodge left the Potteries district in 1881, to take the post of Professor of Physics and Mathematics at the newly founded University College, Liverpool. In 1900 Lodge moved from Liverpool back to the Midlands and became the first principal of the new Birmingham University, remaining there until his retirement in 1919, he oversaw the start of the move of the university from Edmund Street in the city centre to its present Edgbaston campus. Lodge was awarded the Rumford Medal of the Royal Society in 1898 and was knighted by King Edward VII in 1902. In 1928 he was made Freeman of Stoke-on-Trent. Lodge married Mary Fanny Alexander Marshall at St George's Church, Newcastle-under-Lyme in 1877.
They had twelve children, six boys and six girls: Oliver William Foster, Francis Brodie, Lionel, Violet, Honor, Norah and Rosalynde. Four of his sons went into business using Lodge's inventions. Brodie and Alec created the Lodge Plug Company, which manufactured spark plugs for cars and aeroplanes. Lionel and Noel founded a company that produced an electrostatic device for cleaning factory and smelter smoke in 1913, called the Lodge Fume Deposit Company Limited. Oliver, the eldest son, became a author. After his retirement in 1920, Lodge and his wife settled in Normanton House, near Lake in Wiltshire, a few miles from Stonehenge. Lodge and his wife are buried at St. Michael's, Wilsford cum Lake, their eldest son Oliver and eldest daughter Violet are buried at the same church. In 1873 J. C. Maxwell published A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, by 1876 Lodge was studying it intently, but Lodge was limited in mathematical physics both by aptitude and training, his first two papers were a description of a mechanism that could serve to illustrate electrical phenomena such as conduction and polarization.
Indeed, Lodge is best known for his advocacy and elaboration of Maxwell's aether theory – a deprecated model postulating a wave-bearing medium filling all space. He explained his views on the aether in "Modern Views of Electricity" and continued to defend those ideas well into the twentieth century; as early as 1879, Lodge became interested in generating electromagnetic waves, something Maxwell had never considered. This interest continued throughout the 1880s. First, he thought in terms of generating light waves with high frequencies rather than radio waves with their much lower frequencies. Second, his good friend George FitzGerald assured him that "ether waves could not be genera
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force exhibits electromagnetic fields such as electric fields, magnetic fields, light, is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature; the other three fundamental interactions are the strong interaction, the weak interaction, gravitation. At high energy the weak force and electromagnetic force are unified as a single electroweak force. Electromagnetic phenomena are defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the Lorentz force, which includes both electricity and magnetism as different manifestations of the same phenomenon; the electromagnetic force plays a major role in determining the internal properties of most objects encountered in daily life. Ordinary matter takes its form as a result of intermolecular forces between individual atoms and molecules in matter, is a manifestation of the electromagnetic force.
Electrons are bound by the electromagnetic force to atomic nuclei, their orbital shapes and their influence on nearby atoms with their electrons is described by quantum mechanics. The electromagnetic force governs all chemical processes, which arise from interactions between the electrons of neighboring atoms. There are numerous mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field. In classical electrodynamics, electric fields are described as electric potential and electric current. In Faraday's law, magnetic fields are associated with electromagnetic induction and magnetism, Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated and altered by each other and by charges and currents; the theoretical implications of electromagnetism the establishment of the speed of light based on properties of the "medium" of propagation, led to the development of special relativity by Albert Einstein in 1905. Electricity and magnetism were considered to be two separate forces; this view changed, with the publication of James Clerk Maxwell's 1873 A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism in which the interactions of positive and negative charges were shown to be mediated by one force.
There are four main effects resulting from these interactions, all of which have been demonstrated by experiments: Electric charges attract or repel one another with a force inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: unlike charges attract, like ones repel. Magnetic poles attract or repel one another in a manner similar to positive and negative charges and always exist as pairs: every north pole is yoked to a south pole. An electric current inside a wire creates a corresponding circumferential magnetic field outside the wire, its direction depends on the direction of the current in the wire. A current is induced in a loop of wire when it is moved toward or away from a magnetic field, or a magnet is moved towards or away from it. While preparing for an evening lecture on 21 April 1820, Hans Christian Ørsted made a surprising observation; as he was setting up his materials, he noticed a compass needle deflected away from magnetic north when the electric current from the battery he was using was switched on and off.
This deflection convinced him that magnetic fields radiate from all sides of a wire carrying an electric current, just as light and heat do, that it confirmed a direct relationship between electricity and magnetism. At the time of discovery, Ørsted did not suggest any satisfactory explanation of the phenomenon, nor did he try to represent the phenomenon in a mathematical framework. However, three months he began more intensive investigations. Soon thereafter he published his findings, proving that an electric current produces a magnetic field as it flows through a wire; the CGS unit of magnetic induction is named in honor of his contributions to the field of electromagnetism. His findings resulted in intensive research throughout the scientific community in electrodynamics, they influenced French physicist André-Marie Ampère's developments of a single mathematical form to represent the magnetic forces between current-carrying conductors. Ørsted's discovery represented a major step toward a unified concept of energy.
This unification, observed by Michael Faraday, extended by James Clerk Maxwell, reformulated by Oliver Heaviside and Heinrich Hertz, is one of the key accomplishments of 19th century mathematical physics. It has had far-reaching consequences, one of, the understanding of the nature of light. Unlike what was proposed by the electromagnetic theory of that time and other electromagnetic waves are at present seen as taking the form of quantized, self-propagating oscillatory electromagnetic field disturbances called photons. Different frequencies of oscillation give rise to the different forms of electromagnetic radiation, from radio waves at the lowest frequencies, to visible light at intermediate frequencies, to gamma rays at the highest frequencies. Ørsted was not the only person to examine the relationship between magnetism. In 1802, Gian Domenico Romagnosi, an Italian legal scholar, deflected a magnetic needle using a Voltaic pile; the factual setup of the experiment is not clear, so if current flew across the needle or not.
An account of the discovery was published in 1802 in an Italian newspaper, but it was overlooked by the contemporary scientific community, because Romagnosi did not belong to this community. An earlier, neglected, connec
The Tale of the Giant Rat of Sumatra
The Tale of the Giant Rat of Sumatra is the seventh comedy album released by the Firesign Theatre and released in January 1974 by Columbia Records. "Chapter 1 - Not Quite The Solution He Expected" "Chapter 2 - An Outrageously Disgusting Disguise" "Chapter 3 - Where There's Smoke, There's Work" "Chapter 4 - Where Did Jonas Go When The Lights Went Out?" "Chapter 5 - Pickles Down The Rat Hole!" "Chapter 6 - The Electrician Exposes Himself!" The title is derived from an aside in the Sherlock Holmes short story "The Adventure of the Sussex Vampire," written by Arthur Conan Doyle in 1924. "Matilda Briggs was not the name of a young woman, Watson," said Holmes in a reminiscent voice. "It was a ship, associated with the giant rat of Sumatra, a story for which the world is not yet prepared." Holmes fans and writers of Sherlockiana have speculated on the nature of the giant rat story for decades. The Firesign Theatre version seems to begin with Watson about to write the tale anyway since the pair are desperate for money, but he never quite gets around to telling it.
Philip Proctor plays detective Hemlock Stones and David Ossman plays Flotsam, his "patient doctor and biographer". The lighthearted tale is full of puns, including a running gag in which Flotsam, eager to chronicle the adventure, tries to write down everything Stones says but mishears it all as something similar-sounding. Allusions are made to Sherlock Holmes's use of cocaine, his violin playing, other familiar story elements. Following a string of solo projects and anthologies, this was the group's first album to consist of a single cohesive narrative since I Think We're All Bozos on This Bus. An earlier version of these sketches, released as the bootleg By the Light of the Silvery, is closer to the spirit of the group's nightclub performances, is strikingly reminiscent of The Goon Show, one of the group's main inspirations, it bears no resemblance to the version, committed to vinyl. This album was followed by Everything You Know Is Wrong and In the Next World, You're on Your Own before the group ended its association with Columbia Records.
This album was released on LP and 8 Track. LP - Columbia KC-32730 8 Track - Columbia CA-32730It has been re-released on CD at least once 2001 - Laugh.com LGH1076 Members of the group themselves have taken varied attitudes towards this album. In the liner notes to Shoes for Industry: The Best of the Firesign Theatre, David Ossman was cheerful when discussing it and said that "I always thought it was the closest thing to the relentlessly pun-filled one-acts we did in clubs." Phil Austin, on the other hand, said, "The Sherlock Holmes album didn't do anybody any good... the general public was by that point beginning to tire of psychedelia anyway, we were always going to be associated with that." The review in 1983's The New Rolling Stone Record Guide calls this album "A halfassed comeback containing only one good joke."The Firesign Theatre commentary website benway.com calls it "the least understood Firesign album" and notes that "careful listening reveals Firesign in all their glory: poetic, silly and filled with meaning and non-meaning alike.
It is well worth repeated listenings—it rivals "Bozos" and "Dwarf" in number of listenings—and pays dividends of laughter and insight." Firesign Theatre. The Tale of the Giant Rat of Sumatra. Columbia Records, 1974. Firesign Theatre. Firesign Theatre. 19 Jan. 2006 <http://www.firesigntheatre.com/>. "FIREZINE: Linques!." Firesign Theatre FAQ. 20 Jan. 2006 <http://firezine.net/faq/>. Smith, Ronald L; the Goldmine Comedy Record Price Guide. Iola: Krause, 1996
In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science by reporting new research. Articles in scientific journals are written by active scientists such as students and professors instead of professional journalists. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are specialized, although some of the oldest journals such as Nature publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that have been peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, scientific validity. Although scientific journals are superficially similar to professional magazines, they are quite different. Issues of a scientific journal are read casually, as one would read a magazine; the publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results.
Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record. Articles in scientific journals can be used in higher education. Scientific articles allow researchers to keep up to date with the developments of their field and direct their own research. An essential part of a scientific article is citation of earlier work; the impact of articles and journals is assessed by counting citations. Some classes are devoted to the explication of classic articles, seminar classes can consist of the presentation by each student of a classic or current paper. Schoolbooks and textbooks have been written only on established topics, while the latest research and more obscure topics are only accessible through scientific articles. In a scientific research group or academic department it is usual for the content of current scientific journals to be discussed in journal clubs. Public funding bodies require the results to be published in scientific journals. Academic credentials for promotion into academic ranks are established in large part by the number and impact of scientific articles published.
Many doctoral programs allow for thesis by publication, where the candidate is required to publish a certain number of scientific articles. Articles tend to be technical, representing the latest theoretical research and experimental results in the field of science covered by the journal, they are incomprehensible to anyone except for researchers in the field and advanced students. In some subjects this is inevitable given the nature of the content. Rigorous rules of scientific writing are enforced by the editors. Articles are either original articles reporting new results or reviews of current literature. There are scientific publications that bridge the gap between articles and books by publishing thematic volumes of chapters from different authors. Many journals have a regional focus, specializing in publishing papers from a particular geographic region, like African Invertebrates; the history of scientific journals dates from 1665, when the French Journal des sçavans and the English Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society first began systematically publishing research results.
Over a thousand ephemeral, were founded in the 18th century, the number has increased after that. Prior to mid-20th century, peer review was not always necessary, but it became compulsory; the authors of scientific articles are active researchers instead of journalists. As such, the authors receive no compensation from the journal. However, their funding bodies may require them to publish in scientific journals; the paper is submitted to the journal office, where the editor considers the paper for appropriateness, potential scientific impact and novelty. If the journal's editor considers the paper appropriate, the paper is submitted to scholarly peer review. Depending on the field and paper, the paper is sent to 1–3 reviewers for evaluation before they can be granted permission to publish. Reviewers are expected to check the paper for soundness of its scientific argument, i.e. if the data collected or considered in the paper support the conclusion offered. Novelty is key: existing work must be appropriately considered and referenced, new results improving on the state of the art presented.
Reviewers are unpaid and not a part of the journal staff—instead, they should be "peers", i.e. researchers in the same field as the paper in question. The standards that a journal uses to determine publication can vary widely; some journals, such as Nature, Science, PNAS, Physical Review Letters, have a reputation of publishing articles that mark a fundamental breakthrough in their respective fields. In many fields, a formal or informal hierarchy of scientific journals exists. In some countries, journal rankings can be utilized for funding decisions and evaluation of individual researchers, although they are poorly suited for that purpose. For scientific journals Reproducibility and Replicability are core concepts that allow other scientists to check and reproduce the results under the same conditions described
Oliver Heaviside FRS was an English self-taught electrical engineer and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations, reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, independently co-formulated vector analysis. Although at odds with the scientific establishment for most of his life, Heaviside changed the face of telecommunications and science for years to come. Heaviside was born in London, at 55 Kings Street, he was a short and red-headed child, suffered from scarlet fever when young, which left him with a hearing impairment. A small legacy enabled the family to move to a better part of Camden when he was thirteen and he was sent to Camden House Grammar School, he was a good student, placed fifth out of five hundred students in 1865, but his parents could not keep him at school after he was 16, so he continued studying for a year by himself and had no further formal education.
Heaviside's uncle by marriage was Sir Charles Wheatstone, an internationally celebrated expert in telegraphy and electromagnetism, the original co-inventor of the first commercially successful telegraph in the mid-1830s. Wheatstone took a strong interest in his nephew's education and in 1867 sent him north to work with his own, older brother Arthur, managing one of Wheatstone's telegraph companies in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Two years he took a job as a telegraph operator with the Danish Great Northern Telegraph Company laying a cable from Newcastle to Denmark using British contractors, he soon became an electrician. Heaviside continued to study while working, by the age of 22 he published an article in the prestigious Philosophical Magazine on'The Best Arrangement of Wheatstone's Bridge for measuring a Given Resistance with a Given Galvanometer and Battery' which received positive comments from physicists who had unsuccessfully tried to solve this algebraic problem, including Sir William Thomson, to whom he gave a copy of the paper, James Clerk Maxwell.
When he published an article on the duplex method of using a telegraph cable, he poked fun at R. S. Culley, the engineer in chief of the Post Office telegraph system, dismissing duplex as impractical. In 1873 his application to join the Society of Telegraph Engineers was turned down with the comment that "they didn't want telegraph clerks"; this riled Heaviside, who asked Thomson to sponsor him, along with support of the society's president he was admitted "despite the P. O. snobs". In 1873 Heaviside had encountered Maxwell's newly published, famous, two-volume Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. In his old age Heaviside recalled: I remember my first look at the great treatise of Maxwell's when I was a young man… I saw that it was great and greatest, with prodigious possibilities in its power… I was determined to master the book and set to work. I was ignorant. I had no knowledge of mathematical analysis and thus my work was laid out for me, it took me several years before I could understand as much as I could.
I set Maxwell aside and followed my own course. And I progressed much more quickly… It will be understood that I preach the gospel according to my interpretation of Maxwell. Undertaking research from home, he helped develop transmission line theory. Heaviside showed mathematically that uniformly distributed inductance in a telegraph line would diminish both attenuation and distortion, that, if the inductance were great enough and the insulation resistance not too high, the circuit would be distortionless while currents of all frequencies would have equal speeds of propagation. Heaviside's equations helped further the implementation of the telegraph. From 1882 to 1902, except for three years, he contributed regular articles to the trade paper The Electrician, which wished to improve its standing, for which he was paid £40 per year; this was hardly enough to live on, but his demands were small and he was doing what he most wanted to. Between 1883 and 1887 these averaged 2–3 articles per month and these articles formed the bulk of his Electromagnetic Theory and Electrical Papers.
In 1880, Heaviside researched the skin effect in telegraph transmission lines. That same year he patented, in the coaxial cable. In 1884 he recast Maxwell's mathematical analysis from its original cumbersome form to its modern vector terminology, thereby reducing twelve of the original twenty equations in twenty unknowns down to the four differential equations in two unknowns we now know as Maxwell's equations; the four re-formulated Maxwell's equations describe the nature of electric charges, magnetic fields, the relationship between the two, namely electromagnetic fields. Between 1880 and 1887, Heaviside developed the operational calculus using p for the differential operator, giving a method of solving differential equations by direct solution as algebraic equations; this caused a great deal of controversy, owing to its lack of rigour. He famously said, "Mathematics is an experimental science, definitions do not come first, but on." On another occasion he asked somewhat more defensively, "Shall I refuse my dinner because I do not understand the process of digestion?"In 1887, Heaviside worked with his brother Arthur on a paper entitled "The Bridge System of Telephony".
However the paper was blocked by Arthur's
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity and electromagnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, electric power distribution and use. Subsequently and recording media made electronics part of daily life; the invention of the transistor, the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in any household object. Electrical engineering has now divided into a wide range of fields including electronics, digital computers, computer engineering, power engineering, telecommunications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing and microelectronics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics and waves, microwave engineering, electrochemistry, renewable energies, electrical materials science, much more.
See glossary of electrical and electronics engineering. Electrical engineers hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may be members of a professional body; such bodies include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Electrical engineers work in a wide range of industries and the skills required are variable; these range from basic circuit theory to the management skills required of a project manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to a top end analyzer to sophisticated design and manufacturing software. Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th century. William Gilbert was a prominent early electrical scientist, was the first to draw a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity, he is credited with establishing the term "electricity". He designed the versorium: a device that detects the presence of statically charged objects.
In 1762 Swedish professor Johan Carl Wilcke invented a device named electrophorus that produced a static electric charge. By 1800 Alessandro Volta had developed the voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery In the 19th century, research into the subject started to intensify. Notable developments in this century include the work of Hans Christian Ørsted who discovered in 1820 that an electric current produces a magnetic field that will deflect a compass needle, of William Sturgeon who, in 1825 invented the electromagnet, of Joseph Henry and Edward Davy who invented the electrical relay in 1835, of Georg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential difference in a conductor, of Michael Faraday, of James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise Electricity and Magnetism. In 1782 Georges-Louis Le Sage developed and presented in Berlin the world's first form of electric telegraphy, using 24 different wires, one for each letter of the alphabet.
This telegraph connected two rooms. It was an electrostatic telegraph. In 1795, Francisco Salva Campillo proposed an electrostatic telegraph system. Between 1803-1804, he worked on electrical telegraphy and in 1804, he presented his report at the Royal Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts of Barcelona. Salva’s electrolyte telegraph system was innovative though it was influenced by and based upon two new discoveries made in Europe in 1800 – Alessandro Volta’s electric battery for generating an electric current and William Nicholson and Anthony Carlyle’s electrolysis of water. Electrical telegraphy may be considered the first example of electrical engineering. Electrical engineering became a profession in the 19th century. Practitioners had created a global electric telegraph network and the first professional electrical engineering institutions were founded in the UK and USA to support the new discipline. Francis Ronalds created an electric telegraph system in 1816 and documented his vision of how the world could be transformed by electricity.
Over 50 years he joined the new Society of Telegraph Engineers where he was regarded by other members as the first of their cohort. By the end of the 19th century, the world had been forever changed by the rapid communication made possible by the engineering development of land-lines, submarine cables, from about 1890, wireless telegraphy. Practical applications and advances in such fields created an increasing need for standardised units of measure, they led to the international standardization of the units volt, coulomb, ohm and henry. This was achieved at an international conference in Chicago in 1893; the publication of these standards formed the basis of future advances in standardisation in various industries, in many countries, the definitions were recognized in relevant legislation. During these years, the study of electricity was considered to be a subfield of physics since the early electrical technology was considered electromechanical in nature; the Technische Universität Darmstadt founded the world's first department of electrical engineering in 1882.
The first electrical engineering degree program was started at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the physics department
The Electrician (song)
"The Electrician" is a song written by American singer-songwriter Scott Walker. The song was first recorded and released by Walker's pop group The Walker Brothers as their fourteenth UK single and last official released while the group were still active in 1978; the single did not chart. The song describes the work of a CIA torturer. Midge Ure is said to have been influenced by "The Electrician" when composing "Vienna" for Ultravox."The Electrician" was featured as the opening track for the 2008 crime film Bronson directed by Nicolas Winding Refn. The song was covered by Laurie Anderson for the Scott Walker tribute album Scott Walker: 30 Century Man in 2009. "The Electrician"John Walker and Scott Walker - Vocals Frank Gibson - Drums Dill Katz - Bass Morris Pert - Percussion Jim Sullivan - Guitar"Den Haague"Gary Walker - Vocals Scott Walker and Dave MacRae - Keyboards Peter Van Hooke - Drums Mo Foster and Scott Walker - Bass Gary Walker - Percussion Dennis Weinreich - Background VocalsTechnical and visualThe Walker Brothers - Arrangements Dave MacRae - Orchestrations and Conductor Scott Walker and Dave MacRae - Producer Dennis Weinreich - Recording Scott Walker, Dave MacRae and Dennis Weinreich - Mixing Hipgnosis and The Walker Brothers - Sleeve Design