Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Purdue University Press on behalf of the University's Jewish Studies Program. Shofar is the official journal of Western Jewish Studies Associations; the journal publishes scholarly work and reviews a wide range of recent books in Judaica. The journal was established as a departmental newsletter by Joseph Haberer in 1981. Over time, it developed into a peer-reviewed journal. Journal of Jewish Studies Official website Shofar on the Purdue University Jewish Studies Program website
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Hezbollah —also transliterated Hizbullah, etc.—is a Shi'a Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon. Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council, its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. Since the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General; the group, along with its military wing is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, Canada, the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council, the United Kingdom and the European Union. After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 in support of the Free Lebanon State, Israel occupied a strip of south Lebanon, controlled by the South Lebanon Army, a Lebanese Christian militia supported by Israel. Hezbollah was founded in the early 1980s as part of an Iranian effort to aggregate a variety of militant Lebanese Shi'a groups into a unified organization. Hezbollah acts as a proxy for Iran in the ongoing Iran–Israel proxy conflict.
Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran to harass the Israeli occupation. Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government, in occupation of Lebanon at the time. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its objectives as the expulsion of "the Americans, the French and their allies from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land", submission of the Phalangists to "just power" and bringing them to justice "for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians", permitting "all the sons of our people" to choose the form of government they want, while calling on them to "pick the option of Islamic government". Hezbollah waged a guerilla campaign in South Lebanon and as a result, Israel withdrew from Lebanon on 24 May 2000, the SLA collapsed and surrendered. Hezbollah organised volunteers. Hezbollah's military strength has grown so that its paramilitary wing is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army.
Hezbollah has been described as a "state within a state", has grown into an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite TV station, social services and large-scale military deployment of fighters beyond Lebanon's borders. Hezbollah is part of the March 8 Alliance within Lebanon, in opposition to the March 14 Alliance. Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population, while Sunnis have disagreed with the group's agenda. Hezbollah finds support from within some Christian areas of Lebanon that are Hezbollah strongholds. Hezbollah receives military training and financial support from Iran, political support from Syria. Hezbollah and Israel fought each other in the 2006 Lebanon War. After the 2006–08 Lebanese protests and clashes, a national unity government was formed in 2008, with Hezbollah and its opposition allies obtaining eleven of thirty cabinets seats, enough to give them veto power. In August 2008, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement which recognized Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands".
Since 2012, Hezbollah has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah has described as a Zionist plot and a "Wahhabi-Zionist conspiracy" to destroy its alliance with Assad against Israel. It has deployed its militia in both Syria and Iraq to fight or train local forces to fight against ISIS. Once seen as a resistance movement throughout much of the Arab world, this image upon which the group's legitimacy rested has been damaged due to the sectarian nature of the Syrian Civil War in which it has become embroiled. After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982, Israel occupied a strip of south Lebanon, controlled by the South Lebanon Army, a militia supported by Israel. Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran to harass the Israeli occupation, its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government, in occupation of Lebanon at the time.
Scholars differ as to. Various sources list the official formation of the group as early as 1982 whereas Diaz and Newman maintain that Hezbollah remained an amalgamation of various violent Shi'a extremists until as late as 1985. Another version states that it was formed by supporters of Sheikh Ragheb Harb, a leader of the southern Shia resistance killed by Israel in 1984. Regardless of when the name came into official use, a number of Shi'a groups were assimilated into the organization, such as Islamic Jihad, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth and the Revolutionary Justice Organization; these designations are considered to be synonymous with Hezbollah by Israel and Canada. Hezbollah emerged in South Lebanon during a consolidation of Shia militias as a rival to the older Amal Movement. Hezbollah played a significant role in the Lebanese civil war, opposing American forces in 1982–83 and opposing Amal and Syria during the 1985–88 War of the Camps. However, Hezbollah's early primary focus was ending Israel's occupation of southern Lebanon following Israel's 1982 invasion and siege of Beirut.
Amal, the main Lebanese Shia political group, initiated guerrilla warfare. In 2006, former Israe
University of Kansas
The University of Kansas referred to as KU, is a public research university with its main campus in Lawrence and several satellite campuses and educational centers, medical centers, classes across the state of Kansas. Two branch campuses are in the Kansas City metropolitan area on the Kansas side: the university's medical school and hospital in Kansas City, the Edwards Campus in Overland Park, a hospital and research center in the state's capital of Topeka. There are educational and research sites in Garden City, Leavenworth and Topeka, branches of the medical school in Salina and Wichita; the university is one of the 62 members of the Association of American Universities. Founded March 21, 1865, the university was opened in 1866, under a charter granted by the Kansas State Legislature in 1864 following enabling legislation passed in 1863 under the State Constitution, adopted two years after the 1861 admission of the former Kansas Territory as the 34th state into the Union following an internal civil war known as "Bleeding Kansas" during the 1850s.
Enrollment at the Lawrence and Edwards campuses was 28,401 students in 2016. The university overall employed 2,814 faculty members in fall 2015. On February 20, 1863, Kansas Governor Thomas Carney signed into law a bill creating the state university in Lawrence; the law was conditioned upon a gift from Lawrence of a $15,000 endowment fund and a site for the university, in or near the town, of not less than forty acres of land. If Lawrence failed to meet these conditions, Emporia instead of Lawrence would get the university; the site selected for the university was a hill known as Mount Oread, donated by Charles L. Robinson, Republican governor of the state of Kansas from 1861 to 1863, one of the original settlers of Lawrence, Kansas. Robinson and his wife Sara bestowed the 40-acre site to the State of Kansas in exchange for land elsewhere; the philanthropist Amos Adams Lawrence donated $10,000 of the necessary endowment fund, the citizens of Lawrence raised the remaining money themselves via private donations.
On November 2, 1863, Governor Carney announced Lawrence had met the conditions to get the state university, the following year the university was organized. The school's Board of Regents held its first meeting in March 1865, the event that KU dates its founding from. Work on the first college building began that year; the university opened for classes on September 12, 1866, the first class graduated in 1873. According to William L. Burdick, the first degree awarded by the university was a Doctor of Divinity, bestowed upon noted abolitionist preacher Richard Cordley. During World War II, Kansas was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. KU is home to the Robert J. Dole Institute of Politics, the Beach Center on Disability, Lied Center of Kansas and radio stations KJHK, 90.7 FM, KANU, 91.5 FM. The university is host to several museums including the University of Kansas Natural History Museum and the Spencer Museum of Art.
The libraries of the University include Watson Library, Kenneth Spencer Research Library, the Murphy Art and Architecture Library, Thomas Gorton Music & Dance Library, Anschutz Library. Of athletic note, the university is home to Allen Fieldhouse, heralded as one of the greatest basketball arenas in the world, David Booth Kansas Memorial Stadium; the University of Kansas is a state-sponsored university with five campuses. KU is a member of the Association of American Universities and it is classified among "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. KU features the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences, which includes the School of the Arts and the School of Public Affairs & Administration; the university offers more than 345 degree programs. In its 2018 list, U. S. News & World Report ranked KU as tied for 115th place among National Universities and 53rd place among public universities; the city management and urban policy program was ranked first in the nation, the special education program second, by U.
S. News & World Report's 2016 rankings. USN&WR ranked several programs in the top 25 among U. S. universities. The University of Kansas School of Architecture and Design, with its main building being Marvin Hall, traces its architectural roots to the creation of the architectural engineering degree program in KU's School of Engineering in 1912; the Bachelor of Architecture degree was added in 1920. In 1969 the School of Architecture and Urban Design was formed with three programs: architecture, architectural engineering, urban planning. In 2001 architectural engineering merged with environmental engineering; the design programs from the discontinued School of Fine Arts were merged into the school in 2009 forming the School of Architecture and Planning with three departments. In 2017, the Urban Planning department merged into KU's School of Public Affairs and Administration. Accordingly, the SADP was renamed to the School of Design. According to the journal DesignIntelligence, which annually publishes "America's Best Architecture and Design Schools," the School of Architecture and Design at the University of Kansas was named the best in the Midwest and ranked 11t
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts. The term can refer to diverse forms of social and political activism advocating that public and political life should be guided by Islamic principles or more to movements which call for full implementation of sharia, it is used interchangeably with the terms political Islam or Islamic fundamentalism. In academic usage, the term Islamism does not specify what vision of "Islamic order" or sharia are being advocated, or how their advocates intend to bring them about. In Western mass media it tends to refer to groups whose aim is to establish a sharia-based Islamic state with implication of violent tactics and human rights violations, has acquired connotations of political extremism. In the Muslim world, the term has positive connotations among its proponents. Different currents of Islamist thought include advocating a "revolutionary" strategy of Islamizing society through exercise of state power, alternately a "reformist" strategy to re-Islamizing society through grass-roots social and political activism.
Islamists may emphasize the implementation of sharia. Graham Fuller has argued for a broader notion of Islamism as a form of identity politics, involving "support for identity, broader regionalism, revitalization of the community." Some authors hold the term "Islamic activism" to be synonymous and preferable to "Islamism", Rached Ghannouchi writes that Islamists prefer to use the term "Islamic movement" themselves. Central and prominent figures in twentieth-century Islamism include Hasan al-Banna, Sayyid Qutb, Abul Ala Maududi, Ruhollah Khomeini. Most Islamist thinkers emphasize peaceful political processes, which are supported by the majority of contemporary Islamists. Others, Sayyid Qutb in particular, called for violence, his followers are considered Islamic extremists, although Qutb denounced the killing of innocents. According to Robin Wright, Islamist movements have "arguably altered the Middle East more than any trend since the modern states gained independence", redefining "politics and borders".
Following the Arab Spring, some Islamist currents became involved in democratic politics, while others spawned "the most aggressive and ambitious Islamist militia" to date, ISIS. The term Islamism, which denoted the religion of Islam, first appeared in the English language as Islamismus in 1696, as Islamism in 1712; the term appears in the U. S. Supreme Court decision in In Re Ross. By the turn of the twentieth century the shorter and purely Arabic term "Islam" had begun to displaced it, by 1938, when Orientalist scholars completed The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Islamism seems to have disappeared from English usage; the term "Islamism" acquired its contemporary connotations in French academia in the late 1970s and early 1980s. From French, it began to migrate to the English language in the mid-1980s, in recent years has displaced the term Islamic fundamentalism in academic circles; the new use of the term "Islamism" at first functioned as "a marker for scholars more to sympathize" with new Islamic movements.
A 2003 article in the Middle East Quarterly states: In summation, the term Islamism enjoyed its first run, lasting from Voltaire to the First World War, as a synonym for Islam. Enlightened scholars and writers preferred it to Mohammedanism. Both terms yielded to Islam, the Arabic name of the faith, a word free of either pejorative or comparative associations. There was no need for any other term, until the rise of an ideological and political interpretation of Islam challenged scholars and commentators to come up with an alternative, to distinguish Islam as modern ideology from Islam as a faith... To all intents and purposes, Islamic fundamentalism and Islamism have become synonyms in contemporary American usage; the Council on American–Islamic Relations complained in 2013 that the Associated Press's definition of "Islamist"—a "supporter of government in accord with the laws of Islam who view the Quran as a political model"—had become a pejorative shorthand for "Muslims we don't like". Mansoor Moaddel, a sociologist at Eastern Michigan University, criticized it as "not a good term" because "the use of the term Islamist does not capture the phenomena, quite heterogeneous."
The AP Stylebook entry for Islamist as of 2013 read as follows: "An advocate or supporter of a political movement that favors reordering government and society in accordance with laws prescribed by Islam. Do not use as a synonym for Islamic fighters, extremists or radicals, who may or may not be Islamists. Where possible, be specific and use the name of militant affiliations: al-Qaida-linked, Taliban, etc; those who view the Quran as a political model encompass a wide range of Muslims, from mainstream politicians to militants known as jihadi." Islamism has been defined as: "the belief that Islam should guide social and political as well as personal life", a form of "religionized politics"
New World Order (conspiracy theory)
The New World Order or NWO is claimed to be an emerging clandestine totalitarian world government by various conspiracy theories. The common theme in conspiracy theories about a New World Order is that a secretive power elite with a globalist agenda is conspiring to rule the world through an authoritarian world government—which will replace sovereign nation-states—and an all-encompassing propaganda whose ideology hails the establishment of the New World Order as the culmination of history's progress. Many influential historical and contemporary figures have therefore been purported to be part of a cabal that operates through many front organizations to orchestrate significant political and financial events, ranging from causing systemic crises to pushing through controversial policies, at both national and international levels, as steps in an ongoing plot to achieve world domination. Before the early 1990s, New World Order conspiracism was limited to two American countercultures the militantly anti-government right and secondarily that part of fundamentalist Christianity concerned with the end-time emergence of the Antichrist.
Skeptics such as Michael Barkun and Chip Berlet observed that right-wing populist conspiracy theories about a New World Order had not only been embraced by many seekers of stigmatized knowledge but had seeped into popular culture, thereby inaugurating a period during the late 20th and early 21st centuries in the United States where people are preparing for apocalyptic millenarian scenarios. Those political scientists are concerned that mass hysteria over New World Order conspiracy theories could have devastating effects on American political life, ranging from escalating lone-wolf terrorism to the rise to power of authoritarian ultranationalist demagogues. During the 20th century many politicians, such as Woodrow Wilson and Winston Churchill, used the term "new world order" to refer to a new period of history characterised by a dramatic change in world political thought and in the balance of power after World War I and World War II, they all saw the period as an opportunity to implement idealistic proposals for global governance in the sense of new collective efforts to address worldwide problems that go beyond the capacity of individual nation-states to solve, while always respecting the right of nations to self-determination.
These proposals led to the formation of international organizations, international regimes, which were calculated both to maintain a balance of power and to regularize cooperation between nations, in order to achieve a peaceful phase of capitalism. These creations in particular and liberal internationalism in general, were criticized and opposed by American paleoconservative business nationalists from the 1930s on. Progressives welcomed these new international organizations and regimes in the aftermath of the two World Wars, but argued that they suffered from a democratic deficit and were therefore inadequate not only to prevent another global war but to foster global justice; the United Nations was always intended to remain a free association of sovereign nation-states, not a transition to democratic world government. Thus, activists around the globe formed a world federalist movement. British writer and futurist H. G. Wells went further than progressives in the 1940s, by appropriating and redefining the term "new world order" as a synonym for the establishment of a technocratic world state and of a planned economy.
Despite the popularity of his ideas in some state-socialist circles, Wells failed to exert a deeper and more lasting influence because he was unable to concentrate his energies on a direct appeal to the intelligentsias who would have to coordinate a Wellsian new world order. During the Red Scare of 1947–1957, agitators of the American secular and Christian right, influenced by the work of Canadian conspiracy theorist William Guy Carr embraced and spread unfounded fears of Freemasons and Jews as the alleged driving forces behind an "international communist conspiracy"; the threat of "Godless communism", in the form of a state atheistic and bureaucratic collectivist world government, demonized as the "Red Menace", therefore became the focus of apocalyptic millenarian conspiracism. The Red Scare came to shape one of the core ideas of the political right in the United States, that liberals and progressives, with their welfare-state policies and international cooperation programs such as foreign aid contribute to a gradual process of collectivism that will lead to nations being replaced with a communist one-world government.
Right-wing populist advocacy groups with a paleoconservative world-view, such as the John Birch Society, disseminated a multitude of conspiracy theories in the 1960s claiming that the governments of both the United States and the Soviet Union were controlled by a cabal of corporate internationalists, greedy bankers and corrupt politicians who were intent on using the U. N. as the vehicle to create a "One World Government". This right-wing anti-globalist conspiracism fuelled the Bircher campaign for US withdrawal from the UN. American writer Mary M. Davison, in her 1966 booklet The Profound Revolution, traced the alleged New World Order conspiracy to the establishment of the US Federal Reserve in 1913 by international bankers, whom she claimed formed the Council on Foreign Relations in 1921 as a shadow government. At the time the booklet was published, many readers would have interpreted "international bankers" as a reference to a postulated "international Jewish banking conspiracy" masterminded by the Rothschilds.
Claiming that the
Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II militant social or political movements seeking to revive and implement the ideology of Nazism. Neo-Nazis seek to employ their ideology to promote hatred and attack minorities, or in some cases to create a fascist political state, it is a global phenomenon, with organized representation in many countries and international networks. It borrows elements from Nazi doctrine, including ultranationalism, xenophobia, homophobia, anti-Romanyism, anti-communism and initiating the Fourth Reich. Holocaust denial is a common feature, as is the incorporation of Nazi symbols and admiration of Adolf Hitler. In some European and Latin American countries, laws prohibit the expression of pro-Nazi, anti-Semitic, or homophobic views. Many Nazi-related symbols are banned in European countries in an effort to curtail neo-Nazism; the term neo-Nazism describes any post-World War II militant, social or political movements seeking to revive the ideology of Nazism in whole or in part.
The term neo-Nazism can refer to the ideology of these movements, which may borrow elements from Nazi doctrine, including ultranationalism, anti-communism, ableism, homophobia, anti-Romanyism, antisemitism, up to initiating the Fourth Reich. Holocaust denial is a common feature, as is the incorporation of Nazi symbols and admiration of Adolf Hitler. Neo-Nazism is considered a particular form of right-wing extremism. Neo-Nazi writers have posited a spiritual, esoteric doctrine of race, which moves beyond the Darwinian-inspired materialist scientific racism popular in the Anglosphere during the 20th century. Figures influential in the development of neo-Nazi racism, such as Miguel Serrano and Julius Evola, claim that the Hyperborean ancestors of the Aryans were in the distant past, far higher beings than their current state, having suffered from "involution" due to mixing with the "Telluric" peoples. Within this theory, if the "Aryans" are to return to the Golden Age of the distant past, they need to awaken the memory of the blood.
An extraterrestrial origin of the Hyperboreans is claimed. These theories draw influence from Tantrism, building on the work of the Ahnenerbe. Within this racist theory, Jews are held up as the antithesis of nobility and beauty. Neo-Nazism aligns itself with a blood and soil variation of environmentalism, which has themes in common with deep ecology, the organic movement and animal protectionism; this tendency, sometimes called "ecofascism", was represented in the original German National Socialism by Richard Walther Darré, the Reichsminister of Food from 1933 until 1942. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany, the political ideology of the ruling party, was in complete disarray; the final leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party was Martin Bormann. He died on 2 May 1945 during the Battle of Berlin, but the Soviet Union did not reveal his death to the rest of the world, his ultimate fate remained a mystery for many years. Conspiracy theories emerged about Hitler himself, that he had secretly survived the war and fled to South America or elsewhere.
The Allied Control Council dissolved the NSDAP on 10 October 1945, marking the end of "Old" National Socialism. A process of denazification began, the Nuremberg trials took place, where many major leaders and ideologues were condemned to death by October 1946, others committed suicide. In both the East and West, surviving ex-party members and military veterans assimilated to the new reality and had no interest in constructing a "neo-Nazism." However, during the 1949 elections a number of National Socialist advocates such as Fritz Rössler had infiltrated the national conservative Deutsche Rechtspartei, which had 5 members elected. Rössler and others left to found the more radical Socialist Reich Party under Otto Ernst Remer. At the onset of the Cold War, the SRP favoured the Soviet Union over the United States. In Austria national independence had been restored, the Verbotsgesetz 1947 explicitly criminalised the NSDAP and any attempt at restoration. West Germany adopted a similar law to target parties.
As a consequence some members of the nascent movement of German neo-Nazism joined the Deutsche Reichspartei of which Hans-Ulrich Rudel was the most prominent figure. Younger members founded the Wiking-Jugend modeled after the Hitler Youth; the Deutsche Reichspartei stood for elections from 1953 until 1961 fetching around 1% of the vote each time. Rudel befriended French-born Savitri Devi, a proponent of Esoteric Nazism. In the 1950s she wrote a number of books, such as Pilgrimage, which concerns prominent Third Reich sites, The Lightning and the Sun, in which she claims that Adolf Hitler was an avatar of the God Vishnu, she was not alone in this reorientation of National Socialism towards its Thulean-roots. In the German Democratic Republic a former member of SA, Wilhelm Adam, founded the National Democratic Party of Germany, it reached out to those attracted by the Nazi Party before 1945 and provide them with a political outlet, so that they would not be tempted to support the far-right again or turn to the anti-communist Western Allies.
Stalin wanted to use them to create a new pro-Soviet and anti-West